Bacteraemia

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bacteraemia

  • aureu bacteraemia
  • mrsa bacteraemia


  • Selected Abstracts


    RISK FACTORS FOR SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION AND BACTERAEMIA FOLLOWING CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1 2000
    Denis W. Spelman
    Background: There has been no consensus from previous studies of risk factors for surgical wound infections (SWI) and postoperative bacteraemia for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: Data on 15 potential risk factors were prospectively collected on all patients undergoing CABG surgery during a 12-month period. Results: Of 693 patients, 62 developed 65 SWI using the Centres for Disease Control definition: 23 were sternal wound infections and 42 were arm or leg wound infections at the site of conduit harvest. There were 19 episodes of postoperative bacteraemia. Multivariate analysis revealed that: (i) diabetes, obesity and previous cardiovascular procedure were independent predictors of SWI; and (ii) obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative bacteraemia. Conclusions: These findings suggest that improved diabetic control and pre-operative weight reduction may result in a decrease in the incidence of SWI. But further prospective studies need to be undertaken to examine (i) whether the increased SWI risk in diabetes occurs with both insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes, and whether improved peri-operative diabetes control decreases SWI; and (ii) what degree of obesity confers a risk of SWI and postoperative bacteraemia, and whether pre-operative weight reduction, if a realistic strategy in this patient group, results in a decrease in SWI. [source]


    A retrospective study of the clinical presentation of 140 dogs and 39 cats with bacteraemia

    JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, Issue 8 2008
    M. Greiner
    Objectives: To evaluate retrospective data from 140 dogs and 39 cats with positive blood cultures that were presented to the Clinic for Small Animal Medicine in Munich from 1995 to 2004. Methods: The identity of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of dogs and cats with bacteraemia was determined, and clinical and laboratory findings and outcome of animals with Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteraemia were compared. Results: Sepsis was diagnosed in 81·7 per cent of dogs and 59·5 per cent of cats with bacteraemia. Escherichia coli was isolated in one third of the animals. Dogs with bacteraemia more often showed monocytosis and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, while in cats, hyperglycaemia was found more commonly. Dogs with Gram-negative bacteraemia had hypoalbuminaemia significantly more often than dogs with Gram-positive bacteraemia, while among the remaining parameters, there were no statistically significant differences. Clinical Significance: Not all dogs and cats with a positive blood culture met the criteria for sepsis. Bacteraemia caused by Gram-positive versus Gram-negative bacteria cannot be distinguished based on clinical or laboratory parameters, and bacterial culture and susceptibility testing have to be performed for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. [source]


    Life-threatening complications associated with acute monocytic leukaemia after dental treatment

    AUSTRALIAN DENTAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    P Koulocheris
    Abstract It is highly recommended to conduct a prophylactic check for any dental problems on patients who suffer from leukaemia before chemotherapy begins. Bacteraemia caused by oral microflora may be very dangerous for patients with haematological malignancies. However, it should be noted that the prophylactic process itself might bring about life-threatening complications if there is only a short interval between dental treatment and the beginning of chemotherapy, or if the dental treatment is too aggressive. We present a case where this prophylactic procedure produced life-threatening complications for a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. [source]


    Bacteraemia in children in Iceland 1994,2005

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2010
    Siguršur Įrnason
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate the aetiology of bacteraemia in children in Iceland, the antibiotic resistance and possible preventive measures. Methods:, All positive bacterial blood cultures from children 0,18 years old isolated at Landspķtali University Hospital Iceland from 1994 to 2005 were included in the study. Epidemiological and microbiological data were registered. The blood cultures were categorized according to likelihood of infection or contamination. Results:, During the study period 1253 positive blood cultures were obtained from 974 children; 647 from boys and 606 from girls. Positive blood cultures were most common during the first year of life (594; 47.4%) with 252 of them from neonates. Coagulase negative staphylococci were most common (37%). Of probable or definite infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common (19.3%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%) and Neisseria meningitidis (13.5%). The most common pneumococcal serogroups were 23, 6, 7, 19 and 14. Commercially available vaccines contain up to 88% of all pneumococcal strains and 67% of all multi-resistant strains. N. meningitidis group C was not isolated after vaccinations were started in 2002. Conclusion:, Our study provides important epidemiological data on bacterial bloodstream infections in children in Iceland. The results demonstrate the excellent efficacy of meningococcal group C vaccination. [source]


    Bacteraemia as a result of Campylobacter species: a population-based study of epidemiology and clinical risk factors

    CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Issue 1 2010
    H. Nielsen
    Abstract Invasive disease as a result of Campylobacter is rarely reported. We reviewed 46 cases of blood stream infection with Campylobacter in a Danish population with complete follow-up. The incidence was 2.9 per 1 million person-years with a peak incidence in the age group above 80 years. In the population, the ratio of notified bacteraemia/enteritis patients with Campylobacter infection was 0.004. Patients with bacteraemia were older and had higher comorbidity, e.g. alcoholism, immunosuppression, previous gastrointestinal surgery or HIV infection. We found 26% of blood isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. The length of hospitalization was significantly longer in bacteraemia patients, whereas the outcome was favourable with 28-day mortality of 4% in bacteraemia patients and 1% in enteritis patients. None of the bacteraemia patients relapsed within 365-day follow-up. [source]


    Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infections in children aged 0,6 years in Denmark: a 19-year nationwide surveillance study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2000
    MS Kaltoft
    The impact of the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive disease burden in Danish children was evaluated by analysing the results from the last 19 years of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal infections. During 1981,1999, the Streptococcus Unit at Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, received 1123 invasive pneumococcal isolates from children aged 0,6 years. Nearly 72% (71.8%) of the pneumococcal isolates were from children aged <2 y. The median ages of children with pneumococcal meningitis and bacteraemia were 10.2 mo and 15.9 mo, respectively. The incidence of pneumococcal meningitis remained stable during the study period. The mean annual incidence rates of pneumococcal meningitis among children aged <1, <2, and <7 years were 17.4, 12.4, and 4.3 per 100000, respectively, during 1981,1999 (overlapping age groups are used throughout this article to facilitate the comparison of incidence data from different countries or among different studies). The annual incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia increased from 1981 to 1996, after which a slight fall was noted. During the last six years of the study period, the mean annual incidence rates of bacteraemia were 30.1, 32.5, and 14.0 per 100000 children aged <1, <2, and <7 years. In the 1990s, pneumococcal isolates with reduced sensitivity to penicillin (0,5% each year) and erythromycin (7.4% in 1999) emerged as a cause of invasive infections in children aged 0,6 years in Denmark. During 1981,1999, 10 serotypes (1, 4, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) caused 82% of invasive infections in Danish children. Importantly, no significant temporal changes in overall serotype distribution or differences in serotype distributions between girls and boys could be documented during the study period. Conclusion: According to the Kaiser Permanente trial, the 7-, 9-, and 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines will probably cover around 60%, 70%, and 80%, respectively, of all invasive pneumococcal infections in Danish children aged 0,6 y, corresponding to 12,14 episodes of meningitis and 40,60 episodes of bacteraemia per year. [source]


    Randomized trial comparing natural and synthetic surfactant: increased infection rate after natural surfactant?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2000
    AK Kukkonen
    The efficacy of a natural porcine surfactant and a synthetic surfactant were compared in a randomized trial. In three neonatal intensive care units, 228 neonates with respiratory distress and a ratio of arterial to alveolar partial pressure of oxygen <0.22 were randomly assigned to receive either Curosurf 100mgkg,1 or Exosurf Neonatal 5 ml kg,1. After Curosurf, the fraction of inspired oxygen was lower from 15min (0.45 ± 0.22 vs 0.70 ± 0.22, p = 0.0001) to 6 h (0.48 ± 0.26 vs 0.64 ± 0.23,p= 0.0001) and the mean airway pressure was lower at 1 h (8.3 3.2 mmH2O vs 9.4 ± 3.1 mmH2O ,= 0.01). Thereafter the respiratory parameters were similar. The duration of mechanical ventilation (median 6 vs 5 d) and the duration of oxygen supplementation (median 5 vs 4 d) were similar for Curosurf and Exosurf After Curosurf, C-reactive protein value over 40 mg r1 occurred in 45% (vs 12%; RR 3.62, 95%CI 2.12-6.17, p = 0.001), leukopenia in 52% (vs 28%; RR 1.85, 95%CI 1.31-2.61, ,= 0.001) and bacteraemia in 11% (vs 4%; RR3.17, 95%CI 1.05-9.52, p < 0.05). We conclude that when given as rescue therapy Curosurf had no advantage compared with Exosurf in addition to the more effective initial response. Curosurf may increase the risk of infection. [source]


    Spontaneous Echocardiographic Contrast in the Ascending Aorta Mimicking the Appearance of Aortic Dissection in a Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2004
    Dermot G. Nicolson M.B.B.Ch.
    We describe a patient with a previously implanted Jarvik 2000 left ventricular assist device (LVAD), who presented with bacteraemia and with features suspected for aortic dissection at the CT scan. However, transesophageal echocardiography showed competition in the ascending aorta between the retrograde pump flow and the anterograde transaortic output, which mimicked true aortic dissection and could be resolved by lowering the pump speed. As patients with LVAD are increasing in number, clinicians should be aware of this possible effect. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, February 2004) [source]


    Listeriosis in neonatal foals: just like any other bacteraemia?

    EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 1 2006
    P. A. Wilkins
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Oral health and morbidity , implications of oral infections on the elderly

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Jukka H. Meurman
    Detrimental effects of oral infections on general health have been known for almost 3000 years. Modern studies, however, have cast new light on the pathogenic mechanisms by which oral infections appear to link with morbidity and mortality. In particular, among the elderly, poor dental health seems to associate with all-cause mortality. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge of these issues, starting from dental bacteraemia, oral mucosal infections and problems of drug resistance and, briefly, discussing what is known about the link between oral health and some systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis and type-2 diabetes. The main conclusions are that scientific evidence is still weak on these interactions and that the elderly should be better taken into account when planning future studies. Functions of the body differ in the frail and diseased from those of the young. Consequently, novel prevention and treatment strategies should be developed and properly tested for combating oral infections in elderly populations. Specific suggestions for further research are outlined. [source]


    The acute-phase response impairs host defence against Enterococcus faecium peritonitis

