Short Supply (short + supply)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Climate change and cattle nutritional stress

Abstract Owing to the complex interactions among climate, plants, cattle grazing, and land management practices, the impacts of climate change on cattle have been hard to predict. Predicting future grassland ecosystem functioning relies on understanding how changes in climate alter the quantity of forage produced, but also forage quality. Plant protein, which is a function of plant nitrogen concentrations, and digestible energy limit the performance of herbivores when in short supply; moreover, deficiencies can be expensive to mitigate. To better understand how changes in temperature and precipitation would affect forage protein and energy availability, we analyzed over 21 000 measurements of cattle fecal chemistry acquired over 14 years in the continental US. Our analysis of patterns in forage quality among ecologically defined regions revealed that increasing temperature and declining precipitation decreased dietary crude protein and digestible organic matter for regions with continental climates. Within regions, quality also declined with increased temperature; however, the effects of precipitation were mixed. Any future increases in precipitation would be unlikely to compensate for the declines in forage quality that accompany projected temperature increases. As a result, cattle are likely to experience greater nutritional stress in the future. If these geographic patterns hold as a proxy for future climates, agriculture will require increased supplemental feeds or the consequence will be a decrease in livestock growth. [source]

Hydrology as a policy-relevant science

Kuniyoshi Takeuchi
Abstract Water is now a global political agenda and water science is part of it. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, the 3rd World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference in Kyoto in 2003 and the G8 Summit in Evian in 2003 were all concerned about urgent global water issues and call for international scientific research collaboration. Hydrology is responding to such political commitments with various scientific initiatives that include the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB), the Global Energy and Water Circulation Experiments (GEWEX) Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP), and the Global Water Systems Project (GWSP). These initiatives will play key roles in the implementation of the new intergovernmental project, Global Earth Observing System of Systems, under preparation by Global Observation Summits from 2003 to 2005. In order to achieve the MDGs, hydrological science has to play a major role supporting policy makers by overcoming methodological obstacles and providing the necessary information. This paper emphasizes that: the availability of ground measurements is a limiting factor that prevents the full use of scientific knowledge; hydrology has to integrate and downscale the various global information into local-scale information useful for river basin management; as the availability of professional personnel is in critical short supply, in addition to funds needed, to achieve the MDGs any scientific research should always accompany capacity-building programmes to close the science divide between developed and developing nations. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Implementation of a Coordinated School Health Program in a Rural, Low-Income Community

BSHRM, Lisa Cornwell RN
ABSTRACT Background:, Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) bring together educational and community resources in the school environment. This method is particularly important in rural areas like Kansas, where resources and trained health professionals are in short supply. Rural Stafford County, Kansas, struggles with health professional shortages and a low-income, high-need population. Methods:, In 2001, Stafford County's Unified School District 349 began a multiyear CSHP development process, which required adaptations for implementation in a rural area. First, a CSHP team was formed of community and administrative stakeholders as well as school system representatives. Next, the CSHP team assessed school district demographics so the program framework could be targeted to health needs. During a yearlong planning phase, the CSHP team determined 4 priority areas for program development, as limited staff and funds precluded developing programs in all 8 traditional CSHP areas. Program activities were tailored to the population demographics and available resources. Results:, Program outcomes were supported by School Health Index (SHI) data. Of the 8 CSHP focus areas, the SHI found high scores in 3 of the Stafford CSHP's priority areas: Health Services; Psychological, Counseling, and Social Services; and Physical Education. The fourth Stafford CSHP priority area, Nutrition Services, scored similarly to the less prioritized areas. Conclusions:, The process by which the Stafford school district modified and implemented CSHP methods can serve as a model for CSHPs in other rural, high-need areas. [source]

