Significant Achievements (significant + achievement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Significant Achievements in Protection and Restoration of Alpine Grassland Ecosystem in Northern Tibet, China

Qing-zhu Gao
Abstract Alpine grassland is a fragile ecosystem, and a large area of this grassland type has been severely degraded in Northern Tibet, to the extent that it has become the primary ecological problem in the region. Various levels of government, including the national central government, the Tibetan Autonomous Region government, and the Nagqu Prefecture government have worked together to achieve alpine grassland ecosystem protection and prevent grassland degradation. These efforts have resulted in significant ecological, social, and economic benefits in Northern Tibet. [source]

From Disaster to Sustainable Civil Society: The Kobe Experience

DISASTERS, Issue 1 2004
Rajib Shaw
Nine years after the Kobe earthquake in Japan, social issues are still prominent, and the rehabilitation process is still ongoing. The earthquake caused two major changes in Japanese society: an increase in voluntary and non-government activities, and the enhancement of cooperation between local government and the residents' association. People's participation in the decision-making process was a significant achievement. To sustain the efforts generated after the earthquake, the Kobe Action Plan was formulated and tested in different disaster scenarios. The current study suggests that civil societies in urban areas are sustainable if, first, the activities related to daily services are provided by the resident's associations; and second, these are linked to economic incentives. Leadership plays a crucial role in collective decision-making. Creation of the support system is essential for long-term sustainability of civil-society activities. These observations are exemplified in the case study in Nishi Suma, one of the worst-affected areas in the Kobe city. [source]

Recent Activities of HTS Power Application in Korea

Minwon Park
From April 2007, DAPAS (Development of the Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies), which is a 10-year-long program, entered the final phase with 4 years. For the last 7 years, the significant achievement of DAPAS is that a 10 m long and 100 A critical current-coated conductor and core technologies of distribution line voltage class HTS power systems including cables, transformers, fault current limiters (FCLs), and motors have been developed. In particular, a 100 m length HTS power cable was installed and is operating well in the Gochang power system test center. Two different types of FCL were successfully developed and demonstrated very good results of fault current test with 22.9 kV distribution line voltage class. In the case of the HTS motor, it was well operated too on connecting to 2 units of a 1.1 MVA conventional induction motor each as a load. In addition, the coated conductor project team achieved a 30 m length and 185 A critical current-coated conductor tape after 6 months since the hardware was set up. [source]

Spanish psychiatric reform: what can be learned from two decades of experience?

José Luis Vázquez-Barquero
Objective:,The objective of the paper is to describe the impact of Spanish psychiatric reform on the organization and functioning of mental health services. Method:,This paper is based on official administrative reports and on relevant related publications. Results:,The most significant achievements of Spanish psychiatric reform have been: (i),the development of a new organization of mental health care, decentralized in character and territorially based; (ii),the integration of psychiatric patients in general health care; (iii),the creation of an extensive community network of health centres; and (iv),the development of more positive attitudes towards mental illness. However, our analysis also reveals the existence of significant deficiencies. Conclusion:,Analysis of the Spanish experience shows that the process of psychiatric reform depends basically on long-term commitments, which in a system such as Spain's must come from central administration and also from the autonomous communities. [source]

George Mitchell, California's judicial council, honored at CPR's annual members' meeting

Article first published online: 24 MAR 200
A rundown, including cites and descriptions, of the significant achievements, professional and student articles, and books that were recognized in the 22nd Annual CPR Institute Awards Program. [source]

A Review of Electrical Stimulation to Treat Motility Dysfunctions in the Digestive Tract: Effects and Stimulation Patterns

Cristian Sevcencu PhD
ABSTRACT Electrical stimulation of the digestive organs may become a valuable alternative to pharmaceutical and surgical approaches to the treatment of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions. For more than 40 years, encouraging results with electrical stimulation to activate motility in gastrointestinal organs have been published. The most significant achievements with this work have been either stimulation to attenuate the symptoms of gastroparesis or stimulation to modify the feeding behavior in obese patients. In addition, animal studies have investigated the different stimulation systems and methods to activate or inhibit transit in the small and large intestines. This article presents a review of the published literature on electrical stimulation of the stomach and intestines. [source]

Research in the spatial sciences: how are Canadian geographers contributing?