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1pt2 2009
    Masja Leendertse
    Summary Enterococcus faecium is an emerging pathogen that causes infections in hospitalized patients with various co-morbid diseases. These underlying diseases are often associated with an acute-phase response that renders patients vulnerable to nosocomial infections. To study the influence of the acute-phase response induced by sterile tissue injury on host defence against E. faecium, mice were injected subcutaneously with either turpentine or casein 1 day before intraperitoneal infection with E. faecium. Control mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Turpentine and casein induced an acute-phase response as reflected by increases in the plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, serum amyloid P and C3. A pre-existent acute-phase response in mice was associated with a strongly reduced capacity to clear E. faecium, resulting in prolonged bacteraemia for several days. The inflammatory response to E. faecium was impaired in mice with an acute-phase response, as shown by reduced capacity to mount a neutrophilic leucocytosis in peripheral blood and by decreased local cytokine concentrations. These data indicate that the acute-phase response impairs host defence against E. faecium, suggesting that this condition may contribute to the increased vulnerability of critically ill patients to enterococcal infections. [source]


    An in vitro investigation of the bulk flow of fluid through apical foramina during simulated tooth extraction: a potential confounder in microbiological studies?

    INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 4 2001
    A. Kapalas
    Aim,The ,pumping action' induced during tooth extraction may cause bacteria suspended in tissue fluids to be transposed from one anatomical compartment to another. Apart from causing bacteraemia, this may lead to inaccuracies in studies evaluating the presence and distribution of bacteria in and around tooth apices. The aim was to investigate the bulk flow of fluid through apical foramina during simulated extraction of teeth in an in vitro model. The influence of the presence or absence of a coronal restoration was also evaluated. Methodology,Twenty extracted single-rooted, human, mature, permanent teeth were used. Standard access cavities were prepared and the root canals located. Standardized micrographs of the apical foramina were obtained and their area (µm2) was calculated by image analysis software. The teeth were then set and sealed into polyvinylsiloxane (rubber base) impression material. Crystal violet dye was inoculated into the coronal half of the root canal system. Tooth extraction movements were simulated in the impression matrix and the leakage of dyes with and without the presence of a coronal restoration was examined. The procedure was repeated, following application of safranin dye in a coronal trough within the simulated rubber base gingival margin at the CEJ. The results were analysed statistically with the independent-samples t -test and the McNemar test. Results,In the absence of a coronal restoration crystal violet leaked out of the apical foramina in 18/20 teeth; conversely safranin leaked into the teeth through the apical foramina in 11/20 cases when applied to the external root surface. In the presence of an intact coronal restoration crystal violet dye leaked out in 6/20 teeth and conversely safranin leaked into 7/20 teeth. The presence of a coronal restoration significantly reduced (P = 0.002) dye leakage out of the root canal system. No associations were found for leakage of dye into the root canal system when applied externally. In addition, the amount of dye leakage was positively correlated with the area of the apical foramen in the presence of a coronal restoration (P = 0.009). Conclusion,The presence of a coronal restoration significantly reduced leakage of dye out of the apical foramen. Microbiological studies on root canals and periapical lesions using extracted teeth should take potential contamination from this source into account. [source]


    Extraintestinal manifestations of Edwardsiella tarda infection

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 8 2005
    I-K Wang
    Summary Edwardsiella tarda, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a rare human pathogen. Gastroenteritis is the most frequently reported manifestation of E. tarda infection. In contrast, extraintestinal infection with E. tarda has rarely been reported. This study made a retrospective case and microbiological data review of patients with extraintestinal E. tarda infections to further understand this disease. This study retrospectively reviewed the charts of all isolates of E. tarda cultures from clinical specimens other than faeces at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan from October 1998 through December 2001. Edwardsiella tarda was isolated from 22 clinical specimens from 22 hospitalised patients (13 females and nine males). The extraintestinal manifestations of E. tarda infection included biliary tract infection, bacteraemia, skin and soft tissue infection, liver abscess, peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess, and tubo-ovarian abscess. The major underlying diseases predisposing to E. tarda extraintestinal infection were hepatobiliary diseases, malignancy and diabetes mellitus. The overall mortality rate of E. tarda extraintestinal infection in the present series was 22.7% (5/22), and four (40%) of 10 patients with bacteraemia expired. Although rare, human E. tarda extraintestinal infections can have diverse clinical manifestations and moreover may cause severe and life-threatening infections. Consequently, E. tarda should be considered a potentially important pathogen. [source]


    Frequent occurrence of multidrug-resistant CC17 Enterococcus faecium among clinical isolates in Sweden

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    H. Billström
    Abstract Aims:, To screen for the globally spread cluster of Enterococcus faecium, clonal complex 17 (CC17) and characterize the genetic profile of Swedish clinical Ent. faecium isolates. Methods:, A total of 203 consecutive isolates collected from 2004 to 2007 from patients with bacteraemia in Sweden. All isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and 20 isolates representing different MLVA types (MT) were chosen for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Minimal inhibitory concentrations against clinically relevant antibiotics were determined with agar dilution. Presence of the virulence genes esp and hyl was investigated using PCR. Results:, A total of 65% (n = 109) of all isolates belonged to MT-1, and the second most common MLVA type was MT-159 (13%, n = 21). MLST analysis confirmed the presence of CC17 during the entire study period. The number of isolates resistant to gentamicin and vancomycin, as well as the presence of hyl, increased significantly during the investigation period. Conclusions:, The present study demonstrates that nosocomial infections caused by Ent. faecium CC17 are commonly occurring in Sweden. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first report of CC17 Ent. faecium in Sweden. The increase of antibiotic resistance and virulence indicates that these strains are further adapting to the hospital environment. [source]


