Social Care (social + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Social Care

  • social care partnership
  • social care provider
  • social care services
  • social care setting

  • Selected Abstracts

    Heterosexism in Health and Social Care By Julie Fish

    David Abbott
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Interprofessional Practice in Health and Social Care: Challenging the Shared Learning Agenda

    Article first published online: 29 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Changing Role of Social Care

    MA/Dip.SW Rose Barton

    Mental Health and Social Care Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Andre Strydom
    Background, Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are a growing population but their age-related needs are rarely considered and community services are still geared towards the younger age group. We aimed to examine the mental health and social care needs of this new service user group. Methods, We identified all adults with ID without Down syndrome (DS) aged 65+ living in the London boroughs of Camden and Islington. The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with a Developmental Disability (PASADD) checklist was used to detect psychiatric disorder, the Vineland behaviour scale (maladaptive domain) for problem behaviours and the Dementia Questionnaire for persons with Mental Retardation (DMR) to screen for dementia. Carers reported health problems and disability. Needs were measured with the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID-S). Results, A total of 23 older people with ID (13 had mild ID and nine more severe ID) and their carers participated in the survey. In which, 74% had one or more psychiatric symptoms; 30% were previously known with a diagnosis of mental illness. One-third of the older people screened positive for dementia (range: 17,44%, depending on sensitivity of DMR scores used). Three quarters of the group had physical health problems, 74% had poor sight, 22% had hearing loss and 30% had mobility problems. Carers rated unmet needs for accommodation (22%), day activities, and eyesight and hearing. The people with ID rated unmet needs to be social relationships (44%), information and physical health. Conclusion, Older people with ID without DS have considerable prevalence of health problems and psychiatric disorders, including symptoms of functional decline and dementia. Such symptoms are often not recognised and further research into their needs is a priority. [source]

    A Handbook for Action Research in Health and Social Care

    Article first published online: 11 NOV 200

    The discipline of improvement: something old, something new?

    Charlotte L. Clarke BA, PGCE
    In response to calls to improve the efficacy of health care services, there is an increasing focus on the processes of achieving a continuous improvement of services and practices. One specific response is that of the NHS Modernization Agency and National Health Service University in relation to the Discipline of Improvement in Health and Social Care. This paper draws on a study that explored the underpinning knowledge base of the Discipline of Improvement and focuses on describing the framework that was developed. The two-dimensional framework is composed of five primary categories, which cross-link to 11 competencies. The study concludes that the Discipline of Improvement draws together a group of ideas that together cohere to form a distinctive model to aid the improvement of health care. While some of these ideas are well-established, the way in which the Discipline of Improvement makes connections between them offers something new to our understanding of change in the complex world of health care provision, and to nursing management. [source]

