Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Skin

  • abdominal skin
  • ad skin
  • adult skin
  • affected skin
  • aged skin
  • ageing skin
  • animal skin
  • artificial skin
  • asian skin
  • atopic skin
  • black skin
  • buttock skin
  • canine skin
  • cheek skin
  • control skin
  • damaged skin
  • dark skin
  • diseased skin
  • dorsal skin
  • dry skin
  • ear skin
  • ex vivo human skin
  • exposed skin
  • eyelid skin
  • facial skin
  • fair skin
  • fish skin
  • forearm skin
  • glabrous skin
  • hairless mouse skin
  • hairy skin
  • healthy skin
  • human skin
  • intact skin
  • lesional psoriatic skin
  • lesional skin
  • light skin
  • mammalian skin
  • mouse skin
  • murine skin
  • neck skin
  • neonatal skin
  • non-lesional skin
  • nonlesional skin
  • normal human skin
  • normal skin
  • overlying skin
  • patient skin
  • penile skin
  • perilesional skin
  • photoaged skin
  • photodamaged skin
  • pig skin
  • pigmented skin
  • porcine skin
  • psoriatic skin
  • rabbit skin
  • rat skin
  • scalp skin
  • scrotal skin
  • sensitive skin
  • sun-damaged skin
  • sun-exposed skin
  • surrounding skin
  • the skin
  • treated skin
  • unaffected skin
  • under the skin
  • uninvolved skin
  • vitiliginous skin
  • vivo human skin

  • Terms modified by Skin

  • skin abnormality
  • skin abscess
  • skin absorption
  • skin ageing
  • skin aging
  • skin allograft
  • skin allograft survival
  • skin anesthesia
  • skin appearance
  • skin appendage
  • skin area
  • skin atrophy
  • skin barrier
  • skin barrier function
  • skin barrier impairment
  • skin biopsy
  • skin biopsy finding
  • skin biopsy sample
  • skin biopsy specimen
  • skin blood flow
  • skin blood flow response
  • skin burn
  • skin cancer
  • skin cancer incidence
  • skin cancer prevention
  • skin cancer risk
  • skin cancers
  • skin carcinogenesi
  • skin carcinoma
  • skin care
  • skin care products
  • skin care regimen
  • skin cell
  • skin change
  • skin cleansing products
  • skin closure
  • skin collagen
  • skin colonization
  • skin color
  • skin colour
  • skin colouration
  • skin component
  • skin condition
  • skin conductance
  • skin conductance level
  • skin conductance response
  • skin contact
  • skin contraction
  • skin cream
  • skin culture
  • skin damage
  • skin deep
  • skin defect
  • skin delivery
  • skin deposition
  • skin detachment
  • skin disease
  • skin diseases
  • skin disorder
  • skin disorders
  • skin dryness
  • skin effect
  • skin elasticity
  • skin epidermis
  • skin equivalent
  • skin erosion
  • skin eruption
  • skin erythema
  • skin examination
  • skin excision
  • skin explant
  • skin exposure
  • skin extract
  • skin feature
  • skin fibroblast
  • skin finding
  • skin flap
  • skin fold
  • skin friction
  • skin function
  • skin gland
  • skin graft
  • skin grafting
  • skin hardness
  • skin health
  • skin homeostasi
  • skin hydration
  • skin imaging
  • skin incision
  • skin infection
  • skin infections
  • skin inflammation
  • skin integrity
  • skin involvement
  • skin irritant
  • skin irritation
  • skin irritation potential
  • skin keratinocyte
  • skin laxity
  • skin layer
  • skin lesion
  • skin lesion excision
  • skin malignancy
  • skin manifestation
  • skin marker
  • skin mast cell
  • skin melanoma
  • skin metastase
  • skin microcirculation
  • skin model
  • skin models
  • skin mucus
  • skin necrosis
  • skin neoplasm
  • skin nodule
  • skin organ culture
  • skin patch
  • skin pattern
  • skin penetration
  • skin perfusion
  • skin permeability
  • skin permeation
  • skin ph
  • skin phenotype
  • skin physiology
  • skin pigmentation
  • skin prick test
  • skin prick testing
  • skin problem
  • skin property
  • skin protection
  • skin protein
  • skin rash
  • skin reaction
  • skin reactivity
  • skin redness
  • skin rejuvenation
  • skin response
  • skin resurfacing
  • skin roughness
  • skin sample
  • skin sclerosis
  • skin score
  • skin secretion
  • skin section
  • skin sensitivity
  • skin sensitization
  • skin sensitizer
  • skin site
  • skin specimen
  • skin squamous cell carcinoma
  • skin structure
  • skin substitute
  • skin surface
  • skin surface lipid
  • skin surface temperature
  • skin surface topography
  • skin surgery
  • skin symptom
  • skin syndrome
  • skin tag
  • skin temperature
  • skin test
  • skin test reactivity
  • skin test response
  • skin test result
  • skin testing
  • skin texture
  • skin thickening
  • skin thickness
  • skin tissue
  • skin tone
  • skin toxicity
  • skin transplantation
  • skin treatment
  • skin tumor
  • skin tumour
  • skin type
  • skin type i
  • skin type ii
  • skin type iii
  • skin type iv
  • skin ulcer
  • skin ulceration
  • skin wound
  • skin wound healing

