Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Sorption

  • gas sorption
  • moisture sorption
  • n2 sorption
  • vapour sorption
  • water sorption

  • Terms modified by Sorption

  • sorption affinity
  • sorption analysis
  • sorption behavior
  • sorption behaviour
  • sorption capacity
  • sorption characteristic
  • sorption coefficient
  • sorption curve
  • sorption experiment
  • sorption isotherm
  • sorption kinetics
  • sorption mechanism
  • sorption parameter
  • sorption process
  • sorption property
  • sorption site
  • sorption studies
  • sorption value

  • Selected Abstracts


    J.K. SAHU
    ABSTRACT Moisture sorption isotherm of sandesh, one of the most popular milk products in India, was determined in terms of its moisture adsorption isotherms by gravimetrical method at 20 and 30C using various saturated salt solutions in the range of 11.2 to 97.2%. The isotherms obtained were of sigmoid shape and of the Brunauer,Emmett,Teller type. Out of three sorption models fitted to the experimental data, Caurie's model was found superior in interpreting the moisture adsorption characteristics of sandesh. The monolayer moisture content as calculated from the Caurie's model at 20 and 30C were 5.89% (dry basis [d.b.]) and 5.21% (d.b.), respectively. The values of isosteric heat of sorption as calculated from Clausius,Clapeyron equation was found to increase with decreasing moisture content at lower moisture content and approached the value of heat of vaporization of free water above 17.25% (d.b.). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The present paper describes basically the storage stability of sandesh. The sandesh is a heat,acid coagulated product of milk in Indian subcontinent and forms the part and parcel of social life, ceremonies and festivals. It has an excellent market potential and higher profit margin compared with other milk products like table butter, cheese and milk powder. Although Indian dairy industry has made rapid strides in the last few decades, there is no proper packaging system, developed so far, for storage of sandesh. Keeping pace with the growing consumers' demand for fresh, convenient and microbiologically free foods, design of proper packaging system is the need of the hour. The data presented in the paper will be very much essential for the researchers and research and development institutions for proper designing of packaging system for sandesh. [source]


    Y. P. CHANG
    Mechanical properties of dried bread (a cellular baked product) equilibrated at different water activities (Aw) were measured using three-point bending and uniaxial compression to compare their responses to moisture sorption. The glass-to-rubber transition was clearly demarcated in all the mechanical property-Aw curves, although there were differences in critical Aw (0.32,0.56) at which the dramatic changes in mechanical properties occurred. The role of water appeared to be strictly that of a plasticizer where flexural mechanical parameters were concerned, leading to reduced modulus and fracture stress but increased fracture strain with increasing Aw. Uniaxial compression tests revealed moisture-induced mechanical antiplasticization effects on the material in the glassy state which resulted in maximum compressive fracture stress but minimum fracture strain over the Aw range from 0,0.56. Compressive modulus apparently was not affected much by moisture sorption up to an Aw of 0.43, above which it decreased sharply. [source]

    Monitoring of Desulfitobacterium frappieri PCP-1 in pentachlorophenol-degrading anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    M. Lanthier
    Anaerobic biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was studied in rotative bioreactors containing 200 g of PCP-contaminated soil and 250 ml of liquid medium. Reactors were bioaugmented with cells of Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain PCP-1, a bacterium able to dehalogenate PCP to 3-chlorophenol. Cells of strain PCP-1 were detected by quantitative PCR for at least 21 days in reactors containing 500 mg of PCP per kg of soil but disappeared after 21 days in reactors with 750 mg of PCP per kg of soil. Generally, PCP was completely removed in less than 9 days in soils contaminated with 189 mg of PCP per kg of soil. Sorption of PCP to soil organic matter reduced its toxicity and enhanced the survival of strain PCP-1. In some non-inoculated reactors, the indigenous microorganisms of some soils were also able to degrade PCP. These results suggest that anaerobic dechlorination of PCP in soils by indigenous PCP-degrading bacteria, or after augmentation with D. frappieri PCP-1, should be possible in situ and ex situ when the conditions are favourable for the survival of the degrading microorganisms. [source]

    Comment on: "Sorption of nitroaromatics to soils: Comparison of the importance of soil organic matter versus clay"

    Paul C.M. van Noort
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Impact of Kerogen Heterogeneity on Sorption of Organic Pollutants.


    Abstract The overall goal of the present study was to establish correlations between organic pollutant sorption and physicochemical properties of kerogen materials. Three coal samples, each representing a typical kerogen type, were used as the starting materials. A thermal technique was employed to treat the kerogen materials under seven different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500C to simulate different diagenetic history. These samples were systematically characterized for their chemical compositions, functionalities, physical rigidity, and optical properties. The results showed that the chemical, spectroscopic, and optical microscopic properties of each kerogen series changed consistently as a function of treatment temperature or kerogen maturation. The oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratio decreased from 0.29, 0.12, and 0.07 for the original lignite (XF0), fusinite (HZ0), and lopinite (LP0) samples, respectively, to 0.07, 0.06, and 0.04 for XF7, HZ7, and LP7, respectively, that underwent the highest temperature treatment. The hydrogen-to-carbon atomic ratio exhibited similar reducing trend, which is consistent with the aromaticity increasing from 45 to 58% of the original samples to 76 to 81% of highly mature samples. Under the fluorescence microscope, the organic matrix changed from yellow (original lignite sample) and red-brown (original lopinite sample) to colorless for the samples of higher maturation. The measured reflecting index increased from the original samples to the highly mature samples. Moreover, the original and the slightly matured samples exhibited very different chemical compositions and structural units among the three types due to the difference in their source materials. As the kerogen maturation increased, such differences decreased, indicating highly mature kerogen became homogenized regardless of the source material. [source]

    Long-range transport of organic chemicals in the environment

    Martin Scheringer
    Abstract The long-range transport (LRT) of organic chemicals in the environment is reviewed, with particular focus on the role of environmental fate and transport models and the relationship between model results and field data. Results from generic multimedia box models, spatially resolved multimedia box models, and atmospheric transport models are highlighted, including conceptual investigations of cold-trap effect and global fractionation as well as results for particular chemicals, such as hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroocctanoic acid, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Comparison of model results to field data shows that in many cases environmental fate models provide a good description of the distribution dynamics observed in the field, with deviations between measured and modeled concentrations around a factor of five. Sorption to atmospheric aerosols as a key process influencing the LRT of semivolatile organic chemicals (SOCs) is discussed, and the need for more measurements of the aerosol,air partitioning of SOCs and of the reactivity of particle-bound chemicals is pointed out. Key findings from field campaigns measuring legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as well as new POPs are summarized. Finally, the relationship between science and politics in the field of POPs is addressed. Research into the LRT of organic chemicals has always occurred in interaction with political activities aiming to reduce the emissions of POPs. Since the late 1990s, the Stockholm Convention and the Aarhus Protocol on POPs have formed an important political context for research concerning POPs; the implementation of these international treaties creates a demand for ongoing research into the LRT of organic chemicals. [source]

    Sorption of male hormones by soils and sediments

    Il Kim
    Abstract ,This paper reports the sorption of two male hormones, testosterone and androstenedione, by four soil and sediment samples at both equilibrium and rate-limiting conditions. Unlike prior studies, androstenedione was studied independently of testosterone. Apparent sorption equilibrium is achieved in one to two weeks when the initial aqueous hormone concentrations (C0) at 10,000 ,g/L (,30% of their solubility limits [Sw]) and two to three weeks when the C0 is 300 ,g/L (less than 1% of Sw). The Freundlich model parameter n ranged from 0.698 to 0.899 for all soil,solute systems indicating nonlinear sorption isotherms. Isotherm nonlinearity leads to an inverse correlation between single-point organic carbon,normalized sorption distribution coefficients (KOC) and equilibrium androgen concentration (Ce). When Ce/Sw = 0.012, the log KOC values for testosterone and androstenedione on the various sorbents ranged from 6.18 to 6.75 and 6.83 to 6.04, respectively, compared to 6.30 to 6.80 and 6.16 to 6.92 when Ce/Sw = 0.004. This study suggests that male hormones may exhibit slow rates of sorption over 14 d or longer and that soils and sediments may have greater sorption distribution coefficients when concentrations fall into the ng/L range. [source]

    Sorption of humic acids and ,-endosulfan by clay minerals

    Sarunya Hengpraprom
    Abstract Sorption of ,-endosulfan by kaolinite and montmorillonite alone and in the presence of sorbed and dissolved humic acid (HA) was investigated (pH 8 and 25C). Three types of HA, Elliot soil HA (EHA), Peat HA (PHA), and Summit Hill HA (SHHA), were used to represent typical humic substances found in soils. For sorption of HA by either mineral, Freundlich sorption coefficient (Kf) values appeared to decrease in the order of EHA > PHA > SHHA, which followed increasing polarity (expressed as the O/C atomic ratio) and decreasing percent-carbon content. For both clays, sorption of ,-endosulfan by the HA mineral complex was greater than for sorption by the clay alone. Sorption of ,-endosulfan by the HA mineral complexes followed the same order as the Kf of the HAs (EHA > PHA > SHHA). Based on the amount of HA adsorbed by each mineral, organic carbon partition coefficients (KOC) were determined for sorption of ,-endosulfan by two of the HA mineral complexes. The value of KOC for ,-endosulfan sorption was greater for kaolinite EHA than kaolinite SHHA. However, the opposite trend was found with the montmorillonite HA complexes. Montmorillonite appeared to sorb ,-endosulfan and/or HA with higher affinity than kaolinite, which likely is due to its 2:1 layer structure and higher surface area. Sorption of endosulfan diol, a hydrolysis product, by the minerals was much less than the parent pesticide. [source]

    Sorption of benzidine and 3,3,-dichlorobenzidine to lake sediments.

    1. conceptualization, development of a multiparameter model
    Abstract Aromatic amines, such as benzidine and 3,3,-dichlorobenzidine (DCB), are part of the dyes and pigments manufacturing process. The prolonged use of these carcinogenic chemicals in the past generation has introduced a significant amount of contamination to the environment. Their persistency in several mediums has sparked a number of studies in an attempt to develop predictive tools of their fate and transport in the environment. In this study, benzidine and DCB batch isotherms were developed and evaluated. The sediment samples were variable in composition, ranging from sandy to silty-clay sediment samples. The batch isotherms were then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently, a multiparameter model (MPM) that accounted for partitioning, covalent bonding, and cation exchange was developed and tested in an effort to understand the various mechanisms. Results proved the proposed model to be effective in predicting sorption of aromatic amines to lake sediments. The findings suggest that the MPM can provide a better understanding of the sorption process of aromatic amines than more conventional models. [source]

    The potential for estradiol and ethinylestradiol to sorb to suspended and bed sediments in some English rivers

    Karlijn I. E. Holthaus
    Abstract The endocrine-disrupting impact of steroid estrogens on fish will be strongly influenced by their distribution between sediment and water. Laboratory studies were performed to investigate the potential for sorption of 17,-estradiol (E2) and 17,-ethinylestradiol (EE2) to bed and suspended sediments taken from five British rivers. Sediment material was collected from the Rivers Aire and Calder (located in urban and industrialized areas in Yorkshire, UK), the River Thames (at a relatively rural site in Oxfordshire, UK), and from the estuaries of the Rivers Tees and Tyne. Using anaerobic conditions to inhibit biodegradation, it was found that 80 to 90% of binding to bed sediments was complete within 1 d, but that an equilibrium had not been reached after 2 d. Bed sediments gave distribution coefficients (Kd) ranging from 4 to 74 L/kg for E2 and from 8 to 121 L/kg for EE2 for samples taken over a range of seasons and locations. Sorption to suspended sediment gave Kd values ranging from 21 to 122 L/kg for E2 and 19 to 260 L/kg for EE2. However, these Kd values suggest less than 1% removal of the steroid estrogens from the aqueous phase given the ambient suspended sediment concentration. In the bed sediments, higher Kd values were associated with smaller particle size and higher organic carbon content. In most cases, the Kd values obtained for EE2 were higher than those for E2 by a factor of up to three. [source]

    A Microporous Metal,Organic Framework with Immobilized ,OH Functional Groups within the Pore Surfaces for Selective Gas Sorption

    Zhenxia Chen
    Abstract A new two-dimensional microporous metal,organic framework Cu(BDC-OH)(H2O)0.5DEF [abbreviation: Cu(BDC-OH); H2BDC-OH = 2-hydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid; DEF = diethylformamide] with functional OH groups on the pore surfaces was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The activated Cu(BDC-OH) exhibits a moderate Langmuir surface of 584 m2,g,1, a pore volume of 0.214 cm3,g,1, and C2H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 6.7 and 9.3, respectively, at 296 K, thereby highlighting the promise for its application in gas separation. [source]

    Formation of 2,4,D complexes on montmorillonites , an ab initio molecular dynamics study

    D. Tunega
    Summary Sorption of the anionic form of the pesticide 2,4,D (2,4,dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on the surface of the clay mineral montmorillonite was investigated using a short-time ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at room temperature. Three different situations were modelled: sorption on a dry surface, on a hydrated surface and an intercalation between montmorillonite layers. In all three cases, the calcium cation compensates the excess negative charge of the montmorillonite layer and the negative charge of the 2,4,D anion. It was found that in all models with direct contact of the Ca2+ cation with the montmorillonite layer, the most stable position of Ca2+ is above the ditrigonal hole of the mineral layer. While in the case of a dry surface very stable bidentate binding is created between the 2,4,D anion and the Ca2+ cation, the formation of the monodentate complexes is preferred in all models that include water molecules. Hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules and the 2,4,D anion make a considerable contribution to the formation of the monodentate complexes. Tetrahedral substitutions in the montmorillonite layer have a significant effect on the formation of the complexes of any type. However, the MD simulations did not support the role of Ca2+ as a cation bridge in the adsorption mechanism. Calculations showed that hydrated 2,4,DCa2+ complexes are thermodynamically more stable than complexes in which the Ca2+ cation acts as a bridge to the surface. On the other hand, it is possible that phyllosilicates with a greater concentration of isomorphic substitutions (e.g. mica) will be able to form stable surface complexes with a cation bridge mechanism. [source]

    Sorption of phosphorus in field-moist and air-dried samples from four weakly developed cultivated soil profiles

    T. PeltovuoriArticle first published online: 9 FEB 200
    Summary Sorption of phosphorus (P) in complete soil profiles in northern Europe is not adequately documented. I measured the sorption in genetic horizons of four cultivated soils (Inceptisols, Spodosol) in Finland using both field-moist and air-dried soil samples, fitted modified Freundlich equations (Q = a Ib , q) to the data, and presented the results in quantity/intensity (Q/I) graphs. Least-squares-estimates for the parameters of the modified Freundlich equation (a, b, q) were found to be imprecise measures of sorption. Values derived from the fitted equations (the amount of P sorbed at the P concentration of 2 mg litre,1 and P buffering capacity at the same concentration) were more precise. Both were correlated with concentrations of oxalate-extractable iron and aluminium. In all soils, there was a distinct difference in sorption between the fertilized Ap horizons and the subsurface horizons, which retained P strongly. Most of the sorption capacity was located in the B horizons at depths between 0.3 and 0.7 m. The results demonstrate the effects of soil-forming processes and human impact on the sorption of P in the soils. Drying the samples prior to the sorption experiments altered the shape of the Q/I graphs. It increased dissolution of P at small P concentrations, sorption at large P concentrations, and the estimates for P buffering capacity. The effects of drying soil samples on the results and the imprecision of the parameters estimated with the modified Freundlich equation should be taken into account when interpreting results of Q/I experiments. [source]

    Molecular weight and humification index as predictors of adsorption for plant- and manure-derived dissolved organic matter to goethite

    T. Ohno
    Summary Sorptive retention of organic matter is important in maintaining the fertility and quality of soils in agricultural ecosystems. However, few sorption studies have been conducted that use dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristic of agricultural amendments. We investigated the sorption to goethite (,-FeOOH) of DOM extracted from: (i) above-ground biomass of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), maize residue (Zea mays L.), soybean residue (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and hairy vetch residue (Vivia billosa L.); (ii) below-ground biomass from maize, soybean, canola (Brassica napus L.), and green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); and (iii) beef, dairy, poultry, and pig animal manures. The apparent molecular weight (MWAP) of the DOM was measured by high performance-size exclusion chromatography and ranged from 312 to 1074 g mol,1. The carboxyl-group content of the DOM measured by potentiometric titration ranged from 4.84 to 21.38 mmol(,) g,1 carbon. The humification index (HIX) determined by fluorescence spectrometry varied from 1.15 to 4.33. Sorption was directly related to both MWAP and HIX values of the DOM. Molecular weight analysis of the solution prior to and after sorption indicated that the DOM molecules > 1800 g mol,1 were preferentially sorbed, resulting in fractionation of the DOM upon reaction with goethite. The multiple regression equation, based only on MWAP and HIX parameters, explained 76% of the variance in amount of DOM sorbed. The results indicate that MWAP and HIX are important factors in controlling the sorption of DOM to mineral surfaces. Amendment with materials that release DOM of higher molecular weight and greater humification will result in enhanced initial sorption of DOM to soil solids, thereby contributing to accumulation of a larger soil organic C pool. [source]

    Sorption and leaching behaviour of polar aromatic acids in agricultural soils by batch and column leaching tests

