Selective Degeneration (selective + degeneration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic dissection reveals two separate pathways for rod and cone regeneration in the teleost retina

Ann C. Morris
Abstract Development of therapies to treat visual system dystrophies resulting from the degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors may directly benefit from studies of animal models, such as the zebrafish, that display continuous retinal neurogenesis and the capacity for injury-induced regeneration. Previous studies of retinal regeneration in fish have been conducted on adult animals and have relied on methods that cause acute damage to both rods and cones, as well as other retinal cell types. We report here the use of a genetic approach to study progenitor cell responses to photoreceptor degeneration in the larval and adult zebrafish retina. We have compared the responses to selective rod or cone degeneration using, respectively, the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line and zebrafish with a null mutation in the pde6c gene. Notably, rod degeneration induces increased proliferation of progenitors in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and is not associated with proliferation or reactive gliosis in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Molecular characterization of the rod progenitor cells demonstrated that they are committed to the rod photoreceptor fate while they are still mitotic. In contrast, cone degeneration induces both Müller cell proliferation and reactive gliosis, with little change in proliferation in the ONL. We found that in both lines, proliferative responses to photoreceptor degeneration can be observed as 7 days post fertilization (dpf). These two genetic models therefore offer new opportunities for investigating the molecular mechanisms of selective degeneration and regeneration of rods and cones. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

Disruption of dopamine homeostasis underlies selective neurodegeneration mediated by ,-synuclein

Soon S. Park
Abstract A key challenge in Parkinson's disease research is to understand mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons mediated by genetic factors such as ,-synuclein (,-Syn). The present study examined whether dopamine (DA)-dependent oxidative stress underlies ,-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration using Drosophila primary neuronal cultures. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to identify live dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures prepared on a marked photoetched coverslip, which allowed us to repeatedly access preidentified dopaminergic neurons at different time points in a non-invasive manner. This live tracking of GFP-marked dopaminergic neurons revealed age-dependent neurodegeneration mediated by a mutant human ,-Syn (A30P). Degeneration was rescued when ,-Syn neuronal cultures were incubated with 1 mm glutathione from Day 3 after culturing. Furthermore, depletion of cytoplasmic DA by 100 µm,-methyl- p -tyrosine completely rescued the early stage of ,-Syn-mediated dopaminergic cell loss, demonstrating that DA plays a major role in oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration mediated by ,-Syn. In contrast, overexpression of a Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase gene (dTH1) alone caused DA neurodegeneration by enhanced DA synthesis in the cytoplasm. Age-dependent dopaminergic cell loss was comparable in ,-Syn vs dTH1-overexpressed neuronal cultures, indicating that increased DA levels in the cytoplasm is a critical change downstream of mutant ,-Syn function. Finally, overexpression of a Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter rescued ,-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration through enhanced sequestration of cytoplasmic DA into synaptic vesicles, further indicating that a main cause of selective neurodegeneration is ,-Syn-induced disruption of DA homeostasis. All of these results demonstrate that elevated cytoplasmic DA is a main factor underlying the early stage of ,-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration. [source]

Altered longevity-assurance activity of p53:p44 in the mouse causes memory loss, neurodegeneration and premature death

AGING CELL, Issue 2 2010
Mariana Pehar
Summary The longevity-assurance activity of the tumor suppressor p53 depends on the levels of ,40p53 (p44), a short and naturally occurring isoform of the p53 gene. As such, increased dosage of p44 in the mouse leads to accelerated aging and short lifespan. Here we show that mice homozygous for a transgene encoding p44 (p44+/+) display cognitive decline and synaptic impairment early in life. The synaptic deficits are attributed to hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling and altered metabolism of the microtubule-binding protein tau. In fact, they were rescued by either Igf1r or Mapt haploinsufficiency. When expressing a human or a ,humanized' form of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), p44+/+ animals developed a selective degeneration of memory-forming and -retrieving areas of the brain, and died prematurely. Mechanistically, the neurodegeneration was caused by both paraptosis- and autophagy-like cell deaths. These results indicate that altered longevity-assurance activity of p53:p44 causes memory loss and neurodegeneration by affecting IGF-1R signaling. Importantly, Igf1r haploinsufficiency was also able to correct the synaptic deficits of APP695/swe mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. [source]

KATP channel blockade protects midbrain dopamine neurons by repressing a glia-to-neuron signaling cascade that ultimately disrupts mitochondrial calcium homeostasis

Damien Toulorge
J. Neurochem. (2010) 114, 583,564. Abstract While KATP channels serve primarily as metabolic gatekeepers in excitable cells, they might also participate in other important cellular functions. Here, we demonstrate that KATP channel blockade with the sulfonylurea derivative glibenclamide provided robust protection to dopamine neurons undergoing spontaneous and selective degeneration in midbrain cultures. Unexpectedly, glibenclamide operated not by a direct effect on dopamine neurons but instead by halting the proliferation of a population of immature glial cells lacking astrocytic and microglial markers. The antimitotic effect of glibenclamide appeared essential to unmask a prosurvival phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent signaling pathway that controlled shuttling of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in dopamine neurons. Preventing integrin-ligand interactions with a decoy ligand, the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser sequence peptide, reproduced survival promotion by glibenclamide via a mechanism that also required PI3K/Akt-dependent regulation of mitochondrial calcium. Noticeably, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser did not cause a reduction in glial cell numbers indicating that it prevented the death process downstream of the level at which glibenclamide intervenes. Based on these results, we propose that KATP channel blockade protected dopamine neurons by inhibiting a glia-to-neuron signaling pathway that propagates through integrin/ligand interactions and ultimately disrupts PI3K/Akt-dependent signaling and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. [source]