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Collagen was extracted from the digestive tract and skin of a Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) by acid extraction and limited pepsin digestion. The amounts of collagen solubilized from the digestive tract were smaller than those from the skin. Based on the solubility in NaCl solution, electrophoretic and peptide map patterns, and amino acid composition, the main digestive tract collagen was identified as type I, having characteristics different from those of the body wall collagen in cyclostome intestine. Further, the degree of hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues in the type I collagen of the digestive tract is significantly higher than that of the skin. Collagen preparations from the digestive tract have a higher ratio of type V collagen than those from the skin. Hence, the digestive tract collagen differs from that in the skin in the degree or property of intermolecular crosslinking, posttranslational modification, and molecular species composition. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Partial hydrolyzate of gelatin, in other word collagen peptide, has gained popularity as a food ingredient, as it has been suggested to have health benefits, such as improvement of skin and joint conditions. Recently, attention toward collagen derived from marine origin such as fish skin increased because of the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Large amounts of the digestive tract, stomach, intestine and adhesion tissues are generated by fishery industries and most of them are by-products of low value. Although these organs are also rich in collagen, the collagen in fish digestive tract has not been characterized. The present study demonstrates that the collagen in digestive tract differs from the skin collagen in the solubility, posttranslational modification and molecular species composition. These facts suggest that modified collagen peptides might be obtained from the digestive tract. [source]


    ABSTRACT A major tyrosinase isoform was isolated from the cap skins of Portabella mushrooms after chromatography on DEAE cellulose and hydroxylapatite columns. The isolated enzyme had a pI of 4.3 and a subunit molecular weight of 48 kDa while the native size was estimated to be 43 kDa. Western blotting indicated that 48 and 26 kDa cross-reacting proteins were present in the isolated fraction. This tyrosinase isoform had a pH optimum of 7.0 and was most active with catechol, tert-butylcatechol, andpyrogallol as substrates. The enzyme was severely inhibited by erythorbic acid, glutathione, cysteine, tropolone, salicylhydroxamic acid, kcjic acid, and diethyldithiocarbamic acid, but little inhibition was observed using honey extracts, borax, resveratrol, cyclodextrins, or a copper chelating peptide. [source]


    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to determine the individual and combined effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and trisodium phosphate (TSP) antimicrobial treatments. Chicken-skin samples inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were separately dipped into sterile tap water, 10% TSP, 0.1% ASC, 0.1% ASC followed by 10% TSP and 10% TSP followed by 0.1% ASC for 15 s at 25C ± 1. On day 0, reductions were 1.4,1.6 log for S. Typhimurium and 1.1,2.1 log for S. aureus, while they were 1.8,2.9 and 0.7,1.7 log, respectively, on day 5 of storage. Results indicated that treatment with ASC solution alone was more effective than treatment with ASC and TSP solutions combined in reducing S. aureus populations on chicken skin during the entire storage period. Similarly, treatment with TSP solution alone was more effective than treatment with ASC and TSP solutions combined in reducing S. typhimurium populations on chicken skin on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage. [source]


    ABSTRACT Sensory analysis is a precise and descriptive measuring technique to quantify human responses to stimuli. Odor, one of these stimuli, is basically the result of the interaction between a chemical stimulus and the olfactory receptor system, which can be described using a number of different dimensions and measures through different sensory tests: threshold, intensity and quality. To measure fragrance performance on the skin, these parameters are very important, but the main attribute to be evaluated is substantivity, thus the importance of the sensory scale chosen to measure perception, discriminate different intensities and determine the substantivity of the fragrance. Some studies comparing the labeled magnitude scale (LMS) with other magnitude scales and their derivations showed that the use of the LMS scale to measure fragrance intensity could semantically understand the intensity of the stimulus. Tests using this scale confirmed the applicability and efficiency of the LMS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The objective of this article is to review the techniques used to measure odor and fragrance intensities applied on the skin. The review shows general sensory techniques and their goals, the newest olfactory mechanism and its contribution to sensory evaluation and which attributes should be considered to measure odor. Substantivity/retentivity or longevity can be regarded as the most important attributes if you want to measure fragrance performance on the skin. Past studies showed different scales tested to measure odor, and some of them demonstrated that the labeled magnitude scale is very suitable to measure fragrance on the skin. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2005
    Mechthild Fend
    This essay argues for the shared quality of skin and painting as signifying surfaces. When representing the surface of the body the artist engages with questions about the borders of the body and relations between the interior and the exterior. Portraits by Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres are considered in relation to several discursive fields: medical definitions of skin from the Enlightenment, nineteenth-century artistic anatomy and art theory. While David's rendering of skin is understood in terms of Xavier Bichat's definition of skin as a ,limite sensitive', the hermetically sealed and opaque skin of Ingres's figures negates contemporary notions of skin as a communicative membrane. Scientific knowledge notwithstanding, these very different approaches to the representation of skin may be seen as reflecting upon different ways to produce meaning as well as different conceptions of the body. Mechthild Fend is a research scholar at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, where she is working on a project on the history and representation of skin in late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France. Her recent books deal with the representation of masculinity: Männlichkeit im Blick. Visuelle Inszenierungen in der Kunst seit der Frühen Neuzeit (co-edited with Marianne Koos, Cologne, 2004), and Grenzen der Männlichkeit. Der Androgyn in der französischen Kunst und Kunsttheorie Zwischen Aufkl.arung und Restauration (Berlin, 2003). [source]


    Qi Zhang
    SUMMARY 1The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there was a cooperative interaction between substance P (SP) and glutamate (GLU) administered subcutaneously on A, and C primary afferent fibre activity in dorsal hairy skin of the rat in vivo. The single unit activities of A, and C afferent fibres were recorded by isolation of fibre filaments from the dorsal cutaneous nerve branches and the effects of subcutaneous injections of low doses of SP, GLU and SP + GLU on activity were determined. 2Sub-threshold doses of SP (1 µmol/L, 10 µL) administered subcutaneously into the dorsal hairy skin had no effect on the afferent discharges of either A, or C units. 3The afferent discharges of 35% (11/31) of A, fibres and 33% (6/18) of C fibres were increased by local injection of the submaximal doses of GLU (10 µmol/L, 10 µL) into the receptive fields. 4The GLU-induced excitatory response was significantly enhanced by coinjection of subthreshold doses of SP. The mean discharge rates of A, fibres and C fibres were increased from 5.84 ± 1.54 and 5.02 ± 2.65 impulses/min to 19.91 ± 4.35 and 17.58 ± 5.59 impulses/min, respectively, whereas the excitatory proportions of A, and C fibres were increased from 35 and 33% to 84 and 83%, respectively. The duration of the excitation for A, fibres and C fibres was also significantly increased after coinjection of SP + GLU compared with that observed when either substance was given alone. 5The present study provides electrophysiological evidence for an interaction between receptors for SP and GLU on the fine fibres activities in rat hairy skin, which may be involved in the mechanisms of hyperalgesia. [source]

    OEESC-2005 , Summing up on the theme Irritants and Wet Work

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2006
    Mari-Ann Flyvholm
    The aim of this paper was to summarize the presentations and discussions on the theme Irritants and Wet Work at the second conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposures of Skin to Chemicals held in Stockholm June 2005 (OEESC-2005) to bring the focus points to a broader group of professionals and stimulate further discussions. Occupational skin diseases are common diseases with a huge potential for prevention. The risk factors are mostly well known, and the ongoing high occurrence of occupational skin diseases may be seen as a paradox problem. Although all mechanisms involved in occupational skin diseases are not shown throughout, much is known. The existing knowledge justifies the relevance of reducing exposure and introducing prevention programmes. The questions identified for further research included an internationally agreed-upon definition of wet work; better methods to assess the exposure to wet work; the effect of combined exposure to water and water-soluble irritants; the importance of wet work with frequent/short wet,dry cycles versus working longer periods with wet hands; testing skin protection and skin care products; long-term skin effects from alcohol-based hand disinfectants; workplace testing of evidence-based prevention programmes in prospective randomized, controlled intervention studies. [source]

    A Comparison of Four Mohs Tissue Preparation Methods Using Porcine Skin

    OBJECTIVE Mohs surgery relies on high-quality, rapid tissue preparation and processing. This study evaluated four currently performed tissue preparation and processing methods for speed of processing and depth of cut into the tissue block to achieve a complete high-quality section. METHODS The following four methods were tested: cryoEMBEDDER, float, heat sink, and slide. Standardized specimens of porcine skin were used to ensure uniformity. We measured the time required for a technician to flatten, embed, and cut to the first complete section of each specimen. Additionally, we measured the depth in microns required to cut into an embedded specimen to achieve a complete section. RESULTS There were advantages and disadvantages of each method, and our findings suggest that the heat sink and float methods are more time efficient but that the slide and cryoEMBEDDER methods require less cutting into the specimen to obtain a complete section. The cryoEMBEDDER device used in this study was loaned by cryoEMBEDDER (Salt Lake City, Utah). [source]

    Re: Mathematical Modeling of Donor Skin,Sparing Full-Thickness Skin Grafts,Something Doesn't Add Up

    WANG QIANG MDArticle first published online: 30 MAR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Management of Carcinoma of the Skin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients with Oral Capecitabine

    First page of article [source]

    Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin: Observer-Blinded Evaluation by Dermatologists and Pathologists

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well-defined layering in OCT and PS-OCT images and dark lobules in BCC. Discrimination of AK from BCC had an error rate of 50% to 52%. CONCLUSION OCT features in NMSC are identified, but AK and BCC cannot be differentiated. OCT diagnosis is less accurate than clinical diagnosis, but high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, crucial for delineating tumor borders, was obtained. [source]

    A Microscopic and Biomechanical Study of Skin and Soft Tissue After Repeated Expansion

    BACKGROUND Conventional expansion inadequately restores damaged skin for patients with large areas of skin deficiency or who lack sources of normal skin. These patients require repeated skin expansions, but little is known about the outcomes of this procedure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microscopic changes and biomechanical properties of skin and soft tissue after repeated expansion. MATERIALS AND METHODS We prepared three groups of six pigs each: a conventional expansion group, a repeated expansion group, and a blank nonsurgical control group. We measured histology, ultrastructure, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stress,strain, stress relaxation, and stress strength. RESULTS Skin obtained after conventional expansion and repeated expansion was basically healthy, but the microscopic and biomechanical properties differed from those of nonexpanded skin, especially in the repeated expansion group. CONCLUSION Repeated skin expansion involves growth under stress, simultaneous injuries, and further repairs, with fibers showing more injury signs than cells. This article describes the microscopic changes and biomechanical properties that occur after repeated expansion. [source]

    Application of a New Intense Pulsed Light Device in the Treatment of Photoaging Skin in Asian Patients

    BACKGROUND Intense pulsed light (IPL) technology has long been used in the treatment of photoaging skin. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new IPL device in the treatment of photoaging skin in Asian patients. METHODS One hundred fifty-two Chinese women with photoaging skin were enrolled in this open-labeled study. Subjects received four IPL treatments at 3- to 4-week intervals. Changes of photoaging were evaluated using a global evaluation, an overall self-assessment, a Mexameter, and a Corneometer. RESULTS One hundred thirty-nine of 152 patients (91.44%) experienced a score decrease of 3 or 2 grades, according to the dermatologist. One hundred thirty-six of 152 patients (89.47%) rated their overall improvement as excellent or good. The mean skin melanin index (MI) and erythema index values deceased with each session. MI on forehead and EI on cheilion decreased most significantly. Adverse effects were limited to mild pain and transient erythema. CONCLUSION IPL treatment is a safe and effective method for photoaging skin in Asian patients. Adverse effects were minimal and acceptable. [source]

    Minimally Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars in Asian Skin: A Pilot Study

    BACKGROUND Atrophic scars are dermal depressions caused by collagen damage most commonly occurring after inflammatory acne vulgaris. There are little published data regarding the effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive lasers in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in darker skin types. OBJECTIVE The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-fluence 2,940-nm erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in Asian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine patients aged 19 to 45 years with mild to moderate atrophic facial scars and Skin Types IV and V were treated with topical anesthesia and one to two passes with an erbium:YAG laser two times at 1-month intervals. Treatment parameters were 6-mm spot size, fluence of 400 mJ, pulse duration of 300 ,s, and repetition rate of 2 Hz. RESULTS At 2 months after the last treatment, mild to moderate clinical improvement was noted in all patients compared to baseline. Treatment was well tolerated. Side effects consisted of posttreatment erythema, peeling, and crusting, which resolved within 1 to 2 weeks. There was no postinflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, blistering, or hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSION Low-fluence erbium:YAG facial resurfacing was effective and safe in patients with mild to moderately severe atrophic acne scarring. [source]

    Does Imiquimod Histologically Rejuvenate Ultraviolet Radiation,Damaged Skin?

    BACKGROUND Imiquimod (IMI) 5% is believed by some to result in an improved cosmetic appearance of chronically ultraviolet radiation (UV)-damaged skin. OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine what histologic and immunohistologic changes were present in actinically damaged skin after treatment with IMI. METHODS AND MATERIALS Pre- and posttherapy biopsies of 12 patients with histories of actinic keratoses were evaluated with routine histology and immunohistochemical stains including p53, p63, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-kit, and Factor XIIIa. RESULTS After IMI therapy there was less compact hyperkeratosis, a more uniform rete ridge pattern with a more ordered proliferation of the epidermis, and a decrease in sun-damaged melanocytes. The papillary dermis showed a more uniform cellularity, and there was increased cellularity within the area of solar elastosis. After therapy, staining for p53, p63, and PCNA was decreased within the epidermis; staining for c-kit was decreased but more uniform in the basal cell; and Factor XIIIa expression was increased within the papillary dermis with a more ordered pattern of staining. CONCLUSION These morphologic and immunohistochemical patterns may explain some of the improvement in overall skin appearance after IMI therapy and may be related to the spectrum of signaling pathways induced by the imidazoquinolines. [source]

    Nonmelanocytic Tumors of the Skin

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effect of Laser Resurfacing on p53 Expression in Photoaged Facial Skin

    BACKGROUND p53 overexpression has been reported in photoaged skin. Meanwhile, p53 gene mutations have been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of ultraviolet (UV) light,induced skin cancer. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate the effect of laser resurfacing on the epidermal thickness and expression of p53 in photoaged skin. METHODS Specimens were obtained from the facial skin of 10 patients before and after 3 months and 1 year of treatment using CO2 (five cases) and erbium (Er):YAG (five cases) lasers. Specimens were also obtained from six age-matched controls. These biopsies were used for routine histopathology, histometry, and p53 immunoperoxidase staining. RESULTS Both CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were found to induce a significant decrease in p53 expression in biopsies obtained after 3 months (p=.0004 and .002, respectively) followed by gradual increase (p=.01 in both groups). A significant increase (p<.01) in epidermal thickness was also observed after 1 year of resurfacing. This increase, however, is inversely correlated with the level of p53 expression in such patients. CONCLUSION The decrease in epidermal p53 expression after CO2 and Er:YAG lasers may account for some of the benefits of resurfacing on the epidermis, as well as prevention of actinic neoplasia by adjusting any disturbance in the proliferation/apoptosis balance observed in photoaged facial skin. [source]

    Letter: Lip Grafts,Mucous Membrane and Not Skin

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Skin: A Report of Two Cases Treated With Complete Microscopic Margin Control and Review of Literature

    First page of article [source]