    Naturally occurring bacteraemia in American lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 1 2008
    S L Bartlett
    Abstract The health status of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound (LIS) has been in decline, with seasonal mortality events occurring since 1998. In order to assess the potential effects of environmental conditions on lobster health via haemolymph analysis, lobsters collected from various sites in LIS were examined and sampled while concurrent environmental data (water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) were recorded. The pH of the haemolymph of each lobster was tested, followed by a collection of haemolymph for serum biochemistry analysis and bacterial culture. This report focuses on the results of the bacterial sampling. The majority of bacteria cultured were opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment, including some that are associated with sewage and pollution. The prevalence of bacteraemia was correlated with the site of collection, the month in which the lobsters were sampled, and water temperature. [source]


    Extraintestinal focal infections in adults with nontyphoid Salmonella bacteraemia: predisposing factors and clinical outcome

    JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
    P.-L. Chen
    Abstract. Background., Nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) isolates lead to not only self-limited, acute gastrointestinal infections, but also bacteraemia with or without extraintestinal focal infections (EFIs). The risk factors associated with EFIs in adults with NTS bacteraemia were not clearly elucidated. Methods., In a medical center in southern Taiwan, patients aged ,18 years with NTS bacteraemia between January 1999 and June 2005 were included for analysis. Results., Of 129 patients, 51 (39.5%) were complicated with EFIs. The most common EFI was mycotic aneurysm, followed by pleuropulmonary infections and spinal osteomyelitis. Compared to patients with primary bacteraemia, those with EFIs had higher leucocyte counts (P = 0.004) and higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001). The development of EFIs was associated with a higher mortality, more severe septic manifestations, longer hospital stays and duration of antimicrobial therapy. Univariate analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), hypertension (P = 0.02) and chronic lung disease (P = 0.006) were significantly associated with EFIs. However, patients with malignancy (P = 0.01) and immunosuppressive therapy (P = 0.03) were less likely to develop EFIs. On the basis of multivariate analysis, an independent factor for the occurrence of EFIs was age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02,1.07; P < 0.0001], whilst malignancy was negatively associated with EFIs (aOR 0.16; 95% CI 0.14,0.78; P = 0.01). Conclusion., Amongst patients with NTS bacteraemia, EFIs often occurred in the aged, and were associated with a higher mortality and morbidity. Recognition of specific host factors is essential for identification of EFIs which often demand early surgical interventions and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. [source]


    Incubation time required for neonatal blood cultures to become positive

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 12 2006
    Luke Jardine
    Aim: We aimed to determine the laboratory detection time of bacteraemia in neonatal blood cultures, and whether this differed by: organism; samples deemed to represent true bacteraemia versus contaminants; and blood cultures collected from an infant <48 h of age (early) or ,48 h of age (late). Methods: A retrospective audit of all positive blood cultures collected from neonates in the Grantley Stable Neonatal Unit, Royal Women's Hospital, Brisbane, between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 was undertaken. The bacteraemia detection method used was the BacTAlert system with Peds bottles. Results: Two hundred and three positive blood cultures were included in the analysis. One hundred and sixteen (57%) were deemed septicaemia, 87 (43%) were deemed contaminants. The median (interquartile range) time to positivity for positive blood cultures deemed septicaemia and contaminants were 15.9 (11.6, 22.2) and 30.2 (20.4, 43.9) h, respectively. Fifty-six (28%) positive blood cultures were collected when infants were <48 h of age and 147 (72%) were collected in infants ,48 h of age. Post hoc analysis revealed that the time to positivity for early septicaemia was 13.7 (11, 16.7) h; early contaminant was 25.2 (19.2, 33.8) h; late septicaemia was 17.2 (12.2, 23.4) h; and late contaminant was 37.9 (21.7, 51.2) h. The time to positivity for: Group B streptococcus was 9.3 (8.2, 11.0) h; Escherichia coli was 11.3 (10.0, 13.5) h; and coagulase-negative staphylococci was 28.9 (20.5, 41.2) h. Conclusion: The incubation time for positive blood cultures significantly differs by organism type and whether they are considered early or late septicaemia versus contaminants. We recommend that: infants who are <48 h of age at the time of blood culture collection, who remain clinically well and have negative cultures 36 h after the initial collection can safely have their antibiotic treatment ceased; infants who are ,48 h of age at the time of collection should continue antibiotic treatment for at least 48 h before cessation is considered. [source]


    A retrospective study of the clinical presentation of 140 dogs and 39 cats with bacteraemia

    JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, Issue 8 2008
    M. Greiner
    Objectives: To evaluate retrospective data from 140 dogs and 39 cats with positive blood cultures that were presented to the Clinic for Small Animal Medicine in Munich from 1995 to 2004. Methods: The identity of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of dogs and cats with bacteraemia was determined, and clinical and laboratory findings and outcome of animals with Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteraemia were compared. Results: Sepsis was diagnosed in 81·7 per cent of dogs and 59·5 per cent of cats with bacteraemia. Escherichia coli was isolated in one third of the animals. Dogs with bacteraemia more often showed monocytosis and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, while in cats, hyperglycaemia was found more commonly. Dogs with Gram-negative bacteraemia had hypoalbuminaemia significantly more often than dogs with Gram-positive bacteraemia, while among the remaining parameters, there were no statistically significant differences. Clinical Significance: Not all dogs and cats with a positive blood culture met the criteria for sepsis. Bacteraemia caused by Gram-positive versus Gram-negative bacteria cannot be distinguished based on clinical or laboratory parameters, and bacterial culture and susceptibility testing have to be performed for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. [source]