    R. Celis
    Summary Aromatic acids can reach the soil from direct anthropogenic activities or, indirectly, from the degradation of many aromatic compounds, such as pesticides or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of the anionic character of aromatic acids at the pH of most soil and sediment environments, they are expected to move rapidly through the soil profile and to pose a great risk of ground water contamination. We designed batch and column leaching tests to characterize the behaviour of three aromatic acids differing in their chemical structures, picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), phthalic acid (2,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid), and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), in four European soils with different physicochemical characteristics. Batch experiments revealed that the persistence of the three acids in soil:water suspensions decreased in the order: picloram , phthalic acid > salicylic acid, and their dissipation curves were relatively independent of soil type. Sorption by the soils, their clay-size fractions and model sorbents indicated much greater affinity of soil constituents for salicylic acid than for picloram or phthalic acid, most likely due to the ability of salicylic acid to form bidentate complexes with positively charged soil components. The extent of leaching of the aromatic acids in hand-packed soil columns decreased in the order: picloram (90,96%) > phthalic acid (25,90%) > salicylic acid (0,37%), which was consistent with the sorption and persistence results of the batch tests. The organic C content, the amount of small-size pores, and the initial concentration of aromatic acid in soil appeared to be important factors influencing the leaching patterns of phthalic acid and salicylic acid in the soils studied, but did not greatly influence the leaching pattern of picloram. Sorption and leaching of polar aromatic acids in soil can therefore vary considerably depending on the structural characteristics of the aromatic acid or soil type. [source]

    Mineral surfaces and soil organic matter

    K. Kaiser
    Summary The organic carbon content of soil is positively related to the specific surface area (SSA), but large amounts of organic matter in soil result in reduced SSA as determined by applying the Brunauer,Emmett,Teller (BET) equation to the adsorption of N2. To elucidate some of the controlling mechanisms of this relation, we determined the SSA and the enthalpy of N2 adsorption of separates with a density > 1.6 g cm,3 from 196 mineral horizons of forest soils before and after removal of organic matter with NaOCl. Likewise, we investigated these characteristics before and after sorption of increasing amounts of organic matter to four mineral soil samples, oxides (amorphous Al(OH)3, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, goethite, haematite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite). Sorption of organic matter reduced the SSA, depending on the amount sorbed and the type of mineral. The reduction in SSA decreased at larger organic matter loadings. The SSA of the mineral soils was positively related to the content of Fe oxyhydroxides and negatively related to the content of organic C. The strong reduction in SSA at small loadings was due primarily to the decrease in the micropores to which N2 was accessible. This suggests preferential sorption of organic matter at reactive sites in or at the mouths of micropores during the initial sorption and attachment to less reactive sites at increasing loadings. The exponential decrease of the heat of gas adsorption with the surface loading points also to a filling or clogging of micropores at early stages of organic matter accumulation. Desorption induced a small recovery of the total SSA but not of the micropore surface area. Destruction of organic matter increased the SSA of all soil samples. The SSA of the uncovered mineral matrix related strongly to the amounts of Fe oxyhydroxides and the clay. Normalized to C removed, the increase in SSA was small in topsoils and illuvial horizons of Podzols rich in C and large for the subsoils containing little C. This suggests that micropores preferentially associate with organic matter, especially at small loadings. The coverage of the surface of the soil mineral matrix as calculated from the SSA before and after destruction of organic matter was correlated only with depth, and the relation appeared to be linear. We conclude that mineralogy is the primary control of the relation between surface area and sorption of organic matter within same soil compartments (i.e. horizons). But at the scale of complete profiles, the surface accumulation and stabilization of organic matter is additionally determined by its input. [source]

    Estimation of the phosphorus sorption capacity of acidic soils in Ireland

    R. O. Maguire
    Summary The test for the degree of phosphorus (P) saturation (DPS) of soils is used in northwest Europe to estimate the potential of P loss from soil to water. It expresses the historic sorption of P by soil as a percentage of the soil's P sorption capacity (PSC), which is taken to be , (Alox + Feox), where Alox and Feox are the amounts of aluminium and iron extracted by a single extraction of oxalate. All quantities are measured as mmol kg soil,1, and a value of 0.5 is commonly used for the scaling factor , in this equation. Historic or previously sorbed P is taken to be the quantity of P extracted by oxalate (Pox) so that DPS = Pox/PSC. The relation between PSC and Alox, Feox and Pox was determined for 37 soil samples from Northern Ireland with relatively large clay and organic matter contents. Sorption of P, measured over 252 days, was strongly correlated with the amounts of Alox and Feox extracted, but there was also a negative correlation with Pox. When PSC was calculated as the sum of the measured sorption after 252 days and Pox, the multiple regression of PSC on Alox and Feox gave the equation PSC = 36.6 + 0.61 Alox+,0.31 Feox with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.92. The regression intercept of 36.6 was significantly greater than zero. The 95% confidence limits for the regression coefficients of Alox and Feox did not overlap, indicating a significantly larger regression coefficient of P sorption on Alox than on Feox. When loss on ignition was employed as an additional variable in the multiple regression of PSC on Alox and Feox, it was positively correlated with PSC. Although the regression coefficient for loss on ignition was statistically significant (P <,0.001), the impact of this variable was small as its inclusion in the multiple regression increased R2 by only 0.028. Values of P sorption measured over 252 days were on average 2.75 (range 2.0,3.8) times greater than an overnight index of P sorption. Measures of DPS were less well correlated with water-soluble P than either the Olsen or Morgan tests for P in soil. [source]

