Social Network Theory (social + network_theory)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Geography and the Immigrant Division of Labor

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
Mark Ellis
Abstract: Immigrants concentrate in particular lines of work. Most investigations of such employment niching have accented either the demand for labor in a limited set of mostly low-wage industries or the efficiency of immigrant networks in supplying that labor; space has taken a backseat or has been ignored. In contrast, this article's account of immigrant employment niching modulates insights built on social network theories with understandings derived from relative location. We do so by altering the thinking about employment niches as being metropolitan wide to considering them as local phenomena. Specifically, the analysis examines the intraurban variation in niching by Mexican, Salvadoran, Chinese, and Vietnamese men and women in four industries in Los Angeles. Niching is uneven; in some parts of the metropolitan area, these groups niche at high rates in these industries, whereas in others, there is no unusual concentration. We show how a group's propensity to niche in an industry is generally higher when the industry is located close to the group's residential neighborhoods and demonstrate the ways in which the proximity of competing groups dampens this geographic advantage. The study speaks to debates on immigrant niching and connects with research on minority access to employment and accounts of the agglomeration of firms. More generally, it links the geographies of home and work in a new way, relating patterns of immigrant residential segregation to those of immigrant employment niches. [source]


Entrepreneurship Research on Network Processes: A Review and Ways Forward

ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2010
Susanna Slotte-Kock
Although entrepreneurship research on networks has studied issues pertaining to network content, governance and structure, we believe it requires a greater understanding of network processes. In this paper, we review how the entrepreneurship literature interprets and applies the concept of process to the study of networks. This allows us to identify areas for future investigation. Our work is also informed by social network theory and research on dyadic interactions in business networks. The paper concludes by presenting a theoretical framework for conceptualizing and studying the various processes associated with network development. [source]


The Micro-politics of Gendering in Networking

GENDER, WORK & ORGANISATION, Issue 2 2009
Yvonne Benschop
Networking processes contribute to the perpetuation of gender inequalities in everyday practices in organizations. This article examines the implications of the conceptualization of gender as practice for social network theory. The three central elements of this critical feminist approach to networking are the study of agency, identity construction and the micro-political processes of networking and gendering. To illustrate that networking practices are gendering practices, that there are various manifestations of those practices, and the way in which networking and gendering are intertwined, the networking practices of four white, Dutch female and male account managers are discussed. This micro-political analysis suggests that networking does not necessarily reinforce gender inequality, which opens up the possibility of examining which combinations of networking and gendering contribute to changing the gender order. [source]


The Latinization of the Central Shenandoah Valley

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 1 2008
Laura Zarrugh
Virginia is among a number of southern states in the United States, such as North Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia, which have experienced a sudden growth in Latino immigration during the past decade. Not only is the volume of growth unprecedented, but many of the destinations are new and located in rural areas. Places that have not hosted immigrant populations for generations are quickly becoming multicultural. The small city of Harrisonburg (population 43,500 according to the 2005 estimate), which is located in the rural Central Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, is perhaps the premier example of this new pattern of change. While local advertising once promoted Harrisonburg for its "99.2% American-born and 93.7% white" population, the area today holds the distinction of hosting the most diverse public school enrollment in the state (in 2006-2007), with students from 64 countries who speak 44 languages. Among them are Spanish speakers from at least 14 different countries. Drawing on social network theory, the paper examines how social networks among Latino immigrants become activated in new settlement areas. It presents a case history of the historic process of "Latinization" involving the settlement of a number of diverse Latino populations (from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba and Uruguay) in Harrisonburg and the surrounding Central Shenandoah Valley. The study demonstrates how a number of key institutions, including local agricultural industries (apples and poultry), a refugee resettlement office and churches recruited "pioneers" from these immigrant groups to the area and how "pioneers" subsequently engaged in further social network recruitment, thus creating multiple transnational "daughter communities" in the Harrisonburg area. The policy implications of this historical process are explored. Au même titre que la Caroline du Nord, l'Arkansas et la Georgie, la Virginie est l'un de ces Etats du sud des Etats-Unis qui ont été témoins d'une poussée soudaine de l'immigration latino-américaine au cours de la dernière décennie. Non seulement il s'agit d'un rythme de croissance sans précédent, mais bon nombre de destinations choisies sont nouvelles et situées en zone rurale. Des lieux qui n'avaient pas accueilli de population immigrée depuis des générations prennent brusquement un caractère multiculturel. La petite ville de Harrisonburg (43 500 habitants selon un décompte approximatif de 2005), qui est située dans la vallée centrale de Shenandoah, en Virginie, est peut-être le principal exemple de cette nouvelle évolution. Alors qu'elle se vantait autrefois d'être composée d'Américains de souche à hauteur de 99,2% et d'être blanche à 93,7%, cette ville se distingue aujourd'hui par la plus grande diversité d'origine des enfants scolarisés à l'échelle de l'Etat (pour la période 2006-2007), puisqu'on y dénombre 64 nationalités parlant 44 langues. On y trouve notamment des hispanophones originaires d'au moins 14 pays différents. A partir de la théorie des réseaux sociaux, l'auteur examine comment ces réseaux se sont activés chez les immigrants latino-américains dans les nouvelles zones d'installation. Il présente un historique du processus de "latinisation", en citant notamment l'installation de populations latino-américaines diverses (originaires du Mexique, du Guatemala, d'El Salvador, du Honduras, de Cuba et d'Uruguay) à Harrisonburg et dans la vallée centrale Shenandoah entourant cette ville. L'auteur montre comment un certain nombre d'institutions clés, et notamment les industries agricoles locales (pommeraies et élevages de poulets), un bureau de réinstallation de réfugiés et des églises ont recruté des "pionniers" au sein de ces groupes d'immigrants, et comment ces "pionniers" ont par la suite poursuivi cette action de recrutement à l'aide de réseaux sociaux, créant ainsi de multiples "communautés affiliées" transnationales dans la région de Harrisonburg. L'étude examine aussi les implications politiques de ce processus historique. Virginia es uno de los estados sureños de los Estados Unidos, al igual que Carolina del Norte, Arkansas y Georgia, que ha experimentado un incremento repentino de la inmigración latina durante el último decenio. No sólo se trata de un incremento sin precedentes, si no que además los destinos son nuevos y localizados en zonas rurales. Estos lugares que no han albergado a poblaciones inmigrantes durante generaciones se están convirtiendo rápidamente en entornos multiculturales. La pequeña ciudad de Harrisonburg (con 43.500 habitantes según el censo de 2005), está localizada en el valle rural central de Shenadoah en Virginia, y es quizás el primer ejemplo de este nuevo patrón de cambio. Si bien la publicidad local promocionaba a Harrisonburg porque sus habitantes eran "99,2 por ciento nacidos en América y 93,7 por ciento blancos" hoy en día se destaca por albergar la población más diversa inscrita en los colegios públicos del Estado (entre 2006 y 2007), con estudiantes provenientes de 64 países que hablan 44 idiomas. Entre ellos están estudiantes de habla hispana provenientes de por lo menos 14 países distintos. Sobre la base de la teoría de redes sociales, este artículo examina redes sociales entre los inmigrantes latinos que se activan en nuevas zonas de asentamiento. Se presenta un estudio por caso de un proceso histórico de "latinización" que implica el asentamiento de toda una variedad de poblaciones latinas de "México, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba y Uruguay" en Harrisonburg y el valle central aledaño de Shenandoah. El estudio demuestra cómo una serie de instituciones clave,- incluidas las industrias agrícolas locales (manzanos y avicultura), una oficina de reasentamiento de refugiados y las iglesias - reclutaron a los "pioneros" de estos grupos de inmigrantes en la región y cómo esos "pioneros" entablaron ulteriormente el reclutamiento a nivel de su red social, creando "comunidades hermanas" transnacionales y múltiples en la región de Harrisonburg. También se examinan las repercusiones políticas de este proceso histórico. [source]


Psychological Predictors of Internet Social Communication

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2002
Sarah A. Birnie
This study investigated the relationship of traditional social behavior to social communication via the Internet in a completely wired campus where every professor uses computers in classroom teaching, each residence is wired to the Internet, and every student is issued a laptop computer. It has been suggested that shy and socially isolated individuals communicate more on the Internet because it provides some protection from social anxiety. However, little research has empirically tested this assumption. In line with social network theory, we proposed, instead, that online social communication would complement or supplement the uses of face-to-face social contact resulting in a positive association between the two forms of social behaviors. We assessed the frequency and intimacy of traditional social behaviors, sociability, and shyness in 115 undergraduates (52 male, 63 female). These variables were then used to predict the frequency and intimacy of Internet social communication. Sociability and the frequency of traditional social behaviors were positively associated with the frequency of Internet social communication. The intimacy of traditional social behaviors was positively associated with the intimacy of Internet social communication. Overall, the findings supported the implications of social network theory in that online social communication appeared to complement or be an extension of traditional social behavior rather than being a compensatory medium for shy and socially anxious individuals. With relation to uses and gratifications theory, however, shyness was associated with increased intimate socializing over the Internet, indicating that traditional and Internet communication are not functionally equivalent. [source]


Knowledge creation and exploitation in collaborative R&D projects: lessons learned on success factors

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 4 2006
Mona Weck
This paper examines the management of collaborative R&D projects with customers. Prior research on social network theory and the knowledge-based view has identified some of the key conditions of successful collaboration. However, the actual management of project dynamics has received less attention. This paper addresses this gap in existing research through a case study on the management of inter-firm R&D projects in a large European telecommunications operator. It provides a cross-project comparison on the process of knowledge creation and exploitation in five collaborative R&D projects with customers. The objective of this research is to increase current understanding on the success factors of collaborative R&D projects. As a result of this paper, the creation of a genuine ,win-win' situation, clear roles and responsibilities, the customer-oriented approach and the exchange of complementary specialist knowledge are found to be key critical success factors in the process of inter-firm knowledge creation. Moreover, this paper indicates that the viability of the business opportunity is the primary success factor in knowledge exploitation. In addition to identifying these success factors, the paper provides a more complete list of lessons learned from collaborative R&D projects with customers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]