    Bacillus anthracis requires siderophore biosynthesis for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Stephen Cendrowski
    Summary Systemic anthrax infections can be characterized as proceeding in stages, beginning with an early intracellular establishment stage within phagocytes that is followed by extracelluar stages involving massive bacteraemia, sepsis and death. Because most bacteria require iron, and the host limits iron availability through homeostatic mechanisms, we hypothesized that B. anthracis requires a high-affinity mechanism of iron acquisition during its growth stages. Two putative types of siderophore synthesis operons, named Bacillus anthracis catechol, bac (anthrabactin), and anthrax siderophore biosynthesis, asb (anthrachelin), were identified. Directed gene deletions in both anthrabactin and anthrachelin pathways were generated in a B. anthracis (Sterne) 34F2 background resulting in mutations in asbA and bacCEBF. A decrease in siderophore production was observed during iron-depleted growth in both the ,asbA and ,bacCEBF strains, but only the ,asbA strain was attenuated for growth under these conditions. In addition, the ,asbA strain was severely attenuated both for growth in macrophages (M,) and for virulence in mice. In contrast, the ,bacCEBF strain did not differ phenotypically from the parental strain. These findings support a requirement for anthrachelin but not anthrabactin in iron assimilation during the intracellular stage of anthrax. [source]


    Axe,Txe, a broad-spectrum proteic toxin,antitoxin system specified by a multidrug-resistant, clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecium

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
    Ruth Grady
    Summary Enterococcal species of bacteria are now acknowledged as leading causes of bacteraemia and other serious nosocomial infections. However, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms that promote the segregational stability of antibiotic resistance and other plasmids in these bacteria. Plasmid pRUM (24 873 bp) is a multidrug resistance plasmid identified in a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecium. A novel proteic-based toxin,antitoxin cassette identified on pRUM was demonstrated to be a functional segregational stability module in both its native host and evolutionarily diverse bacterial species. Induced expression of the toxin protein (Txe) of this system resulted in growth inhibition in Escherichia coli. The toxic effect of Txe was alleviated by co-expression of the antitoxin protein, Axe. Homologues of the axe and txe genes are present in the genomes of a diversity of Eubacteria. These homologues (yefM,yoeB) present in the E. coli chromosome function as a toxin,antitoxin mechanism, although the Axe and YefM antitoxin components demonstrate specificity for their cognate toxin proteins in vivo. Axe,Txe is one of the first functional proteic toxin,antitoxin systems to be accurately described for Gram-positive bacteria. [source]


    Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    David L. Hava
    Summary Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is carried in the nasopharynx of healthy individuals, but can spread to other host sites and lead to pneumonia, bacteraemia, otitis media and meningitis. Although it is logical to think a priori that differential gene expression would contribute to the ability of this patho­-gen to colonize different sites, in fact very few genes have been demonstrated to play tissue specific roles in virulence or carriage. Using signature-tagged mutagenesis to screen 6149 mariner -transposon insertion strains, we identified 387 mutants attenuated for infection in a murine model of pneumonia. Among these mutants are ones with disruptions in a number of putative tissue-specific transcriptional regulators, surface proteins, metabolic proteins and proteins of unknown function, most of which had not previously been associated with virulence. A subset of these, including most of those with insertions in putative transcriptional regulators, was examined for phenotypes in murine models of bacteraemia and nasopharyngeal carriage. Four classes of mutants defective in infection models of the: (I) lung, (II) lung and blood, (III) lung and nasopharynx, and (IV) all three tissues were identified, thus demonstrating the ex­-istence of tissue-specific pneumococcal virulence factors. Included in these strains were two with ­disruptions in a genetic locus that putatively codes for a transcriptional regulator, three surface proteins and three sortase homologues. Mutation analysis revealed that three of the seven genes in this locus are virulence factors that are specific to mucosal ­surfaces. [source]


    Variable small protein (Vsp)-dependent and Vsp-independent pathways for glycosaminoglycan recognition by relapsing fever spirochaetes

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Loranne Magoun
    Tick-borne relapsing fever, caused by pathogenic Borrelia such as B. hermsii and B. turicatae, features recurrent episodes of bacteraemia, each of which is caused by a population of spirochaetes that expresses a different variable major protein. Relapsing fever is also associated with the infection of a variety of tissues, such as the central nervous system. In this study, we show that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate the attachment of relapsing fever spirochaetes to mammalian cells. B. hermsii strain DAH bound to immobilized heparin, and heparin and dermatan sulphate blocked bacterial binding to host cells. Bacterial binding was diminished by inhibition of host cell GAG synthesis or sulphation, or by the enzymatic removal of GAGs. GAGs mediated the attachment of relapsing fever spirochaetes to potentially relevant target cells, such as endothelial and glial cells. B. hermsii was able to attach to GAGs independently of variable major proteins, because strains expressing the variable major proteins Vsp33, Vlp7 or no variable major protein at all each recognized GAGs. Nevertheless, we found that a variable major protein of B. turicatae directly promoted GAG binding by this relapsing fever spirochaete. B. turicatae strain Oz1 serotype B, which expresses the variable major protein VspB, bound to GAGs more efficiently than did B. turicatae Oz1 serotype A, which expresses VspA. Recombinant VspB, but not VspA, bound to heparin and dermatan sulphate. Previous studies have shown that strain Oz1 serotype B grows to higher concentrations in the blood than does Oz1 serotype A. Thus, relapsing fever spirochaetes have the potential to express Vsp-dependent and Vsp-independent GAG-binding activities and, for one pair of highly related B. turicatae strains, differences in GAG binding correlate with differences in tissue tropism. [source]


    Incidence and risk factors for the development of acute renal failure in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    GUL GURSEL
    SUMMARY: Aim: Infections are one of the most important risk factors for the development of acute renal failure (ARF) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been reported as one of the most frequent infection in intensive care units (ICU). Sepsis, shock, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS), use of nephrotoxic antibiotics and mechanical ventilation are potential risk factors for development of ARF during VAP. The objective of the study was to evaluate the incidence of ARF in patients with VAP and the role of VAP-related potential risk factors in the development of ARF. Methods: One hundred and eight patients who were admitted to the pulmonary ICU of a university hospital and developed VAP were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Only first episodes of VAP were studied. Diagnosis was based on microbiologically confirmed clinical findings. Potential outcome variables including responsible pathogens, recurrence, polymicrobial aetiology, bacteraemia, multidrug resistance of microorganisms, late/early VAP and sepsis and other known risk factors for development of ARF were evaluated. Risk factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis for significance. Results: Incidence of ARF was 38% (n = 41). Pneumonia with multidrug resistant pathogens (odds ratio, (OR) 5; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.5,18; P = 0.011), sepsis (OR, 5.6; 95%CI, 1.7,18; P = 0.005) and severity of admission disease (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score: OR, 1.1; 95%CI, 1.02,1.3; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for the development of ARF during VAP episodes in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: These results showed that the incidence of ARF is high during the VAP episodes and that VAP developed with multidrug resistant pathogens and sepsis have an independent effect on the development of ARF. [source]


    Postinfectious gastroparesis related to autonomic failure: a case report

    NEUROGASTROENTEROLOGY & MOTILITY, Issue 2 2006
    A. Lobrano
    Abstract, Background and aim:, Severe dysautonomia may be secondary to viral infections, resulting in impaired autoimmune, cardiovascular, urinary and digestive dysfunction. Herein, we present a case of a 31-year-old white female patient who had severe gastroparesis related to autonomic failure following an episode of acute gastroenteritis. This seems to be the first report providing thorough assessment of the enteric and autonomic nervous system by analysis of full-thickness small intestinal biopsies, cardiovagal testing and autopsy. Hospital course:, This patient affected by a severe gastroparesis was treated with antiemetics, prokinetics, analgesics and gastric electrical stimulation to control symptoms. Nutritional support was made using jejunal feeding tube and, in the final stage of disease, with total parenteral nutrition. Autonomic studies revealed minimal heart rate variability and a disordered Valsalva manoeuvre although the enteric nervous system and the smooth muscle layer showed a normal appearance. Hospital courses were complicated by episodes of bacteraemia and fungemia. Serum antiphospholipid antibodies were noted but despite anticoagulation, she developed a pulmonary embolism and shortly thereafter the patient died. Autopsy revealed acute haemorrhagic Candida pneumonia with left main pulmonary artery thrombus. Sympathetic chain analysis revealed decreased myelinated axons with vacuolar degeneration and patchy inflammation consistent with Guillain-Barre syndrome. The evaluation of the enteric nervous system in the stomach and small bowel revealed no evidence of enteric neuropathy or myopathy. Conclusion:, A Guillain-Barre-like disease with gastroparesis following acute gastroenteritis is supported by physiological and autonomic studies with histological findings. [source]