    Dissolved organic phosphorus and sulphur as influenced by sorptive interactions with mineral subsoil horizons

    K. KaiserArticle first published online: 6 JAN 200
    Summary This study tested the hypothesis that, like dissolved organic nitrogen (N), dissolved organic phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) are more mobile in soil than is organic carbon (C). To do so, I compared the sorption of organic P and S to subsoil materials with that of organic C. Soil samples were equilibrated with water-soluble organic matter from the forest floor at pH 4 and in the equilibrium solutions organic C, P, and S, and their distributions between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic fraction were determined. Sorption of C within the organic matter did not differ from that of P and S. However, the hydrophilic fraction contained the vast majority of P and S and sorbed far less than the hydrophobic fraction. So the overall retention of organic P and S was smaller than that of organic C. This result suggested that dissolved organic matter is more important in the loss of plant nutrients than in the release of C from soil. [source]

    Porous Chromium Terephthalate MIL-101 with Coordinatively Unsaturated Sites: Surface Functionalization, Encapsulation, Sorption and Catalysis

    Do-Young Hong
    Recent ideas concerning site-selective functionalization of chromium terephtha-late MIL-101 are discussed, focusing on the utilization of unsaturated Cr(III) sites (see image). Recent advances in synthesis, selective surface functionalization, outstanding sorption properties, encapsulation of nanoobjects, and catalytic applications in MIL-101 are also discussed. [source]

    Combined Effect of Nitrogen- and Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups of Microporous Activated Carbon on its Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitors

    Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova
    Abstract Microporous activated carbon originating from coconut shell, as received or oxidized with nitric acid, is treated with melamine and urea and heated to 950,C in an inert atmosphere to modify the carbon surface with nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups for a systematic investigation of their combined effect on electrochemical performance in 1,M H2SO4 supercapacitors. The chemistry of the samples is characterized using elemental analysis, Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide is used to determine the textural properties. The results show that the surface chemistry is affected by the type of nitrogen precursor and the specific groups present on the surface before the treatment leading to the incorporation of nitrogen. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior of urea- and melamine-treated samples reveal pseudocapacitance from both the oxygen and the nitrogen containing functional groups located in the pores larger than 10,. On the other hand, pores between 5, and 6, are most effective in a double-layer formation, which correlates well with the size of hydrated ions. Although the quaternary and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen groups have enhancing effects on capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads, the most important functional groups affecting energy storage performance are pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen along with quinone oxygen. [source]

    Irreversible Phosphorus Sorption in Septic System Plumes?

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2008
    W. D. Robertson
    The mobility of phosphorus (P) in septic system plumes remains a topic of debate because of the considerable reactivity of this constituent. In this study, a septic system plume in Ontario was monitored over a 16-year period with detail that clearly shows the advancing frontal portion of the P plume. This monitoring record provides insight into the extent of secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone beyond that available from previous studies. A P plume 16 m in length developed over the monitoring period with PO4 -P concentrations (3 to 6 mg/L) that approached the concentrations present under the tile bed. Simulations using an analytical model showed that when first-order solute decay was considered to account for the possibility of secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone, field values could only be matched when decay was absent or occurred at an exceedingly slow rate (half-life greater than 30 years). Thus, hypothesized secondary P attenuation mechanisms such as slow recystallization of sorbed P into insoluble metal phosphate minerals, diffusion into microsites, or kinetically slow direct precipitation of P minerals such as hydroxyapatite were inactive in the ground water zone at this site or occurred at rates that were too slow to be observed in the context of the current 16-year study. Desorption tests on sediment samples from below the tile bed indicated a PO4 distribution coefficient (Kd) of 4.8, which implies a P retardation factor of 25, similar to the field apparent value of 37 determined from model calibrations. This example of inactive secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone shows that phosphorus in some ground water plumes can remain mobile and conservative for decades. This has important implications for septic systems located in lakeshore environments when long-term usage scenarios are considered. [source]

    Radon (222Rn) in Ground Water of Fractured Rocks: A Diffusion/Ion Exchange Model

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Warren W. Wood
    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (4256,N, 7143,W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. [source]

    Bentonite as a Natural Adsorbent for the Sorption of Iron from the Ground Water Exploited from Aswan Area, Egypt