    Effect of Cog Threads under Rat Skin

    Hyo Jook Jang MD
    Background. The aging face loses the tensile strength of structural integrity. Cog threads have been used recently to tighten lax skin and soft tissue. Objective. A comparative study of the effects of cog, monofilament, and multifilament threads under rat skin. Methods. Each cog, monofilament, and multifilament thread was inserted under the facial skin of a cadaver and the panniculus carnosus of rat dorsal skin. The maximum holding strength (MHS) of the thread and the tearing strength of the skin around the thread were measured with a tensiometer. The thickness of the capsule around the thread and the myofibroblasts was observed histologically. Results. In the cadaver, the MHS of the cog thread was 190.7 ± 65.6 g. It was greater than that of the monofilament (22.4 ± 7.7 g) or multifilament (40.4 ± 19.7 g) thread. In the rat, the MHS of the cog thread was 95.1 ± 18.8 g. It was greater than that of the monofilament (4.3 ± 1.3 g) or multifilament (10.9 ± 2.1 g) thread in the second week. The thickness of the capsule around the cog thread was 93.0 ± 3.2 ,m. It was thicker than the monofilament thread's capsule, 39.2 ± 12.1 ,m, in the fourth week. The number of myofibroblasts presented significantly more in the cog (96.0 ± 72.4) than in the monofilament thread (4.3 ± 4.4). The rumpled in-between skin suspended by each of the three different threads returned to its original state in 2 weeks. Conclusion. The cog thread placed under the rat skin immediately pulled the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The myofibroblasts around the thread played a role in fibrous tissue contracture 4 weeks postinsertion of the thread. These findings could be the basis for clinical application. THIS STUDY WAS SUPPORTED BY A GRANT FROM THE KOREA HEALTH 21 R&D PROJECT, MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND WELFARE, REPUBLIC OF KOREA. [source]

    Nonablative Laser Surgery for Pigmented Skin

    David J. Goldberg MD
    Background. Nonablative laser surgery has been proven to improve early photodamaged skin and acne scars. These techniques include treatments with lasers, light sources, and/or radiofrequency devices. Objectives. To review the history of nonablative technology and its applicability to darker skin types and to provide an objective look at the various published studies documenting the efficacy of nonablative technology. Conclusion. Nonablative laser surgery can improve skin quality and acne scars in all skin types. Complications are rare but can occur. Future studies are required to compare the efficacy of the various nonablative technologies. DAVID J. GOLDBERG, MD, HAS INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Novel Approach to the Treatment of Hyperpigmented Photodamaged Skin: 4% Hydroquinone/0.3% Retinol versus Tretinoin 0.05% Emollient Cream

    Zoe Diana Draelos MD
    Background. Mild to moderately photodamaged skin is characterized by dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness. An optimal approach to the topical treatment of photoaging would simultaneously address all appearance issues. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 4% hydroquinone and 0.3% retinol in photoaging. Materials and Methods. A 16-week study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a single cream containing prescription topical 4% hydroquinone for dyspigmentation and the cosmeceutical 0.3% retinol for fine wrinkles in an emollient vehicle for tactile roughness. This novel formulation was compared with 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream, the standard against which all other topical photoaging treatments are compared. Investigator assessments, subject assessments, and photography represented the evaluation end points. Results. The cosmeceutical emollient 4% hydroquinone/0.3% retinol cream more effectively diminished the collective signs of photodamage than 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream in terms of dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness in 16 weeks. Conclusion. Combination therapy of hydroquinone and retinol may improve photoaging-associated hyperpigmentation. THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AS PART OF A RESEARCH GRANT FROM MEDICIS THE DERMATOLOGY COMPANY, PHOENIX, ARIZONA. DR. DRAELOS HAS NO FINANCIAL INTEREST IN ANY OF THE MEDICATIONS DISCUSSED IN THIS RESEARCH. [source]