Current management of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

Jesus E. Medina MD
Abstract While mucosal-based melanomas of the head and neck region are uncommon lesions, when they do arise they usually follow an inexorably aggressive course. Experience with these tumors is, necessarily, limited; as such, well-worked out treatment protocols for the treatment of such lesions are in short supply. It appears as though mucosal melanomas (MuMs) develop more frequently in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus region, and less often in the oral cavity. It seems that the incidence of nodal metastasis is significantly lower for sinonasal MuMs than it is for MuMs of the oral cavity; this observation may influence decisions about performing neck dissection as a function of location of the primary MuM. At present, surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment; however, anatomical complexities within the region can hamper attempts at complete excision. Radiotherapy has not traditionally been relied on for routine treatment of MuM, although some recent reports have challenged this view. Chemotherapy is, at present, employed principally in the treatment of disseminated disease and for palliation. As a diagnostic matter, MuM belongs to the class of tumors that, on light microscopy, may with some regularity be confused with other malignancies (including sarcomas, plasmacytomas, and carcinomas); as a consequence, this is a diagnosis which is often best confirmed by way of ancillary testing via immunohistochemical studies. A better grasp of the best means of treating MuM will likely come only when large referral centers are able to pool their experiences with these uncommon yet virulent malignancies. J. Surg. Oncol. 2003;83:116,122. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The grain, the wholegrain and nothing but the grain: the science behind wholegrain and the reduced risk of heart disease and cancer

David P. Richardson
Summary Wholegrain foods are important sources of nutrients and phytoprotective substances that are in short supply in our diet. Encouraging the public to increase consumption of wholegrain foods imparts a positive health message and could contribute towards the achievement of reduced fat and increased fibre intakes. More recent research suggests that the health benefits of wholegrain foods are derived from more than just the fibre. Wholefoods, such as fruit and vegetables and wholegrains, deliver ,packages' of constituents that may work synergistically to promote health. Wholegrain foods, particularly cereals, have been shown to be protective against coronary heart disease, certain cancers and diabetes. At least one daily serving of wholegrain food is associated with reduced risk of disease and there may be further benefits with increasing intake. A greater consumption of wholegrain foods has important public health implications, and would be an attractive and prudent food-based dietary strategy, targeted at the whole population. [source]

Dash for biofuels prompts industry fears

Article first published online: 11 JUN 200
Spurred-on by environmentalists, governments across the world are starting to require gasoline and diesel to contain components made from plants. The oil industry too is taking a belated interest in biofuels. Their use as fuel-extenders may also help to increase the supply of gasoline and diesel in markets, such as the US, where these fuels are often in short supply. [source]

Sex Differentials in Childhood Feeding, Health Care, and Nutritional Status in India

Vinod Mishra
Strong preference for sons in South Asia is well documented, but evidence on female disadvantage in childhood feeding, health care, and nutritional status is inconclusive. This article examines sex differentials in indicators of childhood feeding, health care, and nutritional status of children under age 3 by birth order and sex composition of older living siblings. Data are from India's 1992,93 and 1998,99 National Family Health Surveys. The analysis finds three reasons for inconclusive evidence on female disadvantage in aggregate analyses. First, discrimination against girls is limited to the relatively small fraction of children of certain birth orders and sex compositions of older siblings. Second, discrimination against girls when boys are in short supply and discrimination against boys when girls are in short supply cancel each other to some extent. Third, some discrimination against girls (e.g., in exclusive breastfeeding at 6,9 months) is nutritionally beneficial to girls. Separate analyses for North and South India find that gender discrimination is as common in the South as in the North, where son preference is generally much stronger. [source]