    Latest news and product developments

    PRESCRIBER, Issue 17 2007
    Article first published online: 6 NOV 200
    Drug information stilllacking for mentally ill Half of people with mental illness still have no say in the medication they are prescribed and one-third are not informed about side-effects, according to the latest report by the Healthcare Commission and the Commission for Social Care Inspection ( The annual national review of adult mental health services found overall improvement among local intervention teams in 2005/06 compared with the preceding year, though all could improve further and the performance of 46 per cent were rated as only fair or weak. A survey of 7446 people with schizophrenia also showed that only 46 per cent had access to psychological treatments. More incentives for shift of care in Scotland Scotland has made good progress on shifting NHS care into the community but joined-up thinking, better information and incentives are needed to overcome barriers to better management of long-term conditions in adults, says Audit Scotland ( Reviewing progress on the 2005 strategy document Delivering for Health, Audit Scotland found good progress on asthma and diabetes services , partly due to the effects of the GMS contract. Better information about clinical activity, costs and effectiveness is needed to help redesign services. Patients with more than one long-term condition do not receive co-ordinated care and many want greater involvement in their care, the report concluded. Acorn, QOF and Guy Rotherham awards Entries are invited for the 2007 annual Acorn, QOF and Guy Rotherham Awards. The awards are run in association with the NHS Alliance, Improvement Foundation, British Cardiac Society, British Cardiac Patients Society and Prescriber. The CHD QOF Award, sponsored by Schering-Plough, recognises the achievement of an individual practice that gains maximum points in the CHD and heart failure QOF domains, and a second award is given to the primary care organisation (PCO) that achieves the best average scores across its practices. The entry form can be found at The closing date is 12 October. Entries are also invited for the Guy Rotherham Award from PCOs that can demonstrate they have delivered a high-impact change resulting in better outcomes and services for patients. For online entry go to rotherhamaward. Closing date is 5 October. Award winners will receive free entry for three to the NHS Alliance conference and the conference dinner. The winner of the Guy Rotherham Award will also receive £3000. NICE scores five out of six NICE acted unreasonably in relying solely on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to define severity of Alzheimer's disease in its updated technology appraisals, with the effect of discriminating against people with learning or language difficulties, the High Court has ruled. The five other claims by Eisai that NICE acted unreasonably and irrationally were not upheld. This was the first court action against NICE in its eight-year history. It has now promised to publish revised appraisals on its website on 7 September and is consulting with Eisai, Shire Pharmaceuticals and the Alzheimer's Society on the best approach. PPRS reform follows Office of Fair Trading report The Government is to renegotiate the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) following the critical report by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT). In February, the OFT recommended renegotiation of the PPRS to reward innovation and obtain better value for patients. In particular, it called for a pricing scheme based on value for patients, ie effectiveness, rather than profit controls. The DoH, acknowledging the report's complexity, says it will take four principles into account in its negotiations during the forthcoming months: value for money, promoting innovation, assisting the uptake of new cost-effective medicines and promoting market stability. MHRA launches e-bulletin The MHRA ( has next issue can be downloaded. The launched an electronic bulletin to August bulletin includes items on provide health professionals with antidepressants and suicide, updates about the safe use of medi-adverse effects of dopamine ago-cines. Users need to sign up to nists and information about smokreceive an e-mail alert when the ing cessation and isotretinoin. DURG call for abstracts The Drug Utilisation Research Group is calling for abstracts for its 19th annual meeting ,Target-driven medicine , is this the end of prescribing freedom?' to be held on 7 February 2008 at the Royal Society of Medicine, London. Abstracts are requested on any aspects of drug utilisation research. A bursary of £500 will be awarded for the best abstract received. The closing date for receipt of abstracts is 26 November. Further information about abstract submission is available at GP prescribing up by half Prescription volume and costs in England increased by approximately half over the decade to 2006, according to data published by the Information Centre for Health and Social Care ( The number of items dispensed per year increased by 55 per cent and the cost by 60 per cent in real terms. The average number of items per head of population was 10.0 in 1996 and 14.8 in 2006; older people received 21.2 items per head in 1996 but 40.8 in 2006. MR morphines similar Modified-release preparations of morphine are equivalent in the treatment of severe pain, according to a new review by Bandolier ( The analysis of 54 randomised trials, which reviewed the release mechanisms and clinical data for four brands, showed these preparations provide effective analgesia for malignant and nonmalignant pain; about 4 per cent of patients were unable to tolerate the adverse effects of morphine. NSAIDs compared in OA Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) and naproxen are equally effective in the long-term treatment of osteoarthritis (Ann Rheum Dis 2007;66:945,51). Extension studies for two one-year trials showed that, after a total of 138 weeks, the two drugs had almost identical effects on pain and function assessments. All treatments were generally well tolerated, but serious cardiovascular effects were more common with etoricoxib and serious GI effects more common with naproxen. CPN nystatin allowed Community practitioner nurses (CPNs) may now prescribe oral nystatin (Nystan) to treat oral thrush in neonates, following a special amendment to the regulations limiting their prescribing to licensed indications. CPNs may now prescribe oral nystatin at the dose recommended in the BNF for Children provided they are sure of the diagnosis. In doing so, they accept clinical and medicolegal responsibility for their actions. There are no other exceptions to the prohibition of off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]

    Working in partnership , developing a young people's service in a rural environment

    M. Mitchell
    Specific objective, The Project reviewed , The Provision of Services for Early Psychosis in Cornwall. It looked at staff feedback, user and carers' views, base line assessment and National Guidelines of Best Practice, and proposed significant changes to meet the needs of young people. Method, The Review was carried out under the auspices of the National Clinical Governance Team and used as its framework the RAID model of change. Results, This resulted in a series of recommendations, which informed new developments. Current initiatives include a Health Promotion Programme, Training Strategies in Primary Care and effective partnerships with young people's services. Conclusions, It proposes significant changes to the correct system of care by working outside the traditional healthcare settings and across the service boundaries of health, education and social care. The rurality of Cornwall provides a considerable challenge for service delivery. This review ensured that ownership rested with users, careers, staff and others who contributed and shaped its future direction. [source]


    Tobias Johansson
    In this paper we apply a Transaction Cost Theory framework to analyse the use and effects of contracting out in Swedish local government. During the last decade Swedish local authorities, like in many other countries, have, to a larger extent, started to contract external subcontractors to fulfil their responsibilities towards its citizens. It is not only in the traditional subcontracting sectors such as housing, infrastructure, and technical services that this trend is evident, but also in policy areas like education, social care, and elderly care. In fact, very little is known about the overall effects of, and the mechanisms underlying, governance choices. The overall results corroborate transaction cost reasoning. Supplier competition and specificity have anticipated effects on municipal de-integration. Too little, but not too much, use of contracting out, in relation to theoretical predictions, worsens performance. The latter aspect is not fully in accordance with TCE-propositions. [source]

    Support workers in social care in England: a scoping study

    Jill Manthorpe MA
    Abstract This paper reports the findings of a scoping study designed to describe the evidence base with regard to support workers in social care in the United Kingdom and to identify gaps in knowledge. Multiple bibliographic databases were searched for studies published since 2003. The results revealed that the support worker role, though not well-defined, could be characterised as one aimed at fostering independence among service users, undertaking tasks across social and health-care, and not being trained in, or a member of, a specific profession. The studies identified were predominantly small-scale qualitative projects which considered issues such as role clarity, training and pay, worker satisfaction, service user views and the amount of time support workers are able to spend with service users compared to other staff. The review concluded that the research base lacks longitudinal studies, there is definitional confusion and imprecision, and there is limited evidence about employment terms and conditions for support workers or about their accountability and performance. The desirability and value of training and how it is resourced need further analysis. It is concluded that moves to self-directed support or personalisation and the increased reliance on and use of support workers, in the form of personal assistants, call for closer scrutiny of the role. [source]

    The health, social care and housing needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender older people: a review of the literature

    Samia Addis MSc
    Abstract This paper reports the findings of a literature review of the health, social care and housing needs of older lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) adults undertaken in 2006 for the Welsh Assembly Government. Peer-reviewed literature was identified through database searches of BNI, PubMed, CINAHL, DARE, ASSIA and PsychInfo. Follow-up searches were conducted using references to key papers and journals as well as specific authors who had published key papers. A total of 187 papers or chapters were retrieved, of which 66 were included in the study; major themes were identified and the findings synthesised using a meta-narrative approach. The main themes that emerged from the review were isolation, health behaviours, mental health and sexual health behaviours. The literature indicates that the health, social care and housing needs of LGBT older people is influenced by a number of forms of discrimination which may impact upon the provision of, access to and take up of health, social care and housing services. Understanding of the health, social care and housing needs of older LGBT people is limited and research in this area is scarce. The research which exists has been criticised for using small samples and for tending to exclude participants from less affluent backgrounds. The focus of research tends to be on gay men and lesbians; consequently, the needs of bisexual and transgender people remain largely unknown. Additionally, research which does exist tends to focus on a narrow range of health issues, often related to the health needs of younger LGBT people. Discrimination in various forms has a major impact on needs and experiences, leading to marginalisation of LGBT people both in the provision of health and social care services and neglect of these groups in public health research. [source]

    Elderly people's perspectives on health and well-being in rural communities in England: findings from the evaluation of the National Service Framework for Older People

    Jill Manthorpe MA
    Abstract Addressing the problems of meeting the needs of ageing populations in rural areas is recognised as a political and service delivery challenge. The National Service Framework (NSF) for Older People (NSFOP) set out a series of service standards to raise quality, to redress variations in service use and to enhance the effectiveness of services across health and social care in England and alluded to the challenges of meeting such standards in rural communities. This paper reports findings from the consultations undertaken with 713 elderly people as part of the midpoint review of the NSFOP in 2006, presenting and analysing the views and experiences of elderly people from rural areas. The consultations to engage with elderly people employed a mixed methodology that included public events, focus groups and individual interviews. The data reveal participants' views of how different patterns of social change in diverse country areas in England influence health and well-being in later life. The costs and benefits of centralization of services, and the pivotal issue of transport are important themes. The findings raise questions about the unclear and contradictory usages of the term ,rural' in England and the portrayal of rural ageing as a homogeneous experience. [source]

    Research use and support needs, and research activity in social care: a cross-sectional survey in two councils with social services responsibilities in the UK

    Cooke Jo BNurs MA RGN HV cert NDN
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of research activity, research use, research interests and research skills in the social care workforce in two UK councils with social service responsibilities (CSSRs). A cross-sectional survey was conducted of the social care workforce in two CSSRs (n = 1512) in 2005. The sample was identified in partnership with the councils, and included employees with professional qualifications (social workers and occupational therapists); staff who have a role to assess, plan and monitor care; service managers; commissioners of services; and those involved with social care policy, information management and training. The survey achieved a response rate of 24% (n = 368). The Internet was reported as an effective source of research information; conversely, research-based guidelines were reported to have a low impact on practice. Significant differences were found in research use, by work location, and postgraduate training. Most respondents saw research as useful for practice (69%), and wanted to collaborate in research (68%), but only 11% were planning to do research within the next 12 months. Having a master's degree was associated with a greater desire to lead or collaborate in research. A range of research training needs, and the preferred modes of delivery were identified. Support to increase research activity includes protected time and mentorship. The study concludes that a range of mechanisms to make research available for the social care workforce needs to be in place to support evidence-informed practice. Continual professional development to a postgraduate level supports the use and production of evidence in the social care workforce, and promotes the development of a research culture. The term research is used to include service user consultations, needs assessment and service evaluation. The findings highlight a relatively large body of the social care workforce willing to collaborate and conduct research. Councils and research support systems need to be developed to utilise this relatively untapped potential. [source]

    Older people , recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    Hannah M. McGee PhD
    Abstract Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery. [source]

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people's experiences of distress: resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour

    Jonathan Scourfield BA MA DipSW PhD
    Abstract The research presented in this paper set out to explore the cultural context of youth suicide and more specifically any connections between sexual identity and self-destructive behaviour, in the light of international evidence about the disproportionate risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) young people. The empirical basis for the paper is qualitative research that was carried out in the North West of England and South Wales. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with a total of 69 young people, with a purposive sample to reflect diversity of sexual identity, social class and regional and rural-urban location. The paper presents a thematic analysis of the data specifically relating to the experiences of LGBT young people. A range of strategies that LGBT young people employ in the face of distress are described. These are categorised as resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour (including self-harm and suicide). The potential implications for health and social care of these strategies include the need for ecological approaches and for sexual cultural competence in practitioners, as well as prioritisation of LGBT risk within suicide prevention policies. [source]

    Whole-system approaches to health and social care partnerships for the frail elderly: an exploration of North American models and lessons

    Dennis L. Kodner PhD
    Abstract Irrespective of cross-national differences in long-term care, countries confront broadly similar challenges, including fragmented services, disjointed care, less-than-optimal quality, system inefficiencies and difficult-to-control costs. Integrated or whole-system strategies are becoming increasingly important to address these shortcomings through the seamless provision of health and social care. North America is an especially fertile proving ground for structurally oriented whole-system models. This article summarises the structure, features and outcomes of the Program of All-Inclusive Care for Elderly People (PACE) programme in the United States, and the Système de soins Intégrés pour Personnes Âgées (SIPA) and the Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA) in Canada. The review finds a somewhat positive pattern of results in terms of service access, utilisation, costs, care provision, quality, health status and client/carer satisfaction. It concludes with the identification of common characteristics which are thought to be associated with the successful impact of these partnership initiatives, as well as a call for further research to understand the relationships, if any, between whole-system models, services and outcomes in integrated care for elderly people. [source]

    Accessibility and equity of health and social care services: exploring the views and experiences of Bangladeshi carers in South Wales, UK

    HV Tut Cert, Joy Merrell BSc (Hons)
    Abstract There is a paucity of information regarding the extent and nature of caring provided by minority ethnic communities. The proportion of older people from these communities will dramatically increase in the next 20 years, which will be accompanied by increasing health and social care needs and an increased demand for carers. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted to identify the health and social care needs of informal carers, who were caring for a dependent adult from a Bangladeshi community in South Wales, UK. This paper focuses on Bangladeshi carers' access to formal support services provided by the statutory, private and voluntary sectors to assist them with their caring responsibilities. The findings are based on data collected using face-to-face, focused interviews with 20 Bangladeshi carers. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the sample. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The dimensions of accessibility and equity of quality of care were drawn upon to aid understanding of the findings. Bangladeshi carers faced a number of barriers in accessing health and social service provision, which impeded uptake of these services. Additionally, there was evidence of inequity in service provision. Recommendations for improving the accessibility of health and social care services are proposed, which may assist in promoting more equitable services for carers from the Bangladeshi community. [source]

    Second-tier reviews of complaints in health and social care

    Jackie Gulland
    Abstract There has been a flurry of recent government initiatives concerning how citizens should be able to take up grievances against the state. In the fields of health and social care, people have been expected to use internal complaints procedures to resolve grievances. Research in this area suggests that there have been problems with the existing complaints procedures and there has been particular criticism of the ,second-tier' review stage in both health and social care. This has led to the introduction of more independent means of review. Different models of review have been developed in England, Wales and Scotland. Based on a review of recent policy documents and legislative instruments, this article looks at recent changes and proposals and considers the relative merits of the different models in the three administrations. [source]

    Care needs among the dependent population in Spain: an empirical approach

    J. Garcés PhD
    Abstract The objective of the present paper was to identify the profile and needs of social and healthcare users in Spain who required long-term care. To achieve this goal, an extensive empirical study was carried out in 2001 of a typical southern European region: the Valencia Autonomous Region in Spain. The method used was a questionnaire-based survey. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire comprising 119 questions grouped into seven sections: social and demographic data; clinical diagnosis and treatment; living environment; degree of dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs); cognitive state; social support; and the social, demographic and attendance data of the carer, if available. The sampling was carried out in two strata, i.e. social and healthcare: first, the authors randomly selected the centres and services as sampling points, and then they randomly selected the subjects. A total of 1265 people were interviewed. The results show different care profiles: users aged under 65 years were mostly mentally ill and/or drug users requiring short- and medium-term care from the health services, while those aged over 65 years had chronic illnesses for which they were actively receiving treatment, were functionally dependent for ADLs, and were normally receiving social care that basically provided company and resolved functional limitations. [source]

    Involving people with learning disabilities in research: issues and possibilities

    Tony Gilbert
    Abstract Advances in the social position of people with learning disabilities have led to a situation where research and evaluation studies are increasingly required to include the views and opinions of people with learning disabilities. One key outcome of this shift is that some of the major funding bodies now insist on the inclusion of people with learning disabilities as a condition of research funding. This has produced new possibilities and new challenges for researchers, and it has real consequences for people working in health and social care. The present paper sets out to explore some of the developments and challenges in research with people with learning disabilities. The author provides a selective overview of developments with the aim of demonstrating the richness, ingenuity and potential of research involving people with learning disabilities. The paper is divided into three broad sections that focus on: (1) the ethics and philosophy of participatory research; (2) the methodologies employed at particular points in the research process that are designed to ensure the involvement of participants in research; and (3) building capacity in participatory research as a precondition to the further development of this approach. An investment in capacity would enable this approach to move into the mainstream of research activity involving people with learning disabilities. [source]

    Variables associated with attendance at, and the perceived helpfulness of, meetings for people with multiple sclerosis

    Tim J. Peters PhD
    Abstract People who have chronic disabling conditions are frequently advised by health or social care practitioners to attend meetings organised specifically for individuals who have the same or similar health problems. The purpose of the analyses described in the present paper was to ascertain the variables independently associated with attendance at meetings for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), and amongst those who did attend, variables related to the level of perceived helpfulness. A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 471 people with MS in eight randomly selected health authorities/boards across England and Scotland with the general aim of eliciting their preferences for and views of health and social care. There were 318 respondents to this questionnaire (68%), 136 (43%) of whom had attended such a meeting. Logistic regression and proportional odds regression models were used to investigate the relationships with the two outcomes of attendance and helpfulness for 23 explanatory variables drawn from the questionnaire. The explanatory variables related to the following six broad areas: socio-demographic, illness-related, support, self-management, psycho-social factors and social function. Just under half of the respondents reported that they had attended a meeting. Half of these individuals found the last meeting that they had attended to be reasonably helpful, and one in five found it of no help. The individuals who were more likely to have attended were aged 45,64 years, had been in contact with a health professional in the past 12 months and felt that they had the ability and means to access MS-related information. The last meeting was considered more helpful by those who reported greater contentment with access to MS-related information and by those with mild depression. These findings should be useful to health professionals who may consider recommending meetings to people with MS, and also to those who are engaged in ensuring that meetings are both attractive and relevant to all potential attendees. [source]

    Research and development at the health and social care interface in primary care: a scoping exercise in one National Health Service region

    Jo Cooke MA
    Abstract The present project aimed to identify research activity at the health and social care interface in primary care within one National Health Service region, and to determine levels of research capacity and support within social services. The study was commissioned by a primary care research network (PCRN) in order to assess opportunities to increase research capacity within social services. Data were collected in two phases from 61 managers, team leaders and senior practitioners in social care, and six public health representatives in health authorities, using telephone interviews and focus groups. The findings highlighted a lack of infrastructure and support for research and development in social care. However, many social care respondents wanted opportunities to develop research skills with healthcare colleagues. Despite poor support, many small-scale projects were described, and many respondents showed an enthusiasm for engaging with research. Methods in use included surveys, action research, needs analysis and evaluation of service developments. Many examples of user involvement were given. Interface projects were usually instigated by interagency forums and funded from multiple sources. Most project work was motivated by service improvement or development, rather than aiming to produce generalisable knowledge. Barriers to conducting research included lack of confidence, research skills and time, as well as workload demands, lack of cover to release staff for research and lack of supervision. Research was not seen as legitimate work in some social care environments or as part of a career path. Existing joint working initiatives (such as the National Service Frameworks) were highlighted as flashpoints for potential research and evaluation activity. The findings suggest clear opportunities for PCRNs to develop research capacity at the interface with social care; for example, by signposting available resources, providing training grants and secondments for social care staff, and supporting interagency networks with a focus on evaluation. In turn, experience in promoting user involvement in social services could add value to research expertise at the primary care,social care interface. [source]

    Mental health training and development needs of community agency staff

    Jenny Secker
    Abstract Emphasis has long been placed in UK national policy on providing ,seamless' mental health services to meet both the health and social care needs of service users. While attention has been paid to the training required by specialist mental health and primary care staff in order to achieve this, the needs of other community agency staff have received less attention. The present article describes a study designed to identify the training needs of staff working within a broad range of agencies. Focus group discussions were used to explore participants' experiences of mental health problems amongst clients, their confidence in dealing with these, current sources of support and perceived training needs. The results indicate that participants in all agencies routinely encountered a range of problems. Colleagues were the main source of support, followed by line managers, but supervision structures and wider organisational support were lacking in some cases. Joint working with specialist mental health services was almost universally problematic and all groups identified a range of training needs. On the basis of the results, the present authors put forward suggestions as to how these needs might be met. [source]

    Research governance framework for health and social care

    Article first published online: 29 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The responsibility to care for single homeless people

    Maureen Crane RGN RMN MSc PhD
    Abstract This paper examines the reasons why in contemporary Britain many single homeless people with severe physical and mental health problems and welfare needs do not receive the treatment, care and financial support that they manifestly need, and in particular considers the interaction between their personal characteristics and the organisation and the obligations of services. Homelessness is a complex concept associated with problems of housing, health, social care and income. The greatest weaknesses of the service system are that no single agency has a statutory responsibility to ensure that vulnerable homeless people are served, and none of the generalist welfare agencies have a duty to seek out those who do not present. As a result, single homeless people fall between the housing, health and social services and amass exceptional unmet needs. The paper appraises the approaches to single homeless people's problems that have recently been introduced by the Rough Sleepers' Unit (RSU), and discusses the ways in which current reforms of the welfare services may impact on the situation of homeless people. With the possibility that the RSU's prime responsibility for commissioning single homeless people's services will transfer to local authorities in 2002, the paper concludes by specifying the implications for voluntary and statutory providers and makes recommendations about the attribution of the responsibility to care for this vulnerable group. [source]