    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 6 2007
    Article first published online: 8 JUN 200
    Initial macrolide better for pneumonia? An observational study has suggested that initial treatment with a macrolide antibiotic (such as erythromycin) may be more effective than a fluoroquinolone (like ciprofloxacin) or tetracycline as initial treatment for community acquired pneumonia and bacteraemia (Chest 2007;131:466-73). The US review of 2209 hospital episodes found that macrolide therapy was associated with a 40 per cent lower risk of death during hospital stay or within 30 days and of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. By contrast, no such benefit was apparent with fluoroquinolones or tetracycline. Two-year safety data for inhaled insulin Compared with sc insulin, inhaled insulin (Exubera) is associated with a small early decrease in lung function in the first three months of therapy but no further difference for up to two years (Diabetes Care 2007;30: 579-85). The comparative trial found that FEV1 declined at a mean rate of 0.051 litres per year with inhaled insulin and 0.034 litres per year with sc insulin, but there was no significant difference in the rates of decline after three months. Inhaled insulin was associated with a higher incidence of cough (37.6 vs 13.1 per cent) but a lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemic events (2.8 vs 4.1 events per 100 subject- months) and mean weight gain was 1.25kg less. Fracture risk warning with rosiglitazone GlaxoSmithKline has warned US prescribers that rosiglitazone may be associated with an increased risk of fractures. The company says information for prescribers in Europe will follow shortly. The warning comes from the ADOPT study (N Engl J Med 2006;355:2427-43), which found a significantly higher incidence of fractures of the humerus, hand and foot among women taking rosiglitazone (9.3 per cent) than with metformin (5.1 per cent) or glibenclamide (3.5 per cent). There was no difference in fracture incidence among men. The company recommends that fracture risk should be considered for women taking or about to take rosiglitazone. Oral treatment for grass pollen allergy A new treatment for allergic rhinitis due to grass pollen allergy has been introduced by ALK-Abelló. Grazax is a sublingual tablet containing a stan-dardised dose of allergen from the pollen of timothy grass. Treatment should be initiated by a specialist four months before the onset of the allergy season and continued throughout the season. Adverse effects include oral and ear pruritus, nasopharyngitis and mouth oedema. A month's treatment at the recommended dose of one tablet daily costs £67.50. Frequent analgesics linked with hypertension Men who take analgesics regularly have an increased frequency of hypertension, a US study has shown (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:394-9). The US Health Professionals Follow-Up study evaluated the use of NSAIDs, paracetamol and aspirin in 16 031 men with normal blood pressure and followed them up for four years. Compared with those who did not report analgesic use, the risk of hypertension was increased by 38 per cent for NSAID use, 34 per cent for paracetamol and 26 per cent for aspirin, all for for six or seven days a week. Similar risks were found when anal- gesic use was determined according to the number of tablets taken. The authors acknowledge the increased risk is modest, but point out that the implications may nonetheless be important because analgesics are widely used. Multiples do most pharmacist MURs Uptake of medicines use reviews (MURs) by pharmacists was modest in 2005 and most reviews were carried out by pharmacy chains rather than independent contractors, a new study has shown (Pharm J 2007;278:218-23). The survey of PCTs and SHAs in England and Wales found that, although 38 per cent of community pharmacies claimed payments for the service, 84 per cent of MURs were carried out by pharmacy chains. Uptake was low, amounting to only 7 per cent of the maximum possible number of MURs. Patients see information needs differently There is a mismatch in the perceptions of patients and health professionals about the purpose of written information about medicines, a systematic review has concluded (Health Technol Assess 2007;11:1-178). Some health professionals believe the main purpose of information is to promote compliance, whereas patients want information to help them make decisions about their treatment, including not taking it. In particular, patients want information on adverse effects, but health professionals have reservations about providing it. Aspirin for all women over 65? All women over 65 should take low-dose aspirin if the benefits are likely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects, according to new guidelines from the American Heart Association on preventing cardiovascular disease in women (published online 19 Feb 2007;doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.107.181546). The guidelines have moved away from the long-established Framingham model of risk assessment to categorising three levels of risk: high (heart disease or other relevant disease present), at risk (at least one risk factor) and optimal (healthy lifestyle, no risk factors). Low-dose aspirin is recommended for all women at high risk, for women aged 65 or over when reducing the risk of MI or ischaemic stroke outweighs the risk of adverse effects, and for younger women when reducing the risk of ischaemic stroke outweighs that of toxicity. Combination inhaler therapy Combining an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator with a steroid reduces COPD exacerbations but not all-cause mortality, a three-year trial has shown (N Engl J Med 2007;356:775-89). However, inhaled steroids appear to increase the risk of pneumonia. The TORCH trial randomised 6112 patients (FEV1<60 per cent predicted) to treatment with salmeterol 50µg plus fluticasone 500µg (Seretide) twice daily, salmeterol (Serevent) or fluticasone (Flixotide) as monotherapy, or placebo. All-cause mortality rates were 12.6, 13.5, 16.0 and 15.2 per cent respectively; the risk of death was 17 per cent lower with combined therapy, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The combination reduced the incidence of exacerbations by 25 per cent and improved health status and FEV1. Use of fluticasone was not associated with more ocular or bone disorders, but there was an increased incidence of pneumonia among users (19.6 per cent with combined therapy and 18.3 per cent with fluticasone vs 12.3 per cent with placebo). Seretide is currently licensed in the UK for use in patients with FEV1 <50 per cent predicted. Tamoxifen long- term benefits Women with breast cancer who take tamoxifen for five to eight years continue to have a lower risk of recurrence for 10-20 years, long-term follow-up of two blinded trials has shown (J Nat Cancer Inst 2007; 99:258-60, 272-90). The frequency of adverse effects was markedly reduced when treatment ended, changing the balance of risk and benefit. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]


    RISK FACTORS FOR SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION AND BACTERAEMIA FOLLOWING CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1 2000
    Denis W. Spelman
    Background: There has been no consensus from previous studies of risk factors for surgical wound infections (SWI) and postoperative bacteraemia for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: Data on 15 potential risk factors were prospectively collected on all patients undergoing CABG surgery during a 12-month period. Results: Of 693 patients, 62 developed 65 SWI using the Centres for Disease Control definition: 23 were sternal wound infections and 42 were arm or leg wound infections at the site of conduit harvest. There were 19 episodes of postoperative bacteraemia. Multivariate analysis revealed that: (i) diabetes, obesity and previous cardiovascular procedure were independent predictors of SWI; and (ii) obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative bacteraemia. Conclusions: These findings suggest that improved diabetic control and pre-operative weight reduction may result in a decrease in the incidence of SWI. But further prospective studies need to be undertaken to examine (i) whether the increased SWI risk in diabetes occurs with both insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes, and whether improved peri-operative diabetes control decreases SWI; and (ii) what degree of obesity confers a risk of SWI and postoperative bacteraemia, and whether pre-operative weight reduction, if a realistic strategy in this patient group, results in a decrease in SWI. [source]


    Soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) in patients with suspected community-acquired infections,

    APMIS, Issue 2 2006
    SHAHIN GAĻNI
    The aim of our study was to evaluate soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) as a molecular marker in patients with community-acquired infections. One hundred and ninety-four adult patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with suspected community-acquired infection were included in a prospective study. Plasma and serum were sampled from all patients on day of admission and sCD163 and interleukin-6 levels were measured. Demographic data, co-morbidity, microbiological aetiology, biochemical parameters, focus of infection, severity score and mortality on day 28 were recorded. Median age was 68 (range 18,92) years. Mortality rate among infected patients on day 28 was 3.8%. sCD163 concentrations (median and range) were: 2.99 mg/l (1.22,12.65) in non-infected patients, 3.62 mg/l (1.59,74.04) (p=0.08) in infected patients without systemic inflammatory response syndrome, 3.2 mg/l (0.54,22.51) (p=0.4) in patients with sepsis, 3.63 mg/l (1.71,28.4) (p=0.01) in patients with severe sepsis, and 4.9 mg/l (2.66,28.4) (p=0.003) in patients with bacteraemia. In this cohort dominated by mild infections, a moderate elevation of sCD163 was observed only in patients with severe sepsis and/or bacteraemia. sCD163 did not discriminate between infected and non-infected patients. [source]


    Procalcitonin-reduced sensitivity and specificity in heavily leucopenic and immunosuppressed patients

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    M. Svaldi
    Procalcitonin (PCT) has proven to be a very sensitive marker of sepsis for non-leucopenic patients. Little is known about its relevance in immunosuppressed and leucopenic adults. Four hundred and seventy-five PCT determinations were carried out in 73 haematological patients: on 221 occasions the white blood cell (WBC) count was <,1·0 × 109/l and on 239 occasions it was >,1·0 × 109/l leucocytes. Patients were classified as: non-systemic infected controls (n = 280), patients with bacteraemia (n = 32), sepsis (n = 30), severe sepsis (n = 3), septic shock (n = 3) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (n = 62). When the WBC count was >,1·0 × 109/l, gram-negative bacteria induced higher PCT levels (median 9·4 ng/ml) than gram-positives (median 1·4 ng/ml). In cases with a WBC <,1·0 × 109/l, PCT levels were similar for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (1·1 ng/ml versus 0·85 ng/ml). Regardless of the leucocyte count, the median PCT level in bacteraemia cases always remained <,0·5 ng/ml. In heavily leucopenic situations, PCT levels were never >,2 ng/ml even in the sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock groups, whereas a WBC count >,1·0 × 109/l resulted in median PCT values of 4·1 ng/ml and 45 ng/ml respectively. The positive predictive value for sepsis (cut-off 2 ng/ml) was 93% in cases of WBC count >,1·0 × 109/l, but only 66% in leucopenic conditions. The negative predictive value (cut-off 0·5 ng/ml) was 90% when the WBC count was >,1·0 × 109/l and 63% in leucopenic conditions. Procalcitonin is an excellent sepsis marker with a high positive- and negative-predictive value in patients with WBC count >,1·0 × 109/l, but it does not work satisfactorily below this leucocyte count. [source]


    Impact of rapid molecular screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surgical wards,

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 3 2008
    M. R. S. Keshtgar
    Background: This study aimed to establish the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of rapid molecular screening for hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in surgical patients within a teaching hospital. Methods: In 2006, nasal swabs were obtained before surgery from all patients undergoing elective and emergency procedures, and screened for MRSA using a rapid molecular technique. MRSA-positive patients were started on suppression therapy of mupirocin nasal ointment (2 per cent) and undiluted chlorhexidine gluconate bodywash. Results: A total of 18 810 samples were processed, of which 850 (4·5 per cent) were MRSA positive. In comparison to the annual mean for the preceding 6 years, MRSA bacteraemia fell by 38·5 per cent (P < 0·001), and MRSA wound isolates fell by 12·7 per cent (P = 0·031). The reduction in MRSA bacteraemia and wound infection was equivalent to a saving of 3·78 beds per year (£276 220), compared with the annual mean for the preceding 6 years. The cost of screening was £302 500, making a net loss of £26 280. Compared with 2005, however, there was a net saving of £545 486. Conclusion: Rapid MRSA screening of all surgical admissions resulted in a significant reduction in staphylococcal bacteraemia during the screening period, although a causal link cannot be established. Copyright © 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Management of aortic aneurysm infected with Salmonella

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 9 2003
    R. B. Hsu
    Background: This study reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients with an aortic aneurysm infected with Salmonella treated by a single centre over 6 years. Methods: Data were collected by a retrospective case-note review. Results: Between September 1995 and December 2001, 121 patients with non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia were treated, of whom 24 patients had an aortic aneurysm infected with Salmonella. Ten had a suprarenal and 14 an infrarenal aortic infection. The most common responsible pathogen was group C Salmonella (12 patients). All of the 20 patients who had combined medical and surgical therapy survived, whereas two of four who had medical therapy alone died. There were two late deaths during a mean follow-up of 23 (range 3,63) months. Conclusion: The incidence of aortic infection in patients with non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia was high in Taiwan. Timely surgical intervention and prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy resulted in excellent outcomes. Copyright © 2003 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]