Set

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Set

  • active set
  • additional set
  • alternative set
  • another set
  • appropriate set
  • arbitrary set
  • aug-cc-pvtz basis set
  • available data set
  • basic set
  • basis set
  • benchmark data set
  • broad set
  • broader set
  • bud set
  • calibration data set
  • calibration set
  • certain set
  • character set
  • choice set
  • chromosome set
  • climate data set
  • combined data set
  • common set
  • compact set
  • complementary set
  • complete basis set
  • complete data set
  • complete diffraction data set
  • complete native data set
  • complete set
  • complete x-ray diffraction data set
  • complex data set
  • complex set
  • comprehensive data set
  • comprehensive set
  • confidence set
  • consistent set
  • control set
  • convex set
  • core set
  • data set
  • defined set
  • dense set
  • derivation set
  • detector set
  • different basis set
  • different data set
  • different set
  • diffraction data set
  • discovery set
  • discrete set
  • distinct set
  • diverse set
  • dominating set
  • donor set
  • ecological data set
  • edge set
  • entire data set
  • entire set
  • equation set
  • existing data set
  • expanded set
  • experimental data set
  • expression data set
  • extended set
  • extensive data set
  • extensive set
  • external test set
  • feasible set
  • field data set
  • final set
  • finite set
  • first set
  • fixed set
  • fracture set
  • fruit set
  • full data set
  • full set
  • fuzzy set
  • gaussian basis set
  • gene expression data set
  • gene set
  • general set
  • genetic data set
  • global data set
  • heterogeneous set
  • household panel data set
  • hypothesis set
  • identified set
  • image set
  • important set
  • independent data set
  • independent set
  • independent test set
  • independent validation set
  • indicator set
  • information set
  • initial data set
  • initial hypothesis set
  • initial set
  • input data set
  • integrate set
  • investment opportunity set
  • item set
  • large basis set
  • large data set
  • large set
  • larger data set
  • larger set
  • largest set
  • learning set
  • lesion set
  • level set
  • limit set
  • limited set
  • long-term data set
  • longitudinal data set
  • look set
  • mad data set
  • marker set
  • mental set
  • microarray data set
  • minimal set
  • minimum data set
  • minimum set
  • model set
  • molecular data set
  • morphological data set
  • multiple data set
  • multiple set
  • national data set
  • native data set
  • new data set
  • new parameter set
  • new primer set
  • new set
  • novel set
  • nursing minimum data set
  • one data set
  • one set
  • open set
  • opportunity set
  • optimal set
  • orbital basis set
  • order set
  • original data set
  • other data set
  • other set
  • own set
  • panel data set
  • parameter set
  • particular set
  • pcr primer set
  • phase set
  • prediction set
  • primer set
  • probe set
  • published data set
  • real data set
  • reduced set
  • reference data set
  • reference set
  • representative data set
  • representative set
  • resolution data set
  • response set
  • restricted set
  • resulting data set
  • rich data set
  • rich set
  • risk set
  • rough set
  • rule set
  • same data set
  • same set
  • sample set
  • second set
  • seed set
  • selected set
  • separate set
  • separate test set
  • sequence data set
  • several set
  • significant set
  • similar set
  • simulated data set
  • single data set
  • single set
  • skill set
  • small data set
  • small set
  • smaller set
  • snp set
  • solution set
  • special set
  • specific set
  • stable set
  • standard set
  • standards set
  • structure set
  • suitable set
  • synthetic data set
  • target set
  • test data set
  • test set
  • testing set
  • third set
  • three-wavelength mad data set
  • total set
  • training data set
  • training set
  • trap set
  • unigene set
  • unique data set
  • unique set
  • useful set
  • valence basis set
  • validation data set
  • validation set
  • value set
  • variable set
  • various set
  • vertex set
  • very large data set
  • whole set
  • wide set
  • wider set
  • x-ray data set
  • x-ray diffraction data set

  • Terms modified by Set

  • set approach
  • set available
  • set consisting
  • set containing
  • set criterioN
  • set enrichment analysis
  • set equation
  • set function
  • set goal
  • set limit
  • set method
  • set only
  • set parameter
  • set point
  • set representing
  • set sampling
  • set shifting
  • set shows
  • set size
  • set strategy
  • set superposition error
  • set theory
  • set used
  • set yogurt

  • Selected Abstracts


    Is improved high speed performance following frusemide administration due to diuresis-induced weight loss or reduced severity of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage?

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue S36 2006
    X. A. ZAWADZKAS
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Prerace administration of frusemide to horses has been linked with a significant improvement in racing performance, but the basis for this improvement is unclear. Objective: To test whether improved performance with prerace administration of frusemide is due to the drug's diuresis-induced weight loss rather than its apparent alleviation of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Methods: Eight thoroughbred horses underwent 3 trials in a random order, 2 or 3 weeks apart: control (C), frusemide/unburdened (FU), and frusemide/burdened (FB). None of the horses were known to have exhibited post-exercise epistaxis or endoscopic evidence of EIPH. Endoscope-guided bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed before and after each horse completed a standardised exercise test (SET) on an inclined treadmill to assess semi-quantitatively the volume of EIPH. For C, horses received an i.v. saline placebo injection (5 ml) and were unburdened while performing the SET. With FU, horses received frusemide (0.5 mg/kg) and were also unburdened. For FB, horses received frusemide and were burdened with weight equal to that lost during the 4 h post frusemide injection period. Erythrocyte number in BAL fluid, mass specific VO2max, time and distance for the entire SET as well as at maximum speed were recorded. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted on all results. Results: Mass specific VO2max was significantly higher for the FU than for FB or C. Mass specific VO2max for FB and C were not different. More RBCs were found in BAL samples after C runs than after both FU and FB trial runs. Horses with the frusemide treatment (either burdened or unburdened) produced less EIPH than in the C trial, but their mass specific VO2max values were higher on the FU trial alone. For FU, horses ran longer at 115% VO2max than under C or FB conditions. Conclusion and potential relevance: Improvement of performance in the furosemide trials was due more to the weight-loss related effects of the drug than its apparent alleviation of EIPH. Further research is warranted with the same or similar project design, but with a larger sample size and with horses known to have more severe EIPH. [source]


    Application of a constant blood withdrawal method in equine exercise physiology studies

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2001
    P. BARAGLI
    Summary The aim of the present study was to test a constant blood withdrawal method (CBWM) to collect blood samples from horses during treadmill exercise. CBWM was performed in 4 Standardbreds and 5 Haflinger horses. A peristaltic pump was used to control blood aspiration from an i.v. catheter via an extension line. Blood was collected using an automatic fractions collector, with a constant delay time between the drawing of blood and sample collection. Blood withdrawal using CBWM was made during a treadmill standardised exercise test (SET). A blood flow of 12 ml/min was used and samples collected every 60 s during the entire period of exercise. The volume of blood collected in each sample tube was 12.1 0.2 ml, with a delay time of mean s.d. 25.3 0.8 s. Plasma lactate kinetics based on measurement of lactate in each fraction showed an exponential increase during the first 13 min of exercise (10.5 min of SET and 2.5 min recovery). The peak plasma lactate concentration was observed between 2.5 and 5.5 min after the end of SET. CBWM permits the kinetics of lactate and other blood-borne variables to be studied over time. This method could be a valuable aid for use in studying equine exercise physiology. [source]


    Single-Electron-Transfer Reactions of ,-Diimine dpp-BIAN and Its Magnesium Complex (dpp-BIAN)2,Mg2+(THF)3

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2006
    Igor L. Fedushkin
    Abstract The reactions of (dpp-BIAN)Mg(THF)3 (1) {dpp-BIAN = 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene} with ethyl halides EtX (X = Cl, Br, I) in hexane proceed by single-electron transfer (SET) from the metal complex to the organic halide. Complexes [(dpp-BIAN)(Et)]MgX(THF)n [X = Cl, n = 0 (2); X = Br, n = 2 (3); X = I, n = 1 (4)] are the products of ethyl transfer to an imine carbon atom of a coordinated diimine ligand. The compound [(dpp-BIAN)(Et)]MgBr (3a) was obtained from the reaction of free dpp-BIAN with ethylmagnesiumbromide in hexane. In this case SET from the Grignard reagent to the neutral diimine takes place. Compounds 2,4 and 3a were isolated as crystals and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of 3 was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Relational Factors and Family Treatment Engagement among Low-Income, HIV-Positive African American Mothers

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2003
    Victoria B. Mitrani Ph.D.
    Clinically derived hypotheses regarding treatment engagement of families of low-income, HIV-positive, African American mothers are tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Predictors are baseline family relational factors (family support, mother's desire for involvement with family, and family hassles) and mother's history of substance dependence. The study examines a subsample of 49 mothers enrolled in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET). SET is a family-based intervention intended to relieve and prevent psychosocial distress associated with HIV/AIDS. Participants in the subsample were randomly assigned to SET and attended at least two therapy sessions. Findings reveal that family relational factors predicted family treatment engagement (family support, p < 004; mother's desire for involvement with family, p < 008; family hassles, p < 027). Family support predicted family treatment engagement beyond the prediction provided by the other relational factors and the mother's own treatment engagement (p < 016). History of substance dependence was neither associated with family treatment engagement nor family support. Post hoc analyses revealed that family hassles (p < 003) and mother's desire for involvement with family (p < 018) were differentially related to family treatment engagement in low-versus high-support families. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. [source]


    Price Movers on the Stock Exchange of Thailand: Evidence from a Fully Automated Order-Driven Market

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    Charlie Charoenwong
    G12; G14; G15 Abstract This study examines which trade sizes move stock prices on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET), a pure limit order market, over two distinct market conditions of bull and bear. Using intraday data, the study finds that large-sized trades (i.e., those larger than the 75th percentile) account for a disproportionately large impact on changes in traded and quoted prices. The finding remains even after it has been subjected to a battery of robustness checks. In contrast, the results of studies conducted in the United States show that informed traders employ trade sizes falling between the 40th and 95th percentiles (Barclay and Warner, 1993; Chakravarty, 2001). Our results support the hypothesis that informed traders in a pure limit order market, such as the SET, where there are no market makers, also use larger-size trades than those employed by informed traders in the United States. [source]


    Towards a circuit theory for metallic single-electron tunnelling devices

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUIT THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, Issue 3 2007
    J. HoekstraArticle first published online: 20 APR 200
    Abstract A circuit theory for metallic single-electron tunnelling (SET) junctions is presented. In detail circuits with a single SET junction in arbitrary environments are described. Based on the conservation of energy in the circuits,a fundamental circuit theorem,equivalent circuit elements are proposed and possible physical justifications are presented. The resulting model represents the tunnel event by an impulse current source, the junction by a charged capacitor, and the tunnelling condition as a discrete process based on local circuit parameters,and may include a tunnelling time. Simple examples illustrate Coulomb blockade, Coulomb oscillations, and continuous direct tunnelling. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 13 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 11-12 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 10 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 9 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 8 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 7 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 6 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 5 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 4 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 2-3 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Cover Picture: (Adv. Synth.

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 1 2010
    Catal.
    The cover picture, provided by David W.,C. MacMillan, shows a dual-catalytic aldehyde alkylation via photoredox organocatalysis in which electrophilic radicals (derived from the photoredox cycle; above) combine with facially biased enamine intermediates (derived from the organocatalytic cycle; below). The photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)32+ readily accepts a photon from a visible light source to populate the *Ru(bpy)32+ metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, eventually enabling single-electron transfer (SET) with an alkyl halide to furnish the electron-deficient alkyl radical. Simultaneously, the organocatalytic cycle is initiated upon condensation of the imidazolidinone catalyst (inset) exclusively with a non-substituted aldehyde to form a stereochemically-defined enamine. The two activation pathways merge in the key alkylation step via rapid addition of the electrophilic radical to the ,-rich olefin followed by a series of concerted steps which return the organocatalyst and photocatalyst to their respective cycles and render the optically enriched ,-alkyl aldehyde. [source]


    Theoretical Studies on ortho -Oxidation of Phenols with Dioxygen Mediated by Dicopper Complex: Hints for a Catalyst with the Phenolase Activity of Tyrosinase

    ADVANCED SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS (PREVIOUSLY: JOURNAL FUER PRAKTISCHE CHEMIE), Issue 4-5 2007
    Hiroshi Naka
    Abstract Theoretical studies on the chemo- and regioselective ortho -oxidation reaction of phenols mediated by a biomimetic (,,,2:,2peroxo)dicopper(II) complex were performed using unrestricted hybrid density functional theory (UB3LYP) calculations, with the aim of providing a guide for the development of new bio-inspired catalysts with the phenolase activity of tyrosinase. Energetic, structural, and electronic analyses suggested the involvement of a side-on (,,,2:,2)-Cu2O2 complex as an active intermediate, and a single electron transfer (SET)-induced electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism is proposed for the rate-determining CO bond forming process; this is consistent with experimental observations. Moreover, the inherent roles of, and requirement for, two copper ions in this reaction have been elucidated. [source]


    Effects of temperature on the post-diapause embryonic development and the hatching time in three grasshopper species (Orth., Acrididae)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    S. G. Hao
    Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effects of six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40C) on the post-diapause embryonic development and the hatching time in three grasshopper species ,Omocestus haemorrhoidalis (Charp.), Calliptamus abbreviatus Ikonn. and Chorthippus fallax (Zub.) , from the Inner Mongolian steppe. The results indicate that the species differ in the developmental rates, survival curves and cumulative hatching probabilities. The eggs of O. haemorrhoidalis had the fastest developmental rate with a low developmental threshold temperature of 9.9C and the sum of effective temperature (SET) 211.2 degree-days (DD). The corresponding values were 10.9C and 210.6 DD for C. abbreviatus, 10.5C and 240.2 DD for Ch. fallax respectively. The SET at which 50% of post-diapause eggs hatched were 252.0 DD for O. haemorrhoidalis, 262.8 DD for C. abbreviatus, and 273.3 DD for Ch. fallax. The predicted maximal hatch ability of O. haemorrhoidalis (91.17%), C. abbreviatus (75.67%) and Ch. fallax (94.07%) occurred at 23.7, 29.0 and 31.3C, respectively. The thermal death points of each species were reached at 43.3, 45.0 and 48.6C. The optimal temperature ranges were 12.2,35.2C for O. haemorrhoidalis, 21.7,36.3C for C. abbreviatus and 20.9,41.7C for Ch. fallax respectively. These results suggest that O. haemorrhoidalis adapt to hatch at a lower temperature range, C. abbreviatus adapt to mid-temperature range, while Ch. fallax adapt to hatch at a higher temperature range. Although the SET of Ch. fallax is more than that of the other two species, it is not sufficient to explain the hatching sequence of the species in springtime. The results also indicate that Ch. fallax and O. haemorrhoidalis have wider adaptive temperature range than C. abbreviatus. [source]


    The reaction of acetic acid 2-selenoxo-2H -pyridin-1-yl esters with benzynes: A convenient route to Benzo[b]seleno[2,3- b]pyridines

    JOURNAL OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2004
    U. Narasimha Rao
    Benzyne and its 3,4,5,6-tetraphenyl, 3- and 4-methyl, 3-methoxy and 4,5-difluoro derivatives react with acetic acid 2-selenoxo-2H -pyridin-1-yl esters 4a-e to give benzo[b]seleno[2,3- b]pyridines 10,15 in modest yields. The benzynes were generated by one or more of the following methods: diazotization of anthranilic acids 5a-g with isoamyl nitrate; mild thermal decomposition of 2-diazoniobenzenecarboxylate hydrochlorides 6a-d treatment of (phenyl)[o -(trimethylsilyl)phenyl]iodonium triflate (7) with tetrabutylammonium fluoride; and treatment of 2-trimethylsilylphenyl triflates 8a-c with cesium fluoride. In all the reactions, the corresponding 2-(methylselenenyl)pyridines 16a-d were also obtained suggesting that these reactions may involve selenium addition to benzyne via a SET (single electron transfer). [source]


    The nuclear localization of SET mediated by imp,3/imp, attenuates its cytosolic toxicity in neurons

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2007
    Dianbo Qu
    Abstract SET is a multi-functional protein in proliferating cells. Some of the proposed functions of SET suggest an important nuclear role. However, the nuclear import pathway of SET is also unknown and the function of SET in neurons is unclear. Presently, using cortical neurons, we report that the nuclear import of SET is mediated by an imp,/imp,-dependent pathway. Nuclear localization signal, 168KRSSQTQNKASRKR181, in SET interacts with imp,3, which recruits imp, to form a ternary complex, resulting in efficient transportation of SET into nucleus. By in vitro nuclear import assay based on digitonin-permeabilized neurons, we further demonstrated that the nuclear import of SET relies on Ran GTPase. We provide evidence that this nuclear localization of SET is important in neuronal survival. Under basal conditions, SET is predominately nuclear. However, upon death induced by genotoxic stress, endogenous SET decreases in the nucleus and increases in the cytoplasm. Consistent with a toxic role of SET in the cytoplasm, targeted expression of SET to the cytoplasm exacerbates death compared to wild type SET expression which is protective following DNA damage. Taken together, our results indicate that SET is imported into the nucleus through its association with imp,3/imp,, and that localization of SET is important in regulation of neuronal death. [source]


    The FE65 proteins and Alzheimer's disease

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 4 2008
    Declan M. McLoughlin
    Abstract The FE65s (FE65, FE65L1, and FE65L2) are a family of multidomain adaptor proteins that form multiprotein complexes with a range of functions. FE65 is brain-enriched, whereas FE65L1 and FE65L2 are more widely expressed. All three members contain a WW domain and two PTB domains. Through the PTB2 domain, they all interact with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) and can alter APP processing. After sequential proteolytic processing of membrane-bound APP and release of AICD to the cytoplasm, FE65 can translocate to the nucleus to participate in gene transcription events. This role is further mediated by interactions of FE65 PTB1 with the transcription factors CP2/LSF/LBP1 and Tip60 and the WW domain with the nucleosome assembly factor SET. However, FE65 target genes have not yet been confirmed. The FE65 PTB1 domain also interacts with two cell surface lipoproteins receptors, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and ApoEr2, forming trimeric complexes with APP. The FE55 WW domain also binds to mena, through which it functions in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, cell motility, and neuronal growth cone formation. While single knockout mice appear normal, double FE65,/,/FE65L1,/, mice have substantial neurodevelopmental defects. These include heterotopic neurons and axonal pathfinding defects, findings similar to findings in both Mena and triple APP:APLP1:APLP2 knockout mice and also lissencephalopathies in humans. Thus APPs, FE65s, and mena may act together in a developmental signalling pathway. This article reviews the known functions of the FE65 family and their role in APP function and Alzheimer's disease. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE OF SET AND STIRRED FERMENTED MILK.

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 3 2001
    EFFECT OF A ROPY STRAIN OF LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP.
    Texture profile analysis (TPA) of stirred and set cultured milk were evaluated, using an exopolysaccharide producing strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (NCFB 2772) and a protein enriched substrate (retentate). In both cases, samples were compared respectively with a nonropy strain (NCFB 1489) and reconstituted skim milk substrate. The retentate fermented products were firmer in comparison with skim milk products, both at 10% of total solids. A loss of structure occurred when the retentate products were stirred causing a nine-fold decrease in hardness, whereas in cultured milk products the loss was of around three-fold. The main differences were found in adhesiveness and fracture characteristics. Set retentate ropy product was five times more adhesive than the nonropy one, whereas in stirred retentate and set skim milk products the difference was two-fold. No differences in adhesiveness were detected when skim milk products were stirred using either strain. The fracture force on ropy retentate samples increased after fracture while the nonropy ones showed a decrease, implying more structural breakdown in the latter. On set products, cohesiveness increased slightly due to the ropy strain. Changes in texture observed between ropy and nonropy strains can be attributed to exopolysaccharide attachment to the casein matrix being increased when the protein content is higher. [source]


    A comparative proteomic analysis of HepG2 cells incubated by S(,) and R(+) enantiomers of anti-coagulating drug warfarin

    PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 7 2010
    Jing Bai
    Abstract Warfarin is a commonly prescribed oral anti-coagulant with narrow therapeutic index. It interferes with vitamin K cycle to achieve anti-coagulating effects. Warfarin has two enantiomers, S(,) and R(+) and undergoes stereoselective metabolism, with the S(,) enantiomer being more effective. We reported that the intracellular protein profile in HepG2 cells incubated with S(,) and R(+) warfarin, using iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS. In samples incubated with S(,) and R(+) warfarin alone, the multi-task protein Protein SET showed significant elevation in cells incubated with S(,) warfarin but not in those incubated with R(+) warfarin. In cells incubated with individual enantiomers of warfarin in the presence of vitamin K, protein disulfide isomerase A3 which is known as a glucose-regulated protein, in cells incubated with S(,) warfarin was found to be down-regulated compared to those incubated with R(+) warfarin. In addition, Protein DJ-1 and 14-3-3 Protein, were down-regulated in cells incubated with either S(,) or R(+) warfarin regardless of the presence of vitamin K. Our results indicated that Protein DJ-1 may act as an enzyme for expression of essential enzymes in vitamin K cycle. Taken together, our findings provided molecular evidence on a comprehensive protein profile on warfarin,cell interaction, which may shed new lights on future improvement of warfarin therapy. [source]


    Sensory enabling technology acceptance model (SE-TAM): A multiple-group structural model comparison

    PSYCHOLOGY & MARKETING, Issue 9 2008
    Jiyeon Kim
    Sensory enabling technology (SET) can deliver product information that is similar to the information obtained from direct product examination, thus reducing product risk. In addition, the interactivity and customer involvement created by sensory enabling technologies can enhance the entertainment value of the online shopping experience. The proposed model examined this dual role of sensory experience enablers in the online soft goods shopping process for three types of sensory enabling technologies that are widely applied in online retail sites. The results provided empirical support for perceived usefulness and perceived entertainment value as strong predictors of consumers' attitudes toward using all three of the sensory enabling technologies tested in this study. The impact of perceived ease of use differed by technology. Attitudes toward using sensory enabling technologies had a significant impact on the actual use of all three SETs; however, the impact of technology anxiety and innovativeness on the use of SET also appeared to differ by technology. Virtual try-on played a strong hedonic role, increasing the entertainment value of the online shopping process, whereas 2D views (larger view and alternate views) showed a strong functional role. The 3D rotation view served both functional and hedonic roles. The results indicate that each sensory enabling technology makes a unique contribution to online shopping,either by reducing product risk perceptions or by increasing perceived entertainment value. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    THE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY SET AND ITS PROXY VARIABLES

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2008
    Tim Adam
    Abstract We use a real options approach to evaluate the performance of several proxy variables for a firm's investment opportunity set. The results show that, on a relative scale, the market-to-book assets ratio has the highest information content with respect to investment opportunities. Although both the market-to-book equity and the earnings,price ratios are related to investment opportunities, they do not contain information that is not already contained in the market-to-book assets ratio. Consistent with this finding, a common factor constructed from several proxy variables does not improve the performance of the market-to-book assets ratio. [source]


    Sotrastaurin, a Novel Small Molecule Inhibiting Protein Kinase C: First Clinical Results in Renal-Transplant Recipients

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
    K. Budde
    Sotrastaurin, a novel protein-kinase-C inhibitor, blocks early T-cell activation. In this 12-month, Phase II study, de novo renal-transplant patients were randomized to sotrastaurin (200 mg b.i.d.) + standard-exposure tacrolimus (SET) or reduced-exposure tacrolimus (RET) (SET: n = 76; RET: n = 66), or control (SET + mycophenolic acid [MPA, 720 mg b.i.d.]; n = 74). In both sotrastaurin groups, patients were converted from tacrolimus to MPA after Month 3, achieving calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression. The primary endpoint was composite efficacy failure (treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, death or loss to follow-up). The key secondary endpoint was glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Composite efficacy failure rates were: 4.1%, 5.4% and 1.5% at Month 3 (preconversion) and 7.8%, 44.8% and 34.1% at study end in the control, sotrastaurin + SET and sotrastaurin + RET groups, respectively; these results led to premature study discontinuation. Median GFR at Month 6 was: 57.0, 53.0 and 60.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Study-drug discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 16.2%, 18.4% and 12.1%, respectively. Leukopenia and neutropenia occurred more frequently preconversion in control versus sotrastaurin groups: 13.7%, 5.6%, and 4.6%; and 11.1%, 4.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The initial sotrastaurin + tacrolimus regimen was efficacious and well tolerated but the postconversion sotrastaurin + MPA regimen showed inadequate efficacy. Longer-term evaluation of sotrastaurin + tacrolimus is warranted. [source]


    Exercise Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Skeletal Muscle Function in Heart Transplant Recipients

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2009
    M. Haykowsky
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of supervised aerobic and strength training (SET) versus no-training (NT) on peak aerobic power (VO2peak), submaximal exercise left ventricular (LV) systolic function, peripheral vascular function, lean tissue mass and maximal strength in clinically stable heart transplant recipients (HTR). Forty-three HTR were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of SET (n = 22; age: 57 10 years; time posttransplant: 5.4 4.9 years) or NT (n = 21; age: 59 11 years; time posttransplant: 4.4 3.3 years). The change in VO2peak (3.11 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 1.2,5.0 mL/kg/min), leg and total lean tissue mass (0.78 kg, 95% CI: 0.31,1.3 kg and 1.34 kg, 95% CI: 0.34,2.3 kg, respectively), chest-press (10.4 kg, 95% CI: 5.2,15.5 kg) and leg-press strength (34.7 kg, 95% CI: 3.7,65.6 kg) were significantly higher after SET versus NT. No significant change was found for submaximal exercise LV systolic function or brachial artery endothelial-dependent or -independent vasodilation. Supervised exercise training is an effective intervention to improve VO2peak, lean tissue mass and muscle strength in HTR. This training regimen did not improve exercise LV systolic function or brachial artery endothelial function. [source]


    Unusual ipso,Substitution of Diaryliodonium Bromides Initiated by a Single-Electron-Transfer Oxidizing Process,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 19 2010
    Toshifumi Dohi Dr.
    Iod kuppelt: Die Umsetzung der Diaryliodoniumbromide 1 mit aromatischen Nucleophilen 2 ergab eine Reihe von Heterobiarylen 3 in guten Ausbeuten. Diese ipso -Substitution am Heteroarenring von 1 verluft ber aromatische Radikalkationen, die durch Einelektronentransfer(SET)-Oxidation von 2 erzeugt werden. HFIP=Hexafluor-2-propanol. [source]


    Modelling the Credit Spreads and Long,Term Relationships of Thai Yankee Bond Issues

    ASIAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    Jonathan Batten
    The present study investigates the yield spread between Thai government bonds issued in the US domestic market (,Yankee' bonds) and US Treasury bonds, to determine the long,term equilibrium dynamics and the factors that affect changes in credit spreads. The sample period investigated was from May 5, 1999 to March 26, 2002. The results suggest that the long,term equilibrium relationship holds only between Thai Yankee bonds and long,term US bonds, rather than shorter or equivalent maturity bonds. Also, changes in the credit spreads of Thai Yankee bonds are generally negatively related to changes in the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index (see http://www.set.or.th/th/index.html). Changes in US Treasury bonds also tend to negatively affect spreads on short Thai Yankee bonds and positively affect spreads on long Thai Yankee bonds, although other macroeconomic factors , including exchange rate and capital flow variables , were generally not important. [source]