    New Labour and the enabling state

    Ian Taylor BA (Leics) Msc, PhD (Econ)
    Abstract The notion of the ,enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the ,providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser,provider split appeared to transfer ,ownership' of services increasingly to the providers , hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the ,enabling state' in favour of more direct provision. [source]

    Patient Advice and Liaison Services: results of an audit survey in England

    David Evans BA MA DPhil FFPH RGN
    Abstract Objective, To assess the extent national standards for Patient Advice and Liaison Services (PALS) were achieved across England. Context, PALS are an important element of patient and public involvement strategy in England. Seven national standards for PALS were identified. Previous research has not assessed PALS across all trust types in England. Design, Audit survey as part of a mixed method ,realistic evaluation' in which regularities of context, mechanism and outcome are hypothesized and tested. Setting and participants, PALS based in 570 NHS trusts in England between October and December 2005. Main outcome measures, Self reported achievement against PALS national standards. Results, Three hundred and thirty-six valid responses were received, a response rate of 65%. However because some PALS serve more than one trust, this represents an estimated 76% of trusts. Overall, PALS rated themselves highly against all the standards, though somewhat less highly against standard 2 (seamlessness across health and social care) and standard 6 (acting as a catalyst for culture change). There was a wide range of responses with regard to PALS budget, staffing and activity levels, and statistically significant associations between levels of funding and staffing and higher levels of performance. Conclusions, The overall response rate was good so there can be a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the results. The results indicate the challenging context in which PALS are operating. Although the majority of PALS are single trust PALS, there is a high degree of variation in key mechanism factors such as budget and staffing. [source]

    A job to believe in: recruitment in the Scottish voluntary sector

    Dennis Nickson
    The voluntary sector is an important source of employment in the UK and is increasingly providing services previously provided by the public sector. However, the ability of the sector to provide such services is dependent on the quantity and quality of suitable labour. This article examines recruitment issues in seven case-study voluntary organisations offering social care in Scotland. Interviews were conducted with 137 managers and employees in these organisations. In addition, to assess potential labour supply, interviews and focus groups were conducted with careers advisers and potential employees. The findings suggest that, with a tightening labour market, uncompetitive pay and misconceptions about the sector, recruitment is a problem. However, job satisfaction is high for current employees, and potential employees whose values are commensurate with the sector might be attracted. The findings thus have relevance not just for the case-study organisations, but for HRM in the voluntary sector generally. [source]

    Turning principles into practice in Alzheimer's disease

    J. Lindesay
    Summary The prevalence of dementia is reaching epidemic proportions globally, but there remain a number of issues that prevent people with dementia, their families and caregivers, from taking control of their condition. In 2008, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) launched a Global Alzheimer's Disease Charter, which comprises six principles that underscore the urgency for a more ambitious approach to diagnosis, treatment and care. This review highlights some of the most important aspects and challenges of dementia diagnosis and treatment. These issues are reviewed in light of the six principles of the recent ADI Charter: promoting dementia awareness and understanding; respecting human rights; recognizing the key role of families and caregivers; providing access to health and social care; stressing the importance of optimal diagnosis and treatment; and preventing dementia through improvements in public health. The authors continue to hope that, one day, a cure for Alzheimer's disease will be found. Meanwhile, healthcare professionals need to unite in rising to the challenge of managing all cases of dementia, using the tools available to us now to work toward improved patient care. [source]

    Results of the first survey of independent trust grantmaking: who is setting the agenda?

    Cathy Pharoah
    Based on an analysis of 2,300 grants made by a representative sample of independent trusts and foundations, ,Patterns of Independent Grantmaking in the UK' is the first national survey identifying where independent trusts allocate their funds. The results show that, as in mainstream central and local government expenditure, social care was a clear priority for independent grantmakers, not only attracting the highest proportion of grants overall, but also the single largest proportion of funding, £233m. This figure equals just over one-third of local authority support for social services in the voluntary sector and indicates that the collective impact of independent funding to the sector is significant. Social care funding consisted mainly of a large number of small to medium-sized grants. Health was the second largest area, followed by education and the arts. There was a considerable regional imbalance in funding. Given this fairly conservative pattern of funding, the question arises whether funders are led by applicants or vice versa? What is needed to introduce more change and risk into trust funding? Copyright © 2000 Henry Stewart Publications. [source]