Sense

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Sense

  • broad sense
  • broadest sense
  • certain sense
  • clear sense
  • common sense
  • conventional sense
  • false sense
  • general sense
  • good sense
  • greater sense
  • helical sense
  • helix sense
  • important sense
  • increased sense
  • joint position sense
  • little sense
  • make sense
  • making sense
  • narrow sense
  • new sense
  • one sense
  • opposite sense
  • other sense
  • own sense
  • parenting sense
  • people sense
  • position sense
  • practical sense
  • special sense
  • strong sense
  • the sense
  • vibration sense
  • weak sense

  • Terms modified by Sense

  • sense change
  • sense heritability
  • sense making
  • sense oligonucleotide
  • sense organ

  • Selected Abstracts


    A graphical generalized implementation of SENSE reconstruction using Matlab

    CONCEPTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Issue 3 2010
    Hammad Omer
    Abstract Parallel acquisition of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has the potential to significantly reduce the scan time. SENSE is one of the many techniques for the reconstruction of parallel MRI images. A generalized algorithm for SENSE reconstruction and theoretical background is presented. This algorithm can be used for SENSE reconstruction for any acceleration factor between 2 and 8, for any Phase Encode direction (Horizontal or Vertical), with or without Regularization. The user can select a particular type of Regularization. A GUI based implementation of the algorithm is also given. Signal-to-noise ratio, artefact power, and g -factor map are used to quantify the quality of reconstruction. The effects of different acceleration factors on these parameters are also discussed. The GUI based implementation of SENSE reconstruction provides an easy selection of various parameters needed for reconstruction of parallel MRI images and helps in an efficient reconstruction and analysis of the quality of reconstruction. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 178,186, 2010. [source]


    MAKING SENSE OF CONCEPTUAL CHANGE

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2008
    JOUNI-MATTI KUUKKANEN
    ABSTRACT Arthur Lovejoy's history of unit-ideas and the history of concepts are often criticized for being historically insensitive forms of history-writing. Critics claim that one cannot find invariable ideas or concepts in several contexts or times in history without resorting to some distortion. One popular reaction is to reject the history of ideas and concepts altogether, and take linguistic entities as the main theoretical units. Another reaction is to try to make ideas or concepts context-sensitive and to see their histories as dynamic processes of transformation. The main argument in this paper is that we cannot abandon ideas or concepts as theoretical notions if we want to write an intelligible history of thought. They are needed for the categorization and classification of thinking, and in communication with contemporaries. Further, the criterion needed to subsume historical concepts under a general concept cannot be determined merely on the basis of their family resemblances, which allows variation without an end, since talk of the same concepts implies that they share something in common. I suggest that a concept in history should be seen to be composed of two components: the core of a concept and the margin of a concept. On the basis of this, we can develop a vocabulary for talking about conceptual changes. The main idea is that conceptual continuity requires the stability of the core of the concept, but not necessarily that of the margin, which is something that enables a description of context-specific features. If the core changes, we ought to see it as a conceptual replacement. [source]


    High temporal resolution SSFP cine MRI for estimation of left ventricular diastolic parameters

    JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 4 2010
    Ramkumar Krishnamurthy MS
    Abstract Purpose: To obtain high temporal resolution (HTR) magnetic resonance (MR) steady-state free-precession (SSFP) cine cardiac images by using multichannel radiofrequency (RF) hardware and parallel imaging techniques; to study the effect of temporal resolution; and to compare the derived left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling parameters with echocardiographic results. Materials and Methods: HTR images were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers using a 1.5 T scanner with 32 RF channels and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and k-t broad-use linear-acquisition speedup technique (k-t BLAST) imaging techniques. LV diastolic parameters were calculated and compared to conventional echocardiographic indices such as the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and E/A ratio. The need for HTR was assessed and the MR results were compared with echocardiographic results. Results: The HTR (,6-ms) images yielded higher peak filling rates, peak ejection rates, and peak atrial filling rates. A progressive decline in filling and ejection rates was observed with worsening temporal resolution. The IVRTs and E/A ratios measured with MR versus echocardiography were in broad agreement. Also, SENSE and k-t BLAST yielded similar diastolic functional parameters. Conclusion: With SENSE or k-t BLAST and modern hardware, HTR cine images can be obtained. The lower temporal resolutions (30,50 ms) used in clinical practice reduce LV filling rates by ,30% and may hinder characterization of transient phenomena such as the IVRT. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:872,880. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    1H spectroscopic imaging of human brain at 3 Tesla: Comparison of fast three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging techniques

    JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 3 2009
    Matthew L. Zierhut PhD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and data quality of time-reduced three-dimensional (3D) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) techniques in the human brain at 3 Tesla. Materials and Methods Techniques that were investigated included ellipsoidal k -space sampling, parallel imaging, and echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI). The SNR values for N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, and lactate or lipid peaks were compared after correcting for effective spatial resolution and acquisition time in a phantom and in the brains of human volunteers. Other factors considered were linewidths, metabolite ratios, partial volume effects, and subcutaneous lipid contamination. Results In volunteers, the median normalized SNR for parallel imaging data decreased by 34,42%, but could be significantly improved using regularization. The normalized signal to noise loss in flyback EPSI data was 11,18%. The effective spatial resolutions of the traditional, ellipsoidal, sensitivity encoding (SENSE) sampling scheme, and EPSI data were 1.02, 2.43, 1.03, and 1.01 cm3, respectively. As expected, lipid contamination was variable between subjects but was highest for the SENSE data. Patient data obtained using the flyback EPSI method were of excellent quality. Conclusion Data from all 1H 3D-MRSI techniques were qualitatively acceptable, based upon SNR, linewidths, and metabolite ratios. The larger field of view obtained with the EPSI methods showed negligible lipid aliasing with acceptable SNR values in less than 9.5 min without compromising the point-spread function. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:473,480. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Coronary MR angiography at 3T during diastole and systole

    JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, Issue 4 2007
    Ahmed M. Gharib MD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the impact of end-systolic imaging on quality of right coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison to diastolic and to study the effect of RR interval variability on image quality. Materials and Methods The right coronary artery (RCA) of 10 normal volunteers was imaged at 3T using parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding [SENSE]). Navigator-gated three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo was used three times: 1) end-systolic short acquisition (SS): 35-msec window; 2) diastolic short (DS): middiastolic acquisition using 35-msec window; and 3) diastolic long (DL): 75-msec diastolic acquisition window. Vectorcardiogram (VCG) data was used to analyze RR variability. Vessel sharpness, length, and diameter were compared to each other and correlated with RR variability. Blinded qualitative image scores of the images were compared. Results Quantitative and qualitative parameters were not significantly different and showed no significant correlation with RR variability. Conclusion Imaging the RCA at 3T during the end-systolic rest period using SENSE is possible without significant detrimental effect on image quality. Breaking away from the standard of imaging only during diastole can potentially improve image quality in tachycardic patients or used for simultaneous imaging during both periods in a single scan. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007;26:921,926. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    EXTERNALITIES AND PARTIAL TAX REFORM: DOES IT MAKE SENSE TO TAX ROAD FREIGHT (BUT NOT PASSENGER) TRANSPORT?,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    Edward Calthrop
    ABSTRACT Externalities such as pollution and road congestion are jointly produced by the use of intermediate inputs by firms and the consumption of final goods by households. To cope with such externalities, policy proposals often suggest partial tax reforms. This paper uses a simple general equilibrium model to explore the effects of a reform of taxes on freight transport in a second-best setting. The theoretical model shows that the welfare effect of higher freight taxes is positive, unless passenger transport is severely under-taxed and the tax reform attracts substantially more passenger transport. Moreover, the optimal freight tax may be below or above marginal external cost. Budgetary neutral tax reform exercises with a numerical simulation model for the U.K. suggest that, under a wide variety of parameter values, higher freight transport taxes are indeed welfare increasing. The welfare gain of freight tax reform rises with the level of the passenger tax, but the optimal freight tax declines at higher taxes on passenger transport. Substantial net benefits of tax reform are obtained only under labor tax recycling of the revenues. [source]


    Time-resolved bolus-chase MR angiography with real-time triggering of table motion

