Selective Death (selective + death)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Selective death of newborn neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus following moderate experimental traumatic brain injury

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2008
Xiang Gao
Abstract Memory impairment is one of the most significant residual deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is among the most frequent complaints heard from patients and their relatives. It has been reported that the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to TBI, which results in hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. There are different regions in the hippocampus, and each region is composed of different cell types, which might respond differently to TBI. However, regional and cell type-specific neuronal death following TBI is not well described. Here, we examined the distribution of degenerating neurons in the hippocampus of the mouse brain following controlled cortical impact (CCI) and found that the majority of degenerating neurons observed were in the dentate gyrus after moderate (0.5 mm cortical deformation) CCI-TBI. In contrast, there were only a few degenerating neurons observed in the hilus, and we did not observe any degenerating neurons in the CA3 or CA1 regions. Among those degenerating cells in the dentate gyrus, about 80% of them were found in the inner granular neuron layer. Analysis with cell type-specific markers showed that most of the degenerating neurons in the inner granular neuron layer are newborn immature neurons. Further quantitative analysis shows that the number of newborn immature neurons in the dentate gyrus is dramatically decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared with the contralateral side. Collectively, our data demonstrate the selective death of newborn immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following moderate injury with CCI in mice. This selective vulnerability of newborn immature dentate neurons may contribute to the persistent impairment of learning and memory post-TBI and provide an innovative target for neuroprotective treatment strategies. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Enhanced synaptic excitation,inhibition ratio in hippocampal interneurons of rats with temporal lobe epilepsy

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
F. Stief
Abstract A common feature of all epileptic syndromes is the repetitive occurrence of pathological patterns of synchronous neuronal activity, usually combined with increased neuronal discharge rates. Inhibitory interneurons of the hippocampal formation control both neuronal synchronization as well as the global level of activity and are therefore of crucial importance for epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that changes in synaptic inhibition during temporal lobe epilepsy are rather specific, resulting from selective death or alteration of interneurons in specific hippocampal layers. Hence, epilepsy-induced changes have to be analysed separately for different types of interneurons. Here, we focused on GABAergic neurons located at the border between stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of hippocampal area CA1 (SRL interneurons), which are included in feedforward inhibitory circuits. In chronically epileptic rats at 6,8 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, frequencies of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents were reduced, yielding an almost three-fold increase in excitation,inhibition ratio. Consistently, action potential frequency of SRL interneurons was about two-fold enhanced. Morphological alterations of the interneurons indicate that these functional changes were accompanied by remodelling of the local network, probably resulting in a loss of functional inhibitory synapses without conceivable cell death. Our data indicate a strong increase in activity of interneurons in dendritic layers of the chronically epileptic CA1 region. This alteration may enhance feedforward inhibition and rhythmogenesis and , together with specific changes in other interneurons , contribute to seizure susceptibility and pathological synchronization. [source]


Preferential vulnerability of mesencephalic dopamine neurons to glutamate transporter dysfunction

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2008
Imane Nafia
Abstract Nigral depletion of the main brain antioxidant GSH is the earliest biochemical event involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Its causes are completely unknown but increasing number of evidence suggests that glutamate transporters [excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs)] are the main route by which GSH precursors may enter the cell. In this study, we report that dopamine (DA) neurons, which express the excitatory amino acid carrier 1, are preferentially affected by EAAT dysfunction when compared with non-DA neurons. In rat embryonic mesencephalic cultures, l -trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate, a substrate inhibitor of EAATs, is directly and preferentially toxic for DA neurons by decreasing the availability of GSH precursors and lowering their resistance threshold to glutamate excitotoxicity through NMDA-receptors. In adult rat, acute intranigral injection of l -trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate induces a large regionally selective and dose-dependent loss of DA neurons and ,-synuclein aggregate formation. These data highlight for the first time the importance of excitatory amino acid carrier 1 function for the maintenance of antioxidant defense in DA neurons and suggest its dysfunction as a candidate mechanism for the selective death of DA neurons such as occurring in Parkinson's disease. [source]


Selective death of newborn neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus following moderate experimental traumatic brain injury

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2008
Xiang Gao
Abstract Memory impairment is one of the most significant residual deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is among the most frequent complaints heard from patients and their relatives. It has been reported that the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to TBI, which results in hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. There are different regions in the hippocampus, and each region is composed of different cell types, which might respond differently to TBI. However, regional and cell type-specific neuronal death following TBI is not well described. Here, we examined the distribution of degenerating neurons in the hippocampus of the mouse brain following controlled cortical impact (CCI) and found that the majority of degenerating neurons observed were in the dentate gyrus after moderate (0.5 mm cortical deformation) CCI-TBI. In contrast, there were only a few degenerating neurons observed in the hilus, and we did not observe any degenerating neurons in the CA3 or CA1 regions. Among those degenerating cells in the dentate gyrus, about 80% of them were found in the inner granular neuron layer. Analysis with cell type-specific markers showed that most of the degenerating neurons in the inner granular neuron layer are newborn immature neurons. Further quantitative analysis shows that the number of newborn immature neurons in the dentate gyrus is dramatically decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared with