Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Skills

  • academic skill
  • advanced skill
  • appraisal skill
  • appropriate skill
  • assessment skill
  • attention skill
  • basic skill
  • behavioral skill
  • behavioural skill
  • business skill
  • care skill
  • clinical reasoning skill
  • clinical skill
  • coaching skill
  • cognitive skill
  • communication skill
  • communicative skill
  • comprehension skill
  • computer skill
  • coping skill
  • core skill
  • critical appraisal skill
  • critical skill
  • critical thinking skill
  • diagnostic skill
  • different skill
  • driving skill
  • early literacy skill
  • employee skill
  • essential skill
  • examination skill
  • existing skill
  • fine motor skill
  • foraging skill
  • forecast skill
  • functional skill
  • generic skill
  • good communication skill
  • good skill
  • hand skill
  • important skill
  • individual skill
  • interaction skill
  • interpersonal skill
  • it skill
  • key skill
  • laboratory skill
  • language skill
  • leadership skill
  • life skill
  • literacy skill
  • management skill
  • managerial skill
  • manipulative skill
  • manual skill
  • market timing skill
  • mathematical skill
  • memory skill
  • metacognitive skill
  • motor skill
  • necessary skill
  • new skill
  • non-technical skill
  • nursing skill
  • organizational skill
  • other skill
  • parenting skill
  • perceptual skill
  • personal skill
  • phonological skill
  • physical examination skill
  • physician communication skill
  • political skill
  • practical skill
  • problem solving skill
  • problem-solving skill
  • procedural skill
  • process skill
  • processing skill
  • professional skill
  • psychomotor skill
  • psychosocial skill
  • reading comprehension skill
  • reading skill
  • reasoning skill
  • recognition skill
  • requisite skill
  • research skill
  • resuscitation skill
  • same skill
  • searching skill
  • self-management skill
  • social skill
  • soft skill
  • solving skill
  • spatial skill
  • specific skill
  • spelling skill
  • stress management skill
  • student skill
  • study skill
  • surgical skill
  • teaching skill
  • team skill
  • teamwork skill
  • technical skill
  • technology skill
  • thinking skill
  • timing skill
  • transferable skill
  • writing skill

  • Terms modified by Skills

  • skill acquisition
  • skill area
  • skill assessment
  • skill component
  • skill course
  • skill deficit
  • skill development
  • skill examination
  • skill formation
  • skill groups
  • skill laboratory
  • skill learning
  • skill level
  • skill mix
  • skill necessary
  • skill need
  • skill performance
  • skill premium
  • skill requirement
  • skill score
  • skill set
  • skill shortage
  • skill test
  • skill training
  • skill training program
  • skill used
  • skill utilization
  • skill workshop

  • Selected Abstracts


    Ivan T. Kandilov
    ABSTRACT Using county-level data from the 1980s and 1990s and a county-level trade measure that incorporates the county's industrial mix and patterns of international trade across industries, I provide new evidence that trade with developing countries raises the demand for skill and the skill premium in the U.S. Consistent with Heckscher,Ohlin, I find that trade driven by differences in factor endowments has an economically significant impact on local labor markets. The evidence suggests that when trade with developing countries rises, counties with higher skill endowment and greater employment in industries with larger trade shares experience greater relative demand for high-skilled labor. [source]


    This study evaluated the utility of generic teamwork skills training for enhancing the effectiveness of action teams. Results from 65 4-person action teams working on an interdependent command and control simulator revealed that generic teamwork skills training had a significant and positive impact on both cognitive and skill-based outcomes. Trained team members evidenced higher levels of declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies and demonstrated greater proficiency in the areas of planning and task coordination, collaborative problem-solving, and communication. Furthermore, results indicated that cognitive and skill based outcomes were interrelated. Team members' declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies positively affected planning and task coordination, collaborative problem solving, and communication skills. However, we found that the effects of declarative knowledge differed across team members depending on their roles and responsibilities. The team benefited the most from the knowledge held by the team member who occupied the most critical position in the workflow. Implications of these findings for future research and practice are discussed. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2008
    This article examines whether noncognitive skills,measured both by personality traits and by economic preference parameters,influence cognitive tests' performance. The basic idea is that noncognitive skills might affect the effort people put into a test to obtain good results. We experimentally varied the rewards for questions in a cognitive test to measure to what extent people are sensitive to financial incentives. To distinguish increased mental effort from extra time investments, we also varied the questions' time constraints. Subjects with favorable personality traits such as high performance motivation and an internal locus of control perform relatively well in the absence of rewards, consistent with a model in which trying as hard as you can is the best strategy. In contrast, favorable economic preference parameters (low discount rate, low risk aversion) are associated with increases in time investments when incentives are introduced, consistent with a rational economic model in which people only invest when there are monetary returns. The main conclusion is that individual behavior at cognitive tests depends on noncognitive skills. (JEL J20, J24) [source]


    This study employs structured interviews in a field setting to develop an in-depth understanding of how a specific human resource decision affected manufacturing performance at 30 plants using advanced manufacturing technologies. Initial results suggested that there is no relationship between the skill level of operational employees and the level of performance of the installations. When a measure of "fit" between environmental characteristics and skills was employed, however, there was a significant relationship between the fit measure and performance. [source]

    Creating and Justifying Research and Development Value: Scope, Scale, Skill and Social Networking of R&D

    Aard J. Groen
    In this paper we describe a framework for analysing the creation and justification of Research & Development. The 4S framework is developed for analysing the scope, scale, skills and social network aspects of Research & Development value. The framework is based on social system theory, a process contingency model, and recent Research & Development metrics. We present a first empirical assessment based on a workshop using the 4S framework for leveraging Research & Development. Results that assist in the assessment of value creation utilising R & D within networks are very relevant in high tech industries. The multi,dimensional process approach of this framework seems promising for understanding and managing R&D value creation, but needs further operationalisation. Case studies are described and a Dutch network on leveraging R&D has been initiated. [source]

    Use of Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Statements in Developing Licensure and Certification Examinations

    Ning Wang
    The task inventory approach is commonly used in job analysis for establishing content validity evidence supporting the use and interpretation of licensure and certification examinations. Although the results of a task inventory survey provide job task-related information that can be used as a reliable and valid source for test development, it is often the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required for performing the tasks, rather than the job tasks themselves, which are tested by licensure and certification exams. This article presents a framework that addresses the important role of KSAs in developing and validating licensure and certification examinations. This includes the use of KSAs in linking job task survey results to the test content outline, transferring job task weights to test specifications, and eventually applying the results to the development of the test items. The impact of using KSAs in the development of test specifications is illustrated from job analyses for two diverse professions. One method for transferring job task weights from the job analysis to test specifications through KSAs is also presented, along with examples. The two examples demonstrated in this article are taken from nursing certification and real estate licensure programs. However, the methodology for using KSAs to link job tasks and test content is also applicable in the development of teacher credentialing examinations. [source]

    The Poetry of Melesina Trench: A Growing Skill at Sorrow

    First page of article [source]

    A Model to Describe the Relationship Between Knowledge, Skill, and Judgment in Nursing Practice

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2006
    PNC(C), PhD(c), Robin J. Evans BScN
    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge, skill, and judgment and proposes a model to describe that relationship. Through illustration of the components and interrelationships within this model one can more clearly understand the nature of nursing work. Drawing on Benner's work on novice to expert, the model shows the interrelationship and the evolution of knowledge, skill, and judgment in a nurse's practice. [source]

    Empathy: A Timeless Skill for the Pain Medicine Toolbox

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2006
    MPH Editor-in-Chief, Pain Medicine, Rollin M. Gallagher MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Presidential Leadership: Skill in Context

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 2 2002
    Erwin C. Hargrove
    The essay illustrates the value of studying individual presidents consecutively across time in order to compare and assess the relative importance of personal political skill in political and historical contexts. The presidency is the primary source of moral agency in American politics, and policy and agency occur in the leadership of individuals. An analytic framework to compare presidents encompasses the historical context; the skill factor; leadership strategies and tactics; and the assessment of results of skill in contexts. Use of the framework will permit systematic comparison of presidents in relation to the ad hoc ahistorical comparisons that permeate journalism and some scholarship. Narratives of leadership in domestic, economic, and foreign policy are presented for presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton. This approach achieves an understanding of presidential leadership that cannot be achieved by work that bemoans the small N and focuses on pieces of the presidential institution, without including the president, because the dynamics of leadership shape the institution more than the reverse. Among the conclusions are that skill and context reinforce each other in policy achievement; skill can be effective at the margins, even in unfavorable contexts; ineptness makes a difference for the worse; and cumulative presidents may resolve policy problems across time as each contributes a step on the way. [source]

    Luck versus Skill in the Cross-Section of Mutual Fund Returns

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 5 2010
    ABSTRACT The aggregate portfolio of actively managed U.S. equity mutual funds is close to the market portfolio, but the high costs of active management show up intact as lower returns to investors. Bootstrap simulations suggest that few funds produce benchmark-adjusted expected returns sufficient to cover their costs. If we add back the costs in fund expense ratios, there is evidence of inferior and superior performance (nonzero true ,) in the extreme tails of the cross-section of mutual fund , estimates. [source]

    Knowledge, Skill, and the Inculcation of the Anthropologist: Reflections on Learning to Sew in the Field

    Rebecca Prentice
    Abstract This article explores employment as a mode of participant observation, by analyzing the complex relationship between skill acquisition, embodiment, and anthropological analysis. It highlights the importance of thinking critically about the body, including the ethnographer's own body in the field. I describe working in a garment factory and learning to sew as part of my doctoral research on the garment industry in Trinidad, West Indies. I argue that disciplining the body into a particular craft is also a process of incorporating (or "taking into the body") the ideologies of work that structure skill's meaning and practice. By describing my own difficulties "disembodying" what I learned in the field (in order to intellectualize the experience) I show how learning practical skills and enacting them everyday can be both a vigorous and perilous form of ethnographic research. [source]

    Skill of statistical interpretation forecasting system during monsoon season in India

    Ashok Kumar
    Abstract An evaluation of statistical interpretation(SI) forecast skill for rainfall and maximum/minimum temperature during monsoon season (June,September) is presented. A brief description of the methodology used for SI forecast and data used is also given. The skill of SI forecast is calculated during 1999, monsoon and has been found encouraging. Copyright 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    What Happens After the Age of 14?

    Complex Learning Difficulties, Mapping Transitions for Pupils with Profound
    This article reports on part one of a three-part national survey of provision for pupils aged 14 and older, in England and Wales, who have profound and complex learning difficulties. The survey is part of the Enhancing the Quality of Life (EqoL), a three-year research project jointly awarded to Skill: the National Bureau for Students with Disabilities, and the University of Cambridge School of Education. The aim of the project is to construct a framework for learning which will support improvements in the quality of life for these young people. It is funded by the National Lottery Charities Board. [source]

    Family Risk of Dyslexia Is Continuous: Individual Differences in the Precursors of Reading Skill

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2003
    Margaret J. Snowling
    The development of 56 children at family risk of dyslexia was followed from the age of 3 years, 9 months to 8 years. In the high-risk group, 66% had reading disabilities at age 8 years compared with 13% in a control group from similar, middle-class backgrounds. However, the family risk of dyslexia was continuous, and high-risk children who did not fulfil criteria for reading impairment at 8 years performed as poorly at age 6 as did high-risk impaired children on tests of grapheme,phoneme knowledge. The findings are interpreted within an interactive model of reading development in which problems in establishing a phonological pathway in dyslexic families may be compensated early by children who have strong language skills. [source]

    Tactics-Based Behavioural Planning for Goal-Driven Rigid Body Control

    Stefan Zickler
    Computer Graphics [I.3.7]: Animation-Artificial Intelligence; [I.2.8]: Plan execution, formation, and generation; Computer Graphics [I.3.5]: Physically based modelling Abstract Controlling rigid body dynamic simulations can pose a difficult challenge when constraints exist on the bodies' goal states and the sequence of intermediate states in the resulting animation. Manually adjusting individual rigid body control actions (forces and torques) can become a very labour-intensive and non-trivial task, especially if the domain includes a large number of bodies or if it requires complicated chains of inter-body collisions to achieve the desired goal state. Furthermore, there are some interactive applications that rely on rigid body models where no control guidance by a human animator can be offered at runtime, such as video games. In this work, we present techniques to automatically generate intelligent control actions for rigid body simulations. We introduce sampling-based motion planning methods that allow us to model goal-driven behaviour through the use of non-deterministic,Tactics,that consist of intelligent, sampling-based control-blocks, called,Skills. We introduce and compare two variations of a Tactics-driven planning algorithm, namely behavioural Kinodynamic Rapidly Exploring Random Trees (BK-RRT) and Behavioural Kinodynamic Balanced Growth Trees (BK-BGT). We show how our planner can be applied to automatically compute the control sequences for challenging physics-based domains and that is scalable to solve control problems involving several hundred interacting bodies, each carrying unique goal constraints. [source]

    Skills needed to help communities manage natural resource conflicts

    Loretta Singletary
    Competition for natural resources has spawned unprecedented conflict between users, resulting in litigious and legislative actions. Citizens often expect Cooperative Extension professionals to engage communities in collaborative processes to manage these conflicts. This paper examines thirty-five skills Cooperative Extension professionals need if they are to engage communities in collaborative processes. Survey methodology is used to assess the skills extension professionals perceive as most needed, and the ranked means of the perceived skill needs are presented. The results offer information useful to strengthen the capacity of extension professionals to play an important role in helping citizens manage natural resource conflicts. [source]

    Conflict resolution and bully prevention: Skills for school success

    Roberta A. Heydenberk
    In a two-year study, 673 elementary students participated in a bully prevention program that included seven training sessions introducing affective vocabulary, social and emotional literacy, and Conflict resolution skills. Treatment groups showed statistically significant gains on the Conflict resolution subscale of the standardized instrument employed. No gains were found in the comparison groups. A decrease in bullying and an increased sense of safety were indicated from student and staff questionnaire responses. [source]

    Increasing Self-Management Skills in Heart Failure Patients: A Pilot Study

    Kristin J. Flynn PhD
    Nonadherence to medical treatment among heart failure patients is high and results in frequent exacerbations and premature death. This treatment-only pilot study examined whether a year-long group-based self-management intervention is feasible and improves self-management skills in patients with mild-to-moderate heart failure (ejection fraction ,40% and New York Heart Association functional class I, II, or III). A total of 31 of 100 recruited patients (31%) agreed to participate. Twenty-six (84%) completed the year-long self-management program. Compared with baseline, the intervention was associated with an increase in overall self-efficacy in practicing self-management skills (p<0.001) and in four of five specific self-management skills. Patients and their group leaders also reported an increase in actual use of self-management skills (p<0.001) and in several psychosocial outcomes. The success of this pilot study suggests the need for a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of group-based self-management training on medical outcomes. [source]

    The manualization of a treatment programme for personality disorder

    Mary McMurran
    Background The advantages of manualized psychological treatments include: the promotion of evidence-based practice, the enhancement of treatment integrity, the facilitation of staff training, and the potential replicability of treatment. Argument The manualization of a multi-component, multidisciplinary treatment programme for male personality-disordered offenders is described. The background to this development is explained and the treatment setting is described briefly, followed by a description of the eight treatment manuals: (1) the treatment overview, (2) Psychoeducation focusing on personality disorder diagnosis and core beliefs, (3) Trust and Self-awareness group exercises, (4) Stop & Think! - a social problem-solving intervention, (5) Controlling Angry Aggression, (6) Controlling Substance Use, (7) Criminal Thinking/Belief Therapy, and (8) Skills for Living - a social skills manual. Conclusions In addition to the original aims of manualization, this exercise has clarified the treatment programme, included less highly trained staff in the delivery of therapy and permitted the evaluation of treatment modules, thus contributing to the incremental evaluation of the overall programme. These manuals may usefully be shared with other practitioners in the field. Copyright 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Gazing at the Hand: A Foucaultian View of the Teaching of Manipulative Skills to Introductory Chemistry Students in the United States and the Potential for Transforming Laboratory Instruction

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT Many studies of chemistry have described the rise of the academic chemical laboratory and laboratory skills in the United States as a result of famous men, important discoveries, and international influences. What is lacking is a perspective of the manifestations of the balances of power and knowledge between teacher and student. A Foucaultian analysis of the teaching of manipulative skills to the introductory student in high school and college in the United States during the later half of the 19th and into the 20th century has provided such a perspective. The analysis focuses on the body, specifically students' hands, and how this body has been redescribed in terms of time, space, activity, and their combinations. It is argued in the first part of this article that the teaching of manipulative skills in the chemistry laboratory can be characterized by effects of differential forms of power and knowledge, such as those provided by Foucault's ideas of hierarchical observation, normalization, and the examination. Moreover, it is evident that disciplinary techniques primarily focused on the physical hands of the student have been recast to include a new cognitive-physiological space in which the teaching of manipulative skills currently takes place. In the second part of this article, the author describes his own professional development as a laboratory instructor through a series of reflective statements that are critiqued from a Foucaultian perspective. The personal narratives are presented in order to pro- vide science educators with an alternative way for their students to think about the relationship between one's manipulative skills and the quality of their data. The pedagogical approach is related to the maturation process of the chemist and contextualized in the current paradigm of laboratory practice, inquiry-based science education. [source]

    An Exploratory Analysis of the Value of the Skills of IT Personnel: Their Relationship to IS Infrastructure and Competitive Advantage

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 1 2001
    Terry Anthony Byrd
    Abstract Determining and assessing the requisite skills of information technology (IT) personnel have become critical as the value of IT has risen in modern organizations. In addition to technical skills traditionally expected of IT personnel, softer skills like managerial, business, and interpersonal skills have been increasingly cited in previous studies as mandatory for these employees. This paper uses a typology of IT personnel skills,technology management skills, business functional skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills,and investigates their relationships to two information systems (IS) success variables, IS infrastructure flexibility and the competitive advantage provided by IS. The study investigates these relationships using the perceptions of chief information officers (CIOs) from mostly Fortune 2000 companies. The contributions of this study are: IT personnel skills do affect IS success, technical skills are viewed as the most important skill set in affecting IS infrastructure flexibility and competitive advantage, and modularity is viewed as more valuable to competitive advantage than integration. Several explanations are offered for the lack of positive relationships between the softer IT personnel skills and the dimensions of IS success used in this study. [source]

    Comparison of Outcomes of Two Skills-teaching Methods on Lay-rescuers' Acquisition of Infant Basic Life Support Skills

    Itai Shavit MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:979,986 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods. Methods:, This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion,Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007,2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills sets for actions in any individual category. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results:, Means and mean percentages were greater in the intervention group in all four sections compared to controls: categories (5.72 [95.33%] and 4.69 [92.66%]), scoring (10.57 [75.50%] and 7.41 [43.59%]), sequence (2.28 [57.00%] and 1.66 [41.50%]), and order of resuscitation (0.96 [96.00%] and 0.19 [19.00%]). The means and mean percentages of the actions (skill sets) in the intervention group were also larger than those of controls in five out of six categories: assessing responsiveness (1.69 [84.50%] and 1.13 [56.50%]), breathing technique (1.69 [93.00%] and 1.13 [47.20%]), chest compression technique (3.19 [77.50%] and 1.84 [46.00%]), activating emergency medical services (EMS) (3.00 [100.00%] and 2.81 [84.50%]), and resuming cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.97 [97.00%] and 0.47 [47.00%]). These results demonstrate better performance in the intervention group. Conclusions:, The use of videotaped practice and feedback for the acquisition of overall infant BLS skills and of specific skill sets is effective. Observation and participation in the feedback and assessment of nonexperts attempting infant BLS skills appeared to improve the ability of this group of students to perform the task. [source]

    Building Motivational Interviewing Skills: A Practitioner Workbook

    Kathryn Dedda
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 3 2010
    Flavio Cunha
    This paper formulates and estimates multistage production functions for children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. Skills are determined by parental environments and investments at different stages of childhood. We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. We establish nonparametric identification of a general class of production technologies based on nonlinear factor models with endogenous inputs. A by-product of our approach is a framework for evaluating childhood and schooling interventions that does not rely on arbitrarily scaled test scores as outputs and recognizes the differential effects of the same bundle of skills in different tasks. Using the estimated technology, we determine optimal targeting of interventions to children with different parental and personal birth endowments. Substitutability decreases in later stages of the life cycle in the production of cognitive skills. It is roughly constant across stages of the life cycle in the production of noncognitive skills. This finding has important implications for the design of policies that target the disadvantaged. For most configurations of disadvantage it is optimal to invest relatively more in the early stages of childhood than in later stages. [source]

    A Stitch in Time: Skills for the New Literacy

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2000
    Cary Bazalgette
    Abstract This article examines the relationship between moving image study and English, with particular reference to understandings of the practice of editing. Starting from the premise that English teachers support the study of moving images in their subject, the article interrogates the kind of knowledge and understanding, and the range of skills which are implicated by editing. It ends by calling for a recasting of English in tune with the changes - and convergences - that new digital technologies are already heralding. [source]

    Cognitive Skills in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Comparison of Surgical and Nonsurgical Candidates

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2002
    Mary Lou Smith
    Summary: ,Purpose: To compare neuropsychological performance of two groups of children with intractable epilepsy: those who are surgical candidates, and those who are not. Methods: Intelligence, verbal memory, visual memory, academic skills, and sustained attention were measured in children aged 6,18 years. The effects of number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure frequency, age at seizure onset, and duration of seizure disorder were examined. Results: Both groups had high rates of impairment. Group differences were found only on the verbal memory task. Children who experienced seizures in clusters had higher IQ, reading comprehension, and arithmetic scores. Age at seizure onset and proportion of life with seizures were related to IQ. Performance did not vary with AED monotherapy versus polytherapy. Conclusions: Few differences exist in cognitive performance between children with intractable seizures who are and those who are not surgical candidates. These findings suggest that children who are not surgical candidates can serve as good controls in studies on cognitive outcome of surgery. [source]

    Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves Reveal Complex Manual Skills

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2002
    Nadia Corp
    The manual processing of eight species of leaf was investigated in the M-group chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Leaf species varied in the extent to which physical defences made consumption difficult. In all, 96 distinct techniques for leaf processing were identified, but two species with defended leaves (Ficus asperifolia and F. exasperata) required 2.5 as many techniques as did any of the six undefended species. Moreover, chimpanzees made more multiple leaf detachments, and made more subsequent modifications of the leaves, when dealing with the leaves of these two Ficus species, compared with the undefended leaf species. This greater complexity was associated with evidence of flexible, hierarchical organization of the process: iteration of modules consisting of several processing elements, facultative omission of modules, or substitutions of alternative modules. Comparison with data from mountain gorillas is made, and is consistent with similar cognitive architecture in the two species. We consider that, not only is hierarchical organization currently associated with mechanical difficulty in food processing, but that over evolutionary time-scales difficulties in food processing may have selected for cognitive advance. [source]

    The Changing Demand for Skills

    Steven McIntosh
    First page of article [source]

    Short-Term Study Abroad: Predicting Changes in Oral Skills

    Rob A. Martinsen
    Abstract: Increasing numbers of students are opting for study abroad programs of 2 months or less while research on study abroad generally focuses on semester- or year-long programs. This study quantitatively examines changes in students' spoken Spanish after 6 weeks in Argentina using native speaker ratings of student speech. The researcher then uses self-report measures to determine which of the following variables predict improvements in speaking, pre-program motivation and intercultural sensitivity, relationship with the host family, and interaction with native speakers. Results suggest that short-term programs can benefit language skills, as the majority of students in this program demonstrated small yet highly significant improvements in spoken Spanish even though a percentage of students showed a decrease in their skills. Surprisingly, only pre-program levels of cultural sensitivity predicted students' improvements in language skills, providing further evidence of the importance of culture in language learning. [source]