sciences spatiales; logiciels; développement théorique; géographes canadiens Geographic data collection, manipulation, analysis and visualization options have experienced substantial improvements during the past several decades, largely spurred by advancements in computing capabilities. While geographers are often credited with identifying and expanding many of the emerging application areas and innovations for the analysis of spatially (and sometimes temporally) referenced data, we are specifically interested in the role of Canadian geographers in the rapidly evolving domain of spatial science. We pose the following provocative question with the intent of not only summarizing the Canadian literature, but also to stimulate an informed discussion: ,are Canadian geographers developers or users of spatial analytical methods?' We review the refereed literature from 1980 to 2008 to describe the nature of contributions by Canadian geographers, beginning at about the time of widely accessible computing (1980s). Our summary broadly classifies subdisciplinary contribution areas as being best described as GIS, remote sensing, or spatial statistics, while each contribution area may take the type of algorithm development, advancement and synthesis of theory, or the application of existing methods. We paint a picture of the current contribution landscape and reflect on significant achievements while commenting on some potential weakness that with increased resources and focus might become future realms of advancement. La recherche en sciences d'analyse spatiales : quel est l'apport des géographes canadiens? Les démarches de collecte, de traitement, d'analyse et de représentation visuelle des données géographiques ont connu des améliorations remarquables au cours des dernières décennies, essentiellement grâce aux progrès réalisés en informatique. Si de manière générale on attribue aux géographes la conception et le développement de nouveaux logiciels et la mise au point de méthodes d'analyse spatiale (et dans certains cas, temporelle), nous nous demandons à quel point les géographes canadiens font figure de modèles en matière de recherche spatiale. La question susceptible de soulever la controverse que nous nous posons est de savoir si les géographes canadiens sont des inventeurs ou simplement des utilisateurs des méthodes d'analyse spatiale. L'objectif visé est double : dresser une synthèse de la littérature canadienne et susciter une réflexion éclairée. Les articles scientifiques publiés par les pairs et parus entre 1980 et 2008 sont passés en revue. Cette analyse porte sur le corpus des textes publiés par des géographes canadiens depuis les années 1980 à l'époque de l'emploi des outils informatiques. Elle permet de répertorier les articles en fonction d'un ensemble de sous-disciplines qui renvoient aux SIG, à la télédétection, ou aux statistiques spatiales. De plus, chacun de ces champs de recherche s'inscrit dans la cadre du développement d'algorithmes, de l'avancement et de la démonstration théoriques, ou de l'application de méthodes existantes. Nous esquissons un portrait de la situation actuelle du champ d'étude et nous nous penchons sur les réalisations marquantes. Enfin, nous formulons des observations sur les faiblesses potentielles qui, en engageant plus de ressources et en leur accordant la priorité, pourraient éventuellement contribuer à l'avancement du domaine. [source]

NOTES: new dimension of minimally invasive surgery

Song-Ling Yan
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging experimental alternative to conventional surgery. NOTES eliminates abdominal incisions and incision-related complications by combining endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques to diagnose and treat abdominal pathology. Since the first NOTES was reported by Kalloo et al. in 2004, significant achievements in the laboratory have occurred. Clinical use in humans has been limited, but several cases and one small clinical trial were published recently. As a further technical revolution in minimally invasive surgery, NOTES has the promising potential to be safer, less invasive, provide better cosmesis and possibly be more cost-effective. The purpose of the present article was to review the development and current status of NOTES and highlight important advances associated with this innovative approach. [source]

Three-Dimensional Pharmacology, a Subject Ranging from Ignorance to Overstatements

Bertil Waldeck
Nevertheless, chiral drugs have been developed and used as racemates, neglecting the fact that they comprise mixtures of two or more compounds which may have quite different pharmacological properties. A very limited access to pure enantiomers in the past has been responsible for this unsatisfactory state of affairs. During the last 20 years, significant achievements have made it possible to perform stereoselective synthesis and analysis. Today, novel chiral drugs are as a rule developed as single enantiomers. Yet, studies of old racaemic drugs are still designed, performed and published without mention of the fact that two or more compounds are involved. In recent years, a number of old racaemic drugs have been re-evaluated and re-introduced into the clinical area as the pure, active enantiomer (the eutomer). While in principle correct, the clinical benefit of this shift from a well established racaemate to a pure enantiomer often seems to be limited and sometimes exaggerated. Racaemic drugs with a deleterious enantiomer that does not contribute to the therapeutic effect (the distomer), may have been sorted out in the safety evaluation process. However, in the future any pharmacological study of racaemic drugs must include the pure enantiomers. This will generate new, valuable information on stereoselectivity in drug action and interaction. [source]