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    Casey P. Johnson
    Abstract Time-resolved bolus-chase contrast-enhanced MR angiography with real-time station switching is demonstrated. The Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like sampling (CAPR) technique and high 2D sensitivity encoding (SENSE) (6 or 8) and 2D homodyne (1.8) accelerations were used to acquire 3D volumes with 1.0-mm isotropic spatial resolution and frame times as low as 2.5 sec in two imaging stations covering the thighs and calves. A custom real-time system was developed to reconstruct and display CAPR frames for visually guided triggering of table motion upon passage of contrast through the proximal station. The method was evaluated in seven volunteers. High-spatial-resolution arteriograms with minimal venous contamination were consistently acquired in both stations. Real-time stepping table contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a method for providing time-resolved images with high spatial resolution over an extended field-of-view. Magn Reson Med, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    RF excitation using time interleaved acquisition of modes (TIAMO) to address B1 inhomogeneity in high-field MRI

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
    Stephan Orzada
    Abstract As the field strength and, therefore, the operational frequency in MRI is increased, the wavelength approaches the size of the human head/body, resulting in wave effects, which cause signal decreases and dropouts. Several multichannel approaches have been proposed to try to tackle these problems, including RF shimming, where each element in an array is driven by its own amplifier and modulated with a certain (constant) amplitude and phase relative to the other elements, and Transmit SENSE, where spatially tailored RF pulses are used. In this article, a relatively inexpensive and easy to use imaging scheme for 7 Tesla imaging is proposed to mitigate signal voids due to B field inhomogeneity. Two time-interleaved images are acquired using a different excitation mode for each. By forming virtual receive elements, both images are reconstructed together using GRAPPA to achieve a more homogeneous image, with only small SNR and SAR penalty in head and body imaging at 7 Tesla. Magn Reson Med, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Accelerating SENSE using compressed sensing

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
    Dong Liang
    Abstract Both parallel MRI and compressed sensing (CS) are emerging techniques to accelerate conventional MRI by reducing the number of acquired data. The combination of parallel MRI and CS for further acceleration is of great interest. In this paper, we propose a novel method to combine sensitivity encoding (SENSE), one of the standard methods for parallel MRI, and compressed sensing for rapid MR imaging (SparseMRI), a recently proposed method for applying CS in MR imaging with Cartesian trajectories. The proposed method, named CS-SENSE, sequentially reconstructs a set of aliased reduced-field-of-view images in each channel using SparseMRI and then reconstructs the final image from the aliased images using Cartesian SENSE. The results from simulations and phantom and in vivo experiments demonstrate that CS-SENSE can achieve a reduction factor higher than those achieved by SparseMRI and SENSE individually and outperform the existing method that combines parallel MRI and CS. Magn Reson Med, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Improving k - t SENSE by adaptive regularization

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    Dan Xu
    Abstract The recently proposed method known as k - t sensitivity encoding (SENSE) has emerged as an effective means of improving imaging speed for several dynamic imaging applications. However, k - t SENSE uses temporally averaged data as a regularization term for image reconstruction. This may not only compromise temporal resolution, it may also make some of the temporal frequency components irrecoverable. To address that issue, we present a new method called spatiotemporal domain-based unaliasing employing sensitivity encoding and adaptive regularization (SPEAR). Specifically, SPEAR provides an improvement over k - t SENSE by generating adaptive regularization images. It also uses a variable-density (VD), sequentially interleaved k - t space sampling pattern with reference frames for data acquisition. Simulations based on experimental data were performed to compare SPEAR, k - t SENSE, and several other related methods, and the results showed that SPEAR can provide higher temporal resolution with significantly reduced image artifacts. Ungated 3D cardiac imaging experiments were also carried out to test the effectiveness of SPEAR, and real-time 3D short-axis images of the human heart were produced at 5.5 frames/s temporal resolution and 2.4 1.2 8 mm3 spatial resolution with eight slices. Magn Reson Med 57:918,930, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Unaliasing lipid contamination for MR spectroscopic imaging of gliomas at 3T using sensitivity encoding (SENSE),

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Esin Ozturk-Isik
    Abstract 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) has been successfully employed to extract information about brain tumor metabolism, such as cell membrane breakdown, cellular energetics, and neuronal integrity, through its ability to differentiate signals coming from choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) molecules. The additional presence of lipids within subregions of the tumor may indicate cellular membrane breakdown due to cell death. Another potential source of lipids is subcutaneous fat, which may be excited with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) volume selection and aliased into the spectral field of view (FOV) due to the chemical shift artifact and the low bandwidth of the selection pulses. The purpose of our study was to employ a postprocessing method for unaliasing lipid resonances originating from in-slice subcutaneous lipids from the 3D MRSI of gliomas at 3T, using an eight-channel phased-array coil and sensitivity encoding (SENSE). Magn Reson Med, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sensitivity-encoded coronary MRA at 3T

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2004
    Michael E. Huber
    Abstract Long scan times are still a main limitation in free-breathing navigator-gated 3D coronary MR angiography (MRA). Unlike other MRI applications, high-resolution coronary MRA has not been amenable to acceleration by parallel imaging techniques due to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) concerns. In the present work, mitigating SNR limitations by the transition to higher static magnetic field strength is proposed, thus enabling scan time reduction by the parallel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) technique. The study reports the implementation and evaluation of free-breathing navigator-gated 3D coronary MRA with SENSE at 3T. Results from 11 healthy subjects indicate that the approach permits significant scan time reduction in MRA of the left and right coronary systems. Quantitative image analysis and visual grading suggest that two-fold scan acceleration can be accomplished at nearly preserved image quality. The additional experiments appear to demonstrate that parallel MRA equally permits enhancing volume coverage and spatial resolution while maintaining scan time. Magn Reson Med 52:221,227, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Parallel spectroscopic imaging with spin-echo trains

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2003
    Ulrike Dydak
    Abstract A reduction in scan time in spectroscopic imaging (SI) can be achieved by both fast and reduced k -space sampling. This work presents an ultrafast SI technique that combines the two approaches. The synergy of multiple spin-echo (MSE) acquisition and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) enables high-resolution SI to be performed within a clinically acceptable scan time. MSE-SENSE-SI with echo train lengths ranging from one to four echoes is evaluated with respect to SNR and spatial response function by means of in vitro experiments. It is shown that acquiring two spin-echoes (SEs) per acquisition yields a good practical trade-off among scan time, SNR, and spatial response. The clinical feasibility of the technique is demonstrated in a patient with an astrocytoma, and SI data are obtained with an image matrix of 24 24 in just over 2 min. Magn Reson Med 50:196,200, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    WHAT'S IN MY COMMON SENSE?

    PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM, Issue 3 2008
    GLORIA ORIGGI
    First page of article [source]


    FILM REVIEW ESSAY: THE SIXTH SENSE

    THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 2 2001
    Philip A. Ringstrom
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    [Commentary],LET'S KEEP IN TOUCH: YOU KNOW IT MAKES SENSE'

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    JIM ORFORD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    HERMENEUTICS OF MULTIPLE SENSES: WANG JIE'S "EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARY WITH DIAGRAMS TO THE QINGJING JING"

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 3 2010
    JOACHIM GENTZ
    First page of article [source]


    The Aid Paradigm for Poverty Reduction: Does It Make Sense?

    DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    John Weiss
    Thinking on economic policy for development has undergone many shifts in response to the perceived weak results of earlier adjustment reforms. A new donor consensus has emerged based around the central themes of economic growth, good governance and social development. This article examines the logic behind this new aid paradigm, revealing a nuanced story with country circumstances playing a critical role and particular interventions varying in impact. For example, growth does not always lead to gains for the poor that match the national average; public expenditure needs to be targeted to achieve social development, but effective targeting is difficult; governance reform may be critical but there is no simple governance blueprint, and the corruption-growth association need not always be negative. [source]


    Children's Sense of Self in Relation to Clinical Processes: Portraits of Pharmaceutical Transformation

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2009
    Elizabeth Carpenter-Song
    This article presents in-depth accounts of pharmaceutical transformation from the perspective of two children diagnosed with behavioral and emotional disorders. These portraits provide the basis for an examination of the complex interrelation between self and clinical processes. Narrative data were collected in the context of a 13-month anthropological study of the lived experiences of children diagnosed with behavioral and emotional disorders and their families living in the northeastern United States. Participating families (N=20) were from diverse racial/ethnic (African American, Euro-American, and Latino) and socioeconomic backgrounds. Psychiatric diagnoses and pharmaceuticals present tangible constraints in the lives of children that call attention to otherwise fluid and ephemeral self processes. These accounts suggest that psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medications present dilemmas for children's developing sense of self, revealing limitations to biopsychiatric "pharmaceutical promises." [children, self processes, subjective experience, psychiatric disorder, pharmaceuticals] [source]