Protective up-regulation of CK2 by mutant huntingtin in cells co-expressing NMDA receptors

Mannie M. Y. Fan
Abstract Huntington's disease is caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (htt) protein, and previous data indicate that over-activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) may be involved in the selective degeneration of cells expressing NR1/NR2B NMDARs. We used KinetworksÔ multi-immunoblotting screens to examine expression of 76 protein kinases, 18 protein phosphatases, 25 heat shock/stress proteins, and 27 apoptosis proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with NR1/NR2B and htt containing 15 (htt-15Q; wild-type) or 138 (htt-138Q; mutant) glutamine repeats. Follow-up experiments revealed several proteins involved in the heat-shock response pathway to be up-regulated in the soluble fraction from cells expressing htt-138Q, including protein phosphatase 5 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Increased expression in the soluble fraction of htt-138Q-expressing cells was also noted for the stress- and calcium-activated protein-serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2, a change which was confirmed in striatal tissue of yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing full-length mutant htt. Inhibition of casein kinase 2 activity in cultured striatal neurons from these mice significantly exacerbated NMDAR-mediated toxicity, as assessed by labeling of apoptotic nuclei. Our findings are consistent with up-regulation of components of the stress response pathway in the presence of polyglutamine-expanded htt and NR1/NR2B which may reflect an attempt at the cellular level to ameliorate the detrimental effects of mutant htt expression. [source]

Minocycline attenuates microglial activation but fails to mitigate striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity: role of tumor necrosis factor-,

Krishnan Sriram
Abstract Activated microglia are implicated in the pathogenesis of disease-, trauma- and toxicant-induced damage to the CNS, and strategies to modulate microglial activation are gaining impetus. A novel action of the tetracycline derivative minocycline is the ability to inhibit inflammation and free radical formation, factors that influence microglial activation. Minocycline is therefore being tested as a neuroprotective agent to alleviate CNS damage, although findings so far have yielded mixed results. Here, we showed that administration of a single low dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or methamphetamine (METH), a paradigm that causes selective degeneration of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals without affecting the cell body in substantia nigra, increased the expression of mRNAs encoding microglia-associated factors F4/80, interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,. Minocycline treatment attenuated MPTP- or METH-mediated microglial activation, but failed to afford neuroprotection. Lack of neuroprotection was shown to be due to the inability of minocycline to abolish the induction of TNF-, and its receptors, thereby failing to modulate TNF signaling. Thus, TNF-, appeared to be an obligatory component of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. To address this possibility, we examined the effects of MPTP or METH in mice lacking genes encoding IL-6, CCL2 or TNF receptor (TNFR)1/2. Deficiency of either IL-6 or CCL2 did not alter MPTP neurotoxicity. However, deficiency of both TNFRs protected against the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MPTP. Taken together, our findings suggest that attenuation of microglial activation is insufficient to modulate neurotoxicity as transient activation of microglia may suffice to initiate neurodegeneration. These findings support the hypothesis that TNF-, may play a role in the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal pathway associated with dopaminergic neurotoxicity and perhaps Parkinson's disease. [source]

A molecular basis for the increased vulnerability of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in aging and Parkinson's disease,

C. Savio Chan PhD
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. There is no cure or proven strategy for slowing the progression of the disease. Although there are signs of pathology in many brain regions, the core symptoms of PD are attributable to the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. A potential clue to the vulnerability of these neurons is an increasing reliance with age upon L-type Ca2+ channels with a pore-forming Cav1.3 subunit to support autonomous activity. This reliance could pose a sustained stress on mitochondrial ATP generating oxidative phosphorylation, accelerating cellular aging and death. Systemic administration of isradipine, a dihydropyridine blocker of these channels, forces dopaminergic neurons in rodents to revert to a juvenile, L-type Ca2+ channel independent mechanism to generate autonomous activity. This "rejuvenation" confers protection against toxins that produce experimental Parkinsonism, pointing to a potential neuroprotective strategy for PD. Their decades-long track record of safe use in the treatment of hypertension makes dihydropyridines particularly attractive as a therapeutic tool in PD. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Sphincter electromyography and multiple system atrophy

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 1 2003
Frederick Nahm MD
Abstract Electromyographic studies of the sphincter in patients with multiple system atrophy have shown increased duration and polyphasia of motor unit potentials. These electrophysiological markers have been used to argue for the selective degeneration of sacral motor neurons in Onuf's nucleus in patients with multiple system atrophy. Studies comparing sphincter electromyographic changes in patients with multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease have shown significant differences between these two patient populations. Despite the controversy surrounding this claim, recent studies using quantitative electromyographic techniques support the view that reinnervation of the anal sphincter muscles may be a useful diagnostic marker for distinguishing multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease. A critical review of these data is needed to assess the validity and reliability of electromyographic changes in multiple system atrophy. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 28: 18,26, 2003 [source]