    Gharib M. Taha
    Sorption of dissolved Fe2+ on bentonite was studied using a batch technique. The distribution coefficient, Kd, was evaluated for a bentonite-iron system as a function of contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentrations, and temperature. Sorption results were interpreted in terms of Freundlich's and Langmuir's equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption system were determined at three temperatures: 298, 308, and 318K. The values of ,H(-4.0 kjmol,1) and ,G(-2.46 Kjmol,1) at 298K (25C) suggest that sorption of iron on bentonite is an exothermic and a spontaneous process. The ,G value became less negative at higher temperatures and, therefore, less iron was sorbed at higher temperatures. The desorption studies with 0.01M CaCl2 and deionized water at iron loading on bentonite showed that more than 90 wt% of the iron is irreversibly sorbed, probably due to the fixation of the iron by isomorphous replacement in the crystal lattice of the sorbent. [source]

    Microporous Metal,Organic Frameworks with High Gas Sorption and Separation Capacity,

    Y. Lee
    Abstract The design, synthesis, and structural characterization of two microporous metal,organic framework structures, [M(bdc)(ted)0.5]2,DMF0.2,H2O (M,=,Zn (1), Cu (2); H2bdc,=,1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid; ted,=,triethylenediamine; DMF: N,N -dimethylformamide) is reported. The pore characteristics and gas sorption properties of these compounds are investigated at cryogenic temperatures, room temperature, and higher temperatures by experimentally measuring argon, hydrogen, and selected hydrocarbon adsorption/desorption isotherms. These studies show that both compounds are highly porous with a pore volume of 0.65 (1) and 0.52,cm3,g,,1 (2). The amount of the hydrogen uptake, 2.1,wt,% (1) and 1.8,wt,% (2) at 77,K (1,atm; 1,atm,=,101,325,Pa), places them among the group of metal,organic frameworks (MOFs) having the highest H2 sorption capacity. [Zn(bdc)(ted)0.5]2,DMF0.2,H2O adsorbs a very large amount of hydrocarbons, including methanol, ethanol, dimethylether (DME), n -hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene, giving the highest sorption values among all metal,organic based porous materials reported to date. In addition, these materials hold great promise for gas separation. [source]

    Vapor Sorption and Electrical Response of Au-Nanoparticle, Dendrimer Composites,

    N. Krasteva
    Abstract Films comprising Au nanoparticles and polyphenylene dendrimers (first and second generation) are deposited onto transducer substrates via layer-by-layer self-assembly and characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their sorption behavior is studied by measuring the uptake of solvents from the vapor phase with quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). The resistance of the films is simultaneously monitored. Both sensor types, QCMs and chemiresistors, give qualitatively very similar response isotherms that are consistent with a combination of Henry- and Langmuir-type sorption processes. The sorption-induced increase in relative differential resistance scales linearly with the amount of analyte accumulated in the films. This result is in general agreement with an activated tunneling process for charge transport, if little swelling and only small changes in the permittivity of the film occur during analyte sorption (a first-order approximation). The relative sensitivity of the films to different solvents decreases in the order toluene,,,tetrachloroethylene,>,1-propanol,,,water. Films containing the larger second-generation dendrimers show higher sensitivity than films containing first-generation dendrimers. [source]

    Solute transport in sand and chalk: a probabilistic approach

    E. Carlier
    Abstract A probabilistic approach is used to simulate particle tracking for two types of porous medium. The first is sand grains with a single intergranular porosity. Particle tracking is carried out by advection and dispersion. The second is chalk granulates with intergranular and matrix porosities. Sorption can occur with advection and dispersion during particle tracking. Particle tracking is modelled as the sum of elementary steps with independent random variables in the sand medium. An exponential distribution is obtained for each elementary step and shows that the whole process is Markovian. A Gamma distribution or probability density function is then deduced. The relationships between dispersivity and the elementary step are given using the central limit theorem. Particle tracking in the chalky medium is a non-Markovian process. The probability density function depends on a power of the distance. Experimental simulations by dye tracer tests on a column have been performed for different distances and discharges. The probabilistic approach computations are in good agreement with the experimental data. The probabilistic computation seems an interesting and complementary approach to simulate transfer phenomena in porous media with respect to the traditional numerical methods. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A study on the sorption of NO3, and F, on the carboxymethylated starch-based hydrogels loaded with Fe2+ ions

    Ghanshyam S. Chauhan
    Abstract Using the principle of geochemistry of fluoride, green and cost effective anion adsorbents were developed for the removal of F, from water systems. The scheme was further applied for the removal of NO3, also. Carboxymethylated starch functionalized through network formation with acrylamide was used as adsorbent, and the resultant hydrogels were loaded with Fe2+ ions to generate anchorage for the anions. Sorption of Fe2+ was studied as a function of different factors such as time, temperature, pH, and ion strength. The network having the highest Fe2+ uptake was loaded with the Fe2+ ions under optimum conditions and used for the sorption of F, and NO3,. High efficiency has been observed for F,, as even up to 100% uptake has been observed within just 10 minutes. The support shows high selectivity for NO3,, which was used as anion reference. Thermodynamics of sorption confirms low order and low energy processes. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2007 [source]

    Gas sorption in polymers, molecular sieves, and mixed matrix membranes

    Theodore T. Moore
    Abstract Gas sorption has been an underutilized technique for characterizing organic,inorganic hybrid (mixed matrix) membranes. Sorption in these membranes, which are composed of rigid inorganic domains, such as zeolites, dispersed in a polymer matrix, should be approximately additive. Sorption in the neat polymers and zeolites were first measured to demonstrate that sorption in mixed matrix membranes is approximately additive in the absence of other effects. Sorption in mixed matrix membranes was demonstrated to be additive. This extends to cases where sorption in one or both phases of the mixed matrix membrane is affected by an outside contaminant. For example, zeolite 4A is extremely hydrophilic and easily affected by contaminants from processing or from the test gases. Zeolite 4A encapsulated within a polymer matrix can still be affected by these same components, and this causes sorption lower than predicted based on that in unaffected polymers and sieves. This sorption analysis has proven to be very important in understanding the permeabilities and selectivities of mixed matrix membranes. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 104: 4053,4059, 2007 [source]

    Sorption and permeation behavior for CO2 in NH3 -plasma-treated and untreated polystyrene membranes

    Y.-S. Yang
    Abstract In our preceding work, the simultaneous deviation from the conventional dual-mode sorption and mobility model was observed in a case of CO2 in polystyrene (PS) membrane (glass transition temperature of pure polymer = 95C) at 60 and 70C. The plasticization effect of sorbed CO2 on both the sorption and diffusion processes tends to be brought about in glassy polymer membranes near the glass transition temperature. The behavior was simulated based on the concept that only one population of sorbed gas molecules of plasticizing ability to the polymer should exist. In the present work, the sorption and permeation behavior for CO2 in NH3 -plasma-treated and untreated PS membranes at 40C was investigated, where NH3 -plasma treatment was executed at plasma discharge powers of 40, 80, 120, and 160 W for an exposure time of 2 min. The sorption isotherm could be described by the sorption theory of Mi et al. (Macromolecules 1991, 24, 2361), where the glass transition temperature is depressed by a concentration of sorbed CO2 of plasticizing ability. NH3 -plasma treatment on PS membrane had little influence on the sorption behavior of CO2 at plasma discharge powers up to 160 W. The mean permeability coefficients were somewhat increased only at a discharge power of 160 W. At CO2 pressures below 0.9 MPa, the pressure dependencies of mean permeability coefficients for CO2 in both NH3 -plasma-treated and untreated PS membranes at 40C could also be simulated on the basis of the concept that only one population of sorbed gas molecules of plasticizing ability should exist. At CO2 pressures above 0.9 MPa, however, a plasticization action of sorbed CO2 had much more influence on the diffusion process rather than on the sorption one, and such a combined concept underestimated the mean permeability coefficient. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 1798,1805, 2007 [source]

    Sorption and solubility testing of orthodontic bonding cements in different solutions

    Manuel Toledano
    Abstract To evaluate and compare the solubility and sorption of orthodontic bonding cements after immersion in different solutions, five different cements were used: a fluoride-containing resin composite, a light-cured glass ionomer cement, a light-cured resin composite, a paste,paste chemically cured resin composite, and a liquid,paste chemically cured resin composite. Five different solutions were employed: distilled water, artificial saliva, an alcohol-free mouthrinse solution (Orthokin), a 5% alcohol mouthrinse solution (Perioaid), and a 75% ethanol/water solution. Five disc specimens (15 mm 0.85 mm) were used for each experimental condition. Materials were handled following manufacturers' instructions and were ground wet with silicon carbide paper. Solubility and sorption of the materials were calculated by means of weighing the samples before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student,Newman,Keuls test (p < 0.05). The light-cured glass ionomer cement showed the lowest solubility and the highest sorption values. When using alcohol-containing solutions as storage media, solubility of the paste,paste chemically cured resin composite increased, and sorption values for the tested chemically cured resin composites were also increased. The use of alcohol-free mouthrinses does not affect sorption and solubility of orthodontic cements. The chemically cured (paste,paste) composite resin cement, requiring a mixing procedure, was the most affected by immersion in alcohol-containing solutions. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006 [source]