    Health-related quality of life, symptom distress and sense of coherence in adult survivors of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 2 2001
    L. Edman
    This is the first Swedish study to evaluate the health-related quality of life and sense of coherence in adult survivors of allogeneic, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-five recipients completed three questionnaires 2,4 years after the transplantation. The questionnaires used were the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), the Symptom Frequency Intensity and Distress (SFID-BMT) scale and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale measuring subjective functional status, symptom distress and coping ability. Impairments in functional status were found, as compared with a population norm. The most common impairments were found in the areas of social interaction and sleep and rest. Eye problems, dry mouth, cough, sexual problems, tiredness, anxiety and changes of taste were symptoms reported by more than half of the patients. Despite impaired functioning and a high incidence of symptoms, the general health was described as quite good or excellent by 80% (n = 20) of the patients. The majority (20/22) had also been able to return to work or to attend school. No difference in the sense of coherence was seen, as compared with the population norm. Functional impairments were significantly correlated to a lower degree of sense of coherence. [source]


    Acute leukaemia or highly malignant lymphoma patients' quality of life over two years: a pilot study

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 1 2001
    L. Persson
    The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the quality of life and sense of coherence for acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma patients at the start of treatment and over 2 years. A second aim was to compare questionnaire responses with patients' statements in open-ended interviews. A consecutive sample of 16 patients responded to the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), Lund Gerontological Centre questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale at the start of treatment and after 12 and 24 months. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was administered also after 4, 8, 16 and 20 months. Tape-recorded open-ended interviews were conducted every 4 months before the patients responded to the questionnaires. Quality of life (QoL) and sense of coherence were scored more highly at the beginning of treatment for patients who did not relapse, than for those who relapsed. This difference remained throughout the study period. There was no correspondence in responses between questionnaire and personal interviews, although the results from the interviews, in some aspects, validated the result from the QLQ-C30. Those patients who relapsed may have had different prerequisites or been in a worse position at the onset of the disease and, reasonably, they needed more compensatory nursing care. More knowledge about the correspondence between a person's perceived QoL when discussed in personal interviews compared with responses given in standardised QoL questionnaires is needed before any assumption about clinical relevance can be made. [source]


    Treatment decision-making and its relation to the sense of coherence and the meaning of the disease in a group of patients with colorectal cancer

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER CARE, Issue 3 2000
    E. Ramfelt
    The aims of the present study were to describe the preferred and the actual participating roles in treatment decision-making in relation to patients with newly diagnosed, colorectal cancer and to relate this result to the sociodemographic data, the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the patients' meaning of the disease. Eighty-six patients were studied. The following instruments were used: the Control Preferences Scale (CPS); the eight Lipowski categories of the meaning of the disease (LCMD); and the SOC. The results showed that 62% of the patients preferred a collaborative role and 28% a passive role in treatment decision-making. Agreement between the preferred and the actual participating roles was achieved by 44% of the patients. Seventy-one per cent of the patients showed an optimistic understanding of their disease. The mean SOC score was 150. There was no statistically significant difference between the CPS groups as regarded the sociodemographic data, the SOC and the LCMD. Conclusion: Sociodemographic data, the perceived meaning of the disease as well as the patients' sense of coherence were not related to the decision-making preferences in the investigated group of patients. Therefore, further investigations are needed to get an understanding of influencing factors of the decision-making preferences. [source]


    Sense of coherence and adjustment to divorce among Muslim Arab citizens of Israel

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 4 2003
    Orna Cohen
    This study examined the distinctiveness and causal relationships of Antonovsky's (1979) Sense of Coherence Scale and the Mental Health Index of Veit and Ware (1983) in a sample of 306 divorced Muslim Arab men and women in Israel. The findings, based on confirmatory factor analysis and latent-variable structural modelling, suggest that in the present sample sense of coherence (SOC) and mental health are two independent but correlated constructs. They also suggest that, consistent with Antonovsky's theory, SOC may be better viewed as a mediator between stress and mental health than as a concurrent outcome of stress, although the latter possibility is not ruled out. Finally, the findings indicate that the SOC of the sample was relatively low in comparison with other groups. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Loss of sense transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing by sequential introduction of the same transgene sequences in tobacco

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2010
    Sayaka Hirai
    RNA silencing is an epigenetic inhibition of gene expression and is guided by small interfering RNAs. Sense transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) occurs in a portion of a transgenic plant population. When a sense transgene encoding a tobacco endoplasmic reticulum ,-3 fatty acid desaturase (NtFAD3) was introduced into tobacco plants, an S-PTGS line, S44, was obtained. Introduction of another copy of the NtFAD3 transgene into S44 plants caused a phenotypic change from S-PTGS to overexpression. Because this change was associated with the methylation of the promoter sequences of the transgene, reduced transcriptional activity may abolish S-PTGS and residual transcription of the sense transgene may account for the overexpression. To clarify whether RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) can repress the transcriptional activity of the S44 transgene locus, we introduced several RdDM constructs targeting the transgene promoter. An RdDM construct harboring a 200-bp-long fragment of promoter sequences efficiently abrogated the generation of NtFAD3 small interfering RNAs in S44 plants. Transcription of the transgene was partially repressed, but the resulting NtFAD3 mRNAs successfully accumulated and an overexpressed phenotype was established. Our results indicate an example in which overexpression of the transgene is established by complex epigenetic interactions among the transgenic loci. [source]


    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography

    GEOGRAPHY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2008
    Toby Butler
    Author's Introduction This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ,memoryscapes': outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. It is now possible to cheaply and easily create this and other kinds of located media experience. The development of multi-sensory-located media (,locedia') presents some exciting opportunities for those concerned with place, local history, cultural geography and oral history. This article uses work from several different disciplines (music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography) as a starting point to exploring some early and recent examples of locedia practice. It also suggests how it might give us a more sophisticated, real, embodied and nuanced experience of places that the written word just can not deliver. Yet, there are considerable challenges in producing and experiencing such work. Academics used to writing must learn to work in sound and view or image; they must navigate difficult issues of privacy, consider the power relations of the outsider's ,gaze' and make decisions about the representation of places in work that local people may try and have strong feelings about. Creating such work is an active, multi-sensory and profoundly challenging experience that can offer students the chance to master multi-media skills as well as apply theoretical understandings of the histories and geographies of place. Author Recommends 1.,Perks, R., and Thomson, A. (2006). The oral history reader, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. This is a wonderful collection of significant writing concerned with oral history. Part IV, Making Histories features much of interest, including a thought-provoking paper on the challenges of authoring in sound rather than print by Charles Hardy III, and a moving interview with Graeme Miller, the artist who created the Linked walk mentioned in the memoryscape article. These only feature in the second edition. 2.,Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: a short introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. A refreshingly clear and well-written guide to the different theoretical takes on what makes places , a good starting point for further reading. 3.,Carlyle, A. (ed.). (2008). Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Paris, France: Double Entendre. This is a collection of short essays and examples of located sonic media art; it includes interviews with practitioners and includes Hildegard Westekamp's Soundwalking, a practical guide to leading students on a mute walk. Lots of thought provoking, applied reading material for students here. 4.,Blunt, A., et al. (eds) (2003). Cultural geography in practice. London: Arnold. A great book for undergraduate and postgraduate students , concepts explained and lots of examples of actually doing cultural geography. The chapter on mapping worlds by David Pinder is particularly useful in this context. 5.,Pinder, D. (2001). Ghostly footsteps: voices, memories and walks in the city. Ecumene 8 (1), pp. 1,19. This article is a thoughtful analysis of a Janet Cardiff sound walk in Whitechapel, East London. Online Materials http://www.memoryscape.org.uk This is my project website, which features two online trails, Dockers which explores Greenwich and the memories of the London Docks that are archived in the Museum of London, and Drifting which is a rather strange experiment-combining physical geography and oral history along the Thames at Hampton Court, but still makes for an interesting trail. Audio, maps and trails can be downloaded for free, so students with phones or iPods can try the trails if you are within reach of Surrey or London. The site features an online version, with sound-accompanying photographs of the location. http://www.portsofcall.org.uk This website has three more trails here, this time of the communities surrounding the Royal Docks in East London. The scenery here is very dramatic and anyone interested in the regeneration of East London and its impact on local communities will find these trails interesting. Like Dockers, the walks feature a lot of rare archive interviews. This project involved a great deal of community interaction and participation as I experimented with trying to get people involved with the trail-making process. The site uses Google maps for online delivery. http://www.soundwalk.com This New York-based firm creates exceptionally high-quality soundwalks, and they are well worth the money. They started by producing trails for different districts of New York (I recommend the Bronx Graffiti trail) and have recently made trails for other cities, like Paris and Varanassi in India. http://www.mscapers.com This website is run by Hewlett Packard, which has a long history of research and development in located media applications. They currently give free licence to use their mscape software which is a relatively easy to learn way of creating global positioning system-triggered content. The big problem is that you have to have a pricey phone or personal digital assistant to run the software, which makes group work prohibitively expensive. But equipment prices are coming down and with the new generations of mobile phones developers believe that the time when the player technology is ubiquitous might be near. And if you ask nicely HP will lend out sets of equipment for teaching or events , fantastic if you are working within reach of Bristol. See also http://www.createascape.org.uk/ which has advice and examples of how mscape software has been used for teaching children. Sample Syllabus public geography: making memoryscapes This course unit could be adapted to different disciplines, or offered as a multidisciplinary unit to students from different disciplines. It gives students a grounding in several multi-media techniques and may require support/tuition from technical staff. 1.,Introduction What is a located mediascape, now and in the future? Use examples from resources above. 2.,Cultural geographies of site-specific art and sound Theories of place; experiments in mapping and site-specific performance. 3.,Walk activity: Westergard Hildekamp , sound walk, or one of the trails mentioned above The best way , and perhaps the only way , to really appreciate located media is to try one in the location they have been designed to be experienced. I would strongly advise any teaching in this field to include outdoor, on-site experiences. Even if you are out of reach of a mediascape experience, taking students on a sound walk can happen anywhere. See Autumn Leaves reference above. 4.,Researching local history An introduction to discovering historical information about places could be held at a local archive and a talk given by the archivist. 5.,Creating located multimedia using Google maps/Google earth A practical exercise-based session going through the basics of navigating Google maps, creating points and routes, and how to link pictures and sound files. 6.,Recording sound and oral history interviews A practical introduction to the techniques of qualitative interviewing and sound recording. There are lots of useful online guides to oral history recording, for example, an online oral history primer http://www.nebraskahistory.org/lib-arch/research/audiovis/oral_history/index.htm; a more in depth guide to various aspects of oral history http://www.baylor.edu/oral%5fhistory/index.php?id=23566 or this simple oral history toolkit, with useful links to project in the North of England http://www.oralhistorynortheast.info/toolkit/chapter1.htm 7.,Sound editing skills Practical editing techniques including working with clips, editing sound and creating multi-track recordings. The freeware software Audacity is simple to use and there are a lot of online tutorials that cover the basics, for example, http://www.wikieducator.org/user:brentsimpson/collections/audacity_workshop 8.,Web page design and Google maps How to create a basic web page (placing pictures, text, hyperlinks, buttons) using design software (e.g. Dreamweaver). How to embed a Google map and add information points and routes. There is a great deal of online tutorials for web design, specific to the software you wish to use and Google maps can be used and embedded on websites free for non-profit use. http://maps.google.com/ 9,and 10. Individual or group project work (staff available for technical support) 11.,Presentations/reflection on practice Focus Questions 1What can sound tell us about the geographies of places? 2When you walk through a landscape, what traces of the past can be sensed? Now think about which elements of the past have been obliterated? Whose past has been silenced? Why? How could it be put back? 3Think of a personal or family story that is significant to you. In your imagination, locate the memory at a specific place. Tell a fellow student that story, and describe that place. Does it matter where it happened? How has thinking about that place made you feel? 4What happens when you present a memory of the past or a located vision of the future in a present landscape? How is this different to, say, writing about it in a book? 5Consider the area of this campus, or the streets immediately surrounding this building. Imagine this place in one of the following periods (each group picks one): ,,10,000 years ago ,,500 years ago ,,100 years ago ,,40 years ago ,,last Thursday ,,50 years time What sounds, voices, stories or images could help convey your interpretation of this place at that time? What would the visitor hear or see today at different points on a trail? Sketch out an outline map of a located media trail, and annotate with what you hear/see/sense at different places. Project Idea small group project: creating a located mediascape Each small group must create a located media experience, reflecting an aspect of the history/geography/culture of an area of their choosing, using the knowledge that they have acquired over the course of the semester. The experience may be as creative and imaginative as you wish, and may explore the past, present or future , or elements of each. Each group must: ,,identify an area of interest ,,research an aspect of the area of the groups choosing; this may involve visiting local archives, libraries, discussing the idea with local people, physically exploring the area ,,take photographs, video or decide on imagery (if necessary) ,,record sound, conduct interviews or script and record narration ,,design a route or matrix of media points The final project must be presented on a website, may embed Google maps, and a presentation created to allow the class to experience the mediascape (either in the classroom or on location, if convenient). The website should include a brief theoretical and methodological explanation of the basis of their interpretation. If the group cannot be supported with tuition and support in basic website design or using Google mapping with sound and imagery, a paper map with locations and a CD containing sound files/images might be submitted instead. For examples of web projects created by masters degree students of cultural geography at Royal Holloway (not all sound based) see http://www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/MA/web-projects.html [source]


    Appearance and Reality in Indian Politics: Making Sense of the 1999 General Election

    GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION, Issue 1 2000
    Rob Jenkins
    [source]


    Asking fathers: a study of psychosocial adaptation

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2004
    E. K. Herrick
    Summary., Although few contemporary studies specifically address paternal adaptation, the theme of paternal estrangement from medical care and from family relationships is pervasive in the psychosocial literature on haemophilia. This estrangement has been shown to have a negative effect on fathers' psychological well-being, marital relationships and the adaptive outcome of their sons who have haemophilia. The goals of this study were to provide contemporary data on the psychosocial adaptation of fathers of boys with haemophilia and to examine specific variables that might influence their adjustment. Eighty-three eligible fathers returned a survey instrument that collected demographic and medical information, as well as scores on self-measures of adaptation in marital and parenting roles. Statistically significant direct correlations (P < 0.01) were found between fathers' scores on the Marital Adjustment Test and the Parenting Sense of Competence subscales (parenting efficacy and satisfaction). Variables specific to rearing a son with haemophilia that negatively affected fathers' marital adjustment scores included: feeling left out of medical decision making by their wives or partners, worry about their sons' having limited activity, and the presence of a secondary diagnosis in the affected child. Scores on the parenting efficacy subscale of the PSOC were statistically significantly reduced (i.e. fathers felt less effective in the parenting role) in men who ,rarely' or ,never' infused their sons (42/80, 53%). Variables that negatively affected scores on the parenting satisfaction subscale included frustrating interactions with medical staff and concern about their sons' potential to contract an infection or secondary diagnosis. This paper presents a model to examine the interrelationships among the data and discusses the clinical implications. [source]


    Making Sense of Theatre in the Third Reich

    HISTORY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2010
    Gerwin Strobl
    In the crowded field of studies on Nazi Germany the role of theatre in the Third Reich continues to be a neglected subject. The reluctance to engage with the topic is particularly true among historians and is in striking contrast to the attention devoted in recent years to other branches of the arts. Yet theatre actually received lavish funding from the Nazi regime. Indeed at no time in the history of the German stage was the provision so opulent, and the Nazi leadership went to considerable lengths to maintain the theatre sector even in wartime. The neglect of the theatre therefore constitutes more of a reflection on the priorities of the historical profession than those of the Nazi regime. This article attempts to redress the balance and to explore possible reasons for the limited treatment of the subject in the existing literature. [source]


    Making Sense of Gender in Shifting Institutional Contexts: Some Reflections on Gender Mainstreaming

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 4 2004
    Ramya Subrahmanian
    First page of article [source]


    The phenomenon of resilience in crisis care mental health clinicians

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 2 2005
    Karen-leigh Edward
    ABSTRACT:, The purpose of this study, undertaken in 2003, was to explore the phenomenon of resilience as experienced by Australian crisis care mental health clinicians working in a highly demanding, complex, specialized and stressful environment. For the purpose of this research, the term ,resilience' was defined as the ability of an individual to bounce back from adversity and persevere through difficult times. The six participants for this study were drawn from Melbourne metropolitan mental health organizations , the disciplines of nursing, allied health and medicine. A number of themes were explicated from the participants' interview transcripts , Participants identified the experience of resilience through five exhaustive descriptions, which included: ,The team is a protective veneer to the stress of the work'; Sense of self; Faith and hope; Having insight; and Looking after yourself. These exhaustive descriptions were integrated into a fundamental structure of resilience for clinicians in this role. The study's findings have the potential to inform organizations in mental health to promote resilience in clinicians, with the potential to reduce the risk of burnout and hence staff attrition, and promote staff retention and occupational mental health. [source]