    Nonablative 1450-nm Diode Laser in the Treatment of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars in Type IV to V Asian Skin: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Sze-Hon Chua MRCP (UK)
    Background. There is presently little published data on the clinical effectiveness of nonablative lasers in the treatment of atrophic acne scars and the safety of their use in patients with darker skin types. Objective. This study aims to determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of the nonablative 1450 nm diode laser with cryogen cooling spray in the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars in Type IV-V Asian skin. Methods. This is a prospective non-comparative open study. 4 to 6 laser treatment sessions were performed on patients with atrophic acne scars. Final clinical assessment was performed 6 months after the last treatment. Results. 57 patients were evaluated. Patient's self-assessment of scar improvement as compared with doctor's assessment was as follows: patients who completed 4 treatments (15.7% vs 6.6%), patients who completed 5 treatments (20% vs 7.9%) and patients those who completed 6 treatments (17.3% vs 5.0%). Main side effects were mild to moderate pain during the procedure, transient erythema, and hyperpigmentation which occurred in 39% of treated patients. Conclusion. The nonablative 1450 nm diode laser may be effective in achieving mild to moderate gradual clinical improvement in the treatment of facial atrophic acne scars. The procedure is associated with minimal downtime and is safe for use in darker skin types IV and V. [source]

    Combination Surgical Lifting with Ablative Laser Skin Resurfacing of Facial Skin: A Retrospective Analysis

    Tina S. Alster MD
    Background. Cutaneous aging is manifested by rhytides, dyschromias, and skin laxity. Ablative laser skin resurfacing can effectively improve many signs of skin aging; however, the photoaged patient with facial laxity often requires a surgical lifting procedure in order to obtain optimal results. Concerns with delayed or impaired wound healing has led to reluctance to perform both procedures simultaneously. Objective. To report the clinical results and side effect profiles after concomitant surgical facial lifting procedures and ablative carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in a series of patients. Methods. A retrospective analysis and chart review was performed in 34 consecutive patients who underwent combination CO2 or erbium:YAG laser skin resurfacing and surgical lifting procedures, including S-lift rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, and brow lift. Side effects and complication rates were tabulated. Results. The side effect profile of the combined surgical-laser procedures was similar to that reported after a laser-only procedure. The most common side effect was transient hyperpigmentation which occurred in 20.6% of treated patients. None of the patients experienced delayed reepithelialization, skin necrosis, or prolonged healing times. Conclusions. Concurrent laser skin resurfacing and surgical lifting of facial skin maximizes aesthetic results without increased incidence of adverse effects. Patients benefit from the consolidation of anesthesia and convalescent times as well as enhanced global clinical outcomes. [source]

    Intense Pulsed Light Treatment of Photoaged Facial Skin

    Douglas E. Kligman MD
    Background. It has been reported that intense pulsed light is efficacious for rejuvenation of photoaged skin, specifically the improvement of appearance of telangiectases and solar lentigines. Objective. The objective was to define the treatment variables for photodamaged facial skin using a newer intense pulsed light system. Methods. Twenty-three female subjects received three treatments using double-stacked pulses with fluences of 24 and 30 J/cm2. Response to treatment was evaluated using digital photography. Three signs of photoaging were evaluated: surface texture/roughness, mottled hyperpigmentation, and erythema/telangiectases. Results. There was a shift in clinical grading from more to less severe on all three measures of photoaging. Conclusion. Intense pulsed light therapy was efficacious in ameliorating the clinical signs of photoaging. The device was well tolerated with minimal side effects. [source]

    Dermoscopic Features of Mucinous Carcinoma of the Skin

    Rie Yoshida
    Background. Dermoscopic features of nonpigmented skin lesions are seldom reported; dermoscopy might be useful in speculating pathologic features in the upper dermis. Objective. The objective was to identify additional dermoscopic criteria. Methods. Dermoscopy of the mucinous carcinoma of the skin occurring on the cheek of a 69-year-old man was performed. Results. We have shown characteristic dermoscopic features of whitish network and light-brown globules and they correspond to the pathologic findings of fibrous septum and mucinous deposition, respectively. Discussion. Dermoscopic examination seemed useful as an adjunct to the diagnosis of this rare nonpigmented malignant neoplasm. [source]

    Ocular Melanoma Metastatic to Skin: The Value of HMB-45 Staining

    Robert A. Schwartz MD
    Background: Cutaneous metastatic disease is an important finding that may represent the first sign of systemic cancer, or, if already known, that may change tumor staging and thus dramatically altered therapeutic plans. Although cutaneous metastases are relatively frequent in patients with cutaneous melanoma, they are less so from ocular melanoma. Objective: To demonstrate the value of HMB-45, staining in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Methods: The immunohistochemical stain HMB-45 a monoclonal antibody directed against intact human melanoma cells, was employed on a skin biopsy specimen from a cutaneous tumor. Results: HMB-45 staining was positive in the atypical hyperchromatic cells of the deep dermis. Conclusion: HMB-45 may be of value in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastatic disease is a somewhat common and extremely important diagnosis. Although cutaneous metastases from cutaneous melanoma are relatively frequent, those from ocular melanomas are less so. Use of histochemical staining, especially the HMB-45 stain, allows confirmation of the diagnosis. [source]

    Noninvasive Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty: A New Technique Using Nonablative Radiofrequency on Periorbital Skin

    Javier Ruiz-esparza MDArticle first published online: 3 FEB 200
    Background. Laxity and rhytids of the lower eyelids are common cosmetic concerns. Historically, correction has either been surgical through either transcutaneous or transconjunctival blepharoplasty or ablative through laser resurfacing or chemical peeling. Therapeutic options usually require significant postoperative healing and have the potential risk of scarring ectropion or pigmentary loss. Objective. To report the use of a new technique that uses nonablative radiofrequency (NARF) to tighten noninvasively and nonsurgically the flaccid skin of the lower eyelids by treating the periorbital area to produce cosmetic improvement. Methods. Nine patients with skin flaccidity of the lower eyelids had a single treatment session with NARF in a small area of skin in the periorbital region, specifically the zygomatic and/or temporal areas. All patients were treated with topical anesthesia only. The treatment lasted approximately 10 minutes. No postoperative care was required. Results. All of the nine patients in the study achieved cosmetic improvement of the eyelids ostensibly through skin contraction. All patients were able to return to their normal routines immediately. Although the results were gradual, patient satisfaction was remarkable. No complications were seen in this study. Conclusion. This new procedure using NARF was successful in providing a safe, noninvasive, cosmetic improvement in these patients with excessive skin laxity of the lower eyelids. Postoperative morbidity, including down time and complications, was not seen. [source]

    The Surgical Looking Glass: A Readily Available Safeguard Against Eye Splash Injury/Contamination During Infiltration of Anesthesia for Cysts and Other "Porous" Lesions of the Skin

    Patrick R. Carrington MD
    Background. "Breaks" in barrier precautions are a definite abrogating influence on the effectiveness of "universal precautions." Dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons are exposed to significant infectious agents on a daily basis, especially due to the high number of minor surgical procedures performed. Backsplash, spray, and eye splash of bodily fluids during these procedures place the surgeon at a high risk of contamination/infection via the conjunctival membranes. The surgical looking glass is a simple utility based on inexpensive equipment already in place in the physician's office which protects the eyes and face during infiltrative anesthesia or incision of cysts and other lesions. Objective. To offer a simple and inexpensive utility to assist with protection from and reduction of contamination/infection of the ocular mucous membranes during surgical procedures. Methods. Utilizing one or two readily available microscope slides overlying the injection site during local infiltrative anesthesia, backsplash or spray can be contained. Results. This utility is effective in containment of backsplash or spray of anesthesia or bodily fluids during even minor surgical procedures. Conclusion. The surgical looking glass can enhance safety and promote "universal precautions" during even minor surgical procedures or infiltration of anesthesia into more porous areas or lesions for the practicing dermatologist or dermatologic surgeon. The pragmatic, practical, and inexpensive nature of the surgical looking glass invites its use on a daily basis by the practicing dermatologist. [source]

    Mucoepidermoid/Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Skin: Presentation of Two Cases

    Darlene S. Johnson MD
    Background. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a relatively common neoplasm of the major and minor salivary glands comprising 10,30% of primary carcinomas. They may involve the skin through direct extension, metastases, and rarely, as a primary focus (adenosquamous carcinoma). Objective. To discuss through case reports, the nomenclature, histology, clinical course, and treatment of mucoepidermoid/adenosquamous carcinoma. Methods. We present a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma primary to an upper eyelid accessory lacrimal gland with direct cutaneous extension and a case of primary cutaneous adenosquamous carcinoma of the scalp. Results. An eyelid neoplasm of lacrimal origin was initially treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), requiring an orbital exenteration to achieve a tumorfree plane. In the second case, a primary scalp lesion was cleared with MMS. Neither patient has had local recurrence or metastases. Conclusion. Correct diagnosis is crucial to pursuing adequate treatment for this aggressive neoplasm. We support the use of MMS to achieve local control. [source]