Soil Loss Equation (soil + loss_equation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Soil Loss Equation

  • universal soil loss equation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Predicting unit plot soil loss in Sicily, south Italy

    V. Bagarello
    Abstract Predicting soil loss is necessary to establish soil conservation measures. Variability of soil and hydrological parameters complicates mathematical simulation of soil erosion processes. Methods for predicting unit plot soil loss in Sicily were developed by using 5 years of data from replicated plots. At first, the variability of the soil water content, runoff, and unit plot soil loss values collected at fixed dates or after an erosive event was investigated. The applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was then tested. Finally, a method to predict event soil loss was developed. Measurement variability decreased as the mean increased above a threshold value but it was low also for low values of the measured variable. The mean soil loss predicted by the USLE was lower than the measured value by 48%. The annual values of the soil erodibility factor varied by seven times whereas the mean monthly values varied between 1% and 244% of the mean annual value. The event unit plot soil loss was directly proportional to an erosivity index equal to , being QRRe the runoff ratio times the single storm erosion index. It was concluded that a relatively low number of replicates of the variable of interest may be collected to estimate the mean for both high and particularly low values of the variable. The USLE with the mean annual soil erodibility factor may be applied to estimate the order of magnitude of the mean soil loss but it is not usable to estimate soil loss at shorter temporal scales. The relationship for estimating the event soil loss is a modified version of the USLE-M, given that it includes an exponent for the QRRe term. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Jason M. Ward
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) was assessed for reducing sediment transport from concentrated overland flow draining two Georgia Piedmont clearcuts that had undergone mechanical and chemical site preparation and planting. Silt fences were used to trap sediment transport from zero-order ephemeral swales at the edge of and within SMZs. Four control swales and nine treatment swales were studied. A double mass curve approach was used to graphically compare sediment accumulation rates at the edge of SMZs to accumulation rates within the SMZs at a distance consistent with current recommendations for SMZ width in Georgia. SMZ efficiencies for trapping sediment transported by concentrated flow ranged from 71 to 99 percent. No statistical model was found to explain how SMZ efficiencies varied with SMZ and contributing area characteristics. Measured sediment accumulations at the SMZ boundary were compared to Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) predictions of up- slope erosion, and a delivery ratio of 0.25 was calculated. SMZs had a quantifiable and substantial ameliorating effect on sediment transport from concentrated overland flow on the clearcut study sites. [source]

    Using GIS and a digital elevation model to assess the effectiveness of variable grade flow diversion terraces in reducing soil erosion in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada

    Qi Yang
    Abstract Flow diversion terraces (FDT) are commonly used beneficial management practice (BMP) for soil conservation on sloped terrain susceptible to water erosion. A simple GIS-based soil erosion model was designed to assess the effectiveness of the FDT system under different climatic, topographic, and soil conditions at a sub-basin level. The model was used to estimate the soil conservation support practice factor (P -factor), which inherently considered two major outcomes with its implementation, namely (1) reduced slope length, and (2) sediment deposition in terraced channels. A benchmark site, the agriculture-dominated watershed in northwestern New Brunswick (NB), was selected to test the performance of the model and estimated P -factors. The estimated P -factors ranged from 0·38,1·0 for soil conservation planning objectives and ranged from 0·001 to 0·45 in sediment yield calculations for water-quality assessment. The model estimated that the average annual sediment yield was 773 kg ha,1 yr ,1 compared with a measured value of 641 kg ha,1 yr,1. The P -factors estimated in this study were comparable with predicted values obtained with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE2). The P -factors from this study have the potential to be directly used as input in hydrological models, such as the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), or in soil conservation planning where only conventional digital elevation models (DEMs) are available. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of truck traffic and road water content on sediment delivery from unpaved forest roads

    Gary J. Sheridan
    Abstract A study investigated the effect of truck-traffic intensity and road water-content on the quality of runoff water from unsealed forest roads. Three sections of a gravel-surfaced forest road were instrumented and exposed to low and high levels of truck traffic during wet winter conditions and dry summer conditions between July 2001 and December 2002. Rainfall, runoff, road moisture, and traffic were measured continuously, and suspended and bedload sediments were integrated measurements over 2-week site-service intervals. The median suspended sediment concentration from the three road segments under low truck-traffic conditions (less than nine return truck passes prior to a storm) was 269 mg l,1, increasing 2·7-fold to a median of 725 mg l,1 under high truck-traffic conditions (greater than or equal to nine return truck passes prior to a storm). These concentrations, and increases due to traffic, are substantially less than most previously reported values. When these data are expressed as modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) erodibility values K, accounting for differences in rainfall energy, site characteristics and runoff, high traffic resulted in a road surface that was four times more erodible than the same road under low traffic conditions. Using multiple regression, traffic explained 36% of the variation in MUSLE erodibility, whereas road water content was not significant in the model. There was little difference in the erodibility of the road when trafficked in low water-content compared with high water-content conditions (MUSLE K values of 0·0084 versus 0·0080 respectively). This study shows that, for a good quality well-maintained gravel forest road, the level of truck traffic affects the sediment concentration of water discharging from the road, whereas the water content of the road at the time of that traffic does not (note that traffic is not allowed during runoff events in Victoria). These conclusions are conditional upon the road being adequately maintained so that trafficking does not compromise the lateral drainage of the road profile. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of soil erosion hazard and prioritization for treatment at the watershed level: Case study in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    W. Bewket
    Abstract Soil erosion by water is the most pressing environmental problem in Ethiopia, particularly in the Highlands where the topography is highly rugged, population pressure is high, steeplands are cultivated and rainfall is erosive. Soil conservation is critically required in these areas. The objective of this study was to assess soil erosion hazard in a typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) and demonstrate that a simple erosion assessment model, the universal soil loss equation (USLE), integrated with satellite remote sensing and geographical information systems can provide useful tools for conservation decision-making. Monthly precipitation, soil map, a 30-m digital elevation model derived from topographic map, land-cover map produced from supervised classification of a Land Sat image, and land use types and slope steepness were used to determine the USLE factor values. The results show that a larger part of the watershed (>58 per cent of total) suffers from a severe or very severe erosion risk (>80,t,ha,1,y,1), mainly in the midstream and upstream parts where steeplands are cultivated or overgrazed. In about 25 per cent of the watershed, soil erosion was estimated to exceed 125,t,ha,1,y,1. Based on the predicted soil erosion rates, the watershed was divided into six priority categories for conservation intervention and 18 micro-watersheds were identified that may be used as planning units. Finally, the method used has yielded a fairly reliable estimation of soil loss rates and delineation of erosion-prone areas. Hence, a similar method can be used in other watersheds to prepare conservation master plans and enable efficient use of limited resources. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    GIS-based rapid assessment of erosion risk in a small catchment in the wet/dry tropics of Australia

    G. Boggs
    Abstract Assessing the impact of various land uses on catchment erosion processes commonly requires in-depth research, monitoring and field data collection, as well as the implementation of sophisticated modelling techniques. This paper describes the evaluation of a geographic information system (GIS)-based rapid erosion assessment method, which allows the user to quickly acquire and evaluate existing data to assist in the planning of more detailed monitoring and modelling programmes. The rapid erosion assessment method is based on a simplified version of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE), and allows the rapid parameterization of the model from widely available land unit and elevation datasets. The rapid erosion assessment method is evaluated through the investigation of the effects of elevation data resolution on erosion predictions and field data validation. The use of raster digital elevation model (DEM)-derived data, as opposed to vector land unit relief data, was found to greatly improve the validity of the rapid erosion assessment method. Field validation of the approach, involving the comparison of predicted soil loss ratios with adjusted in-stream sediment yields on a subcatchment basis, indicated that with decreasing data resolution, the results are increasingly overestimated for larger catchments and underestimated for smaller catchments. However, the rapid erosion assessment method proved to be a valuable tool that is highly useful as an initial step in the planning of more detailed erosion assessments. Copyright © 2001 Commonwealth of Australia. [source]

    Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Sloping Land under Intense Cultivation in Southern Vietnam

    Abstract To help improve the well-being of the local people, a joint Vietnamese-UK team set out to establish a way of estimating soil and nutrient losses under different land management scenarios, using field data extrapolated through remote sensing and GIS, to obtain catchment-wide estimates of the impact of land cover change. Immigration from remote provinces to the Dong Phu District of Binh Phuóc Province, about 120 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, has led to disruption of soil surface stability on easily eroded clayey sandstones, creating rapid nutrient depletion that affects crop yields and siltation in the channel of the Rach Rat river downstream. The poor farmers of the areas see crop yields drop dramatically after two or three years of cultivation due to the fertility decline. Soil loss varies dramatically between wet season and dry season and with ground cover. Erosion bridge measurements showed a mean loss of 85.2 t ha,1 y,1 under cassava saplings with cashew nuts, 43.3 t ha,1 y,1 on uncultivated land and 41.7 t ha,1 y,1 under mature cassava. The rates of erosion were higher than those reported in many other parts of Vietnam, reflecting the high erodibility of the friable sandy soils on the steep side-slopes of the Rach Rat catchment. However, although the actual measurements provide better soil loss data than estimates based on the parameters of soil loss equations, a large number of measurement sites is needed to provide adequate coverage of the crop and slope combinations in this dissected terrain for good prediction using GIS and remote sensing. [source]