Recovery of Bird Species in Minimally Restored Indonesian Tin Strip Mines

Howard D. Passell
Abstract Bird species richness and individual abundances were recorded in old, unrestored tin strip mine plots, in mined plots restored 1, 2, and 3 years before the study, and in adjacent, unmined, natural secondary forest plots on the 11,340-km2 Indonesian island of Bangka (2S, 106E). The objective was to assess the ecological recovery of unrestored and minimally restored mine plots compared with surrounding reference forest. Unrestored mines had not been mined or used for any other purpose for 14,30 years; plots in their first, second, and third year since restoration were old mines planted with Acacia mangium (Leguminosae) at a density of 400 trees/ha. Natural secondary forest plots 20 or more years since the last disturbance were immediately adjacent to both unrestored and restored plots. Bird surveys on 4-ha plots were performed during the 1995 breeding season. A comparison of data from unrestored plots of widely varying ages showed no significant differences among them for species richness, diversity (Shannon,Wiener index, H,), or individual abundance, indicating that little natural bird community recovery had occurred over time in the plots. However, increases did occur in restored sites over only 3 years for both species richness (r 2= 0.29, p = 0.04) and diversity (r 2= 0.45, p = 0.009). All values for third-year restored plots, however, were still significantly lower than corresponding values for adjacent natural secondary forest plots. The quick return of bird activity on the plots after minimal efforts at restoration supports the idea that simple, inexpensive restoration can be effective for "jump starting" degraded systems at large scales. Such a restoration strategy might be of particular value for degraded land in developing nations, where scientific, professional, and financial resources might be in short supply. Using this strategy, a small number of restoration professionals could mobilize the labor of many local people in many areas, serving to both improve ecological systems and to educate and engage local populations in restoration and conservation projects. [source]

Early risk indicators of internalizing problems in late childhood: a 9-year longitudinal study

Janka Ashford
Background:, Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods:, Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2,3 years (parent report), 4,5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years (parent and teacher) were available in addition to risk indicators from the child, family and contextual domain. Results:, Low socioeconomic status, family psychopathology at child age 2,3, parenting stress at child age 4,5 years, and parents' reports of child internalizing problems at age 4,5 years were the strongest predictors of internalizing problems at the age of 11. If these early risk factors were effectively ameliorated through preventive interventions, up to 57% of internalizing cases at age 11 years could be avoided. Conclusions:, Predictors from as early as 2,5 years of age are relevant for identifying children at risk of internalizing problems in late childhood. The methodological approach used in this study can help to identify children who are most in need of preventive interventions and help to assess the potential health gain and efficiency of such interventions. [source]

The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds

R. M. Kilner
ABSTRACT Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in egg appearance within host clutches, although the benefit thus gained by hosts is not clear. [source]

Marginal Adaptation of All-Ceramic Crowns on Implant Abutments

ABSTRACT Background: Studies focusing on the marginal accuracy of all-ceramic crowns on implant abutments are in short supply. Purpose: This study evaluated the marginal accuracy of all-ceramic crowns on different implant abutments. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six standardized maxillary central incisor crowns (48 alumina and 48 zirconia) were fabricated for each of the six test groups (n = 16) (Ti1, titanium abutments,alumina crowns; Ti2, titanium abutments,zirconia crowns; Al1, alumina abutments,alumina crowns; Al2, alumina abutments,zirconia crowns; Zr1, zirconia abutments,alumina crowns; Zr2, zirconia abutments,zirconia crowns). The crowns were adhesively luted using a resin luting agent. The marginal gaps were examined on epoxy replicas before and after luting as well as after masticatory simulation at 200 magnification. Results: The geometrical mean (95% confidence limits) marginal gap values before cementation, after cementation, and after masticatory simulation were group Ti1: 39(37,42), 57(53,62), and 49(46,53); group Ti2: 43(40,47), 71(67,76), and 64(59,69); group Al1: 57(54,61), 87(85,90), and 67(65,69); group Al2: 66(63,69), 96(90,101), and 75(72,78); group Zr1: 54(51,57), 79(76,82), and 65(63,67); and group Zr2: 64(60,68), 85(80,91), and 75(70,81). The comparison between non-cemented and cemented stages in each group demonstrated a significant increase in the marginal gap values after cementation in all groups (p < .001), while the comparison between cemented and aged stages in each group showed a significant decrease in the marginal gap values in groups Al1, Al2, and Zr1 (p < .0001). This reduction was not significant for groups Ti1, Ti2, and Zr2 (p > .05). Conclusion: The marginal accuracy of all tested restorations meets the requirements for clinical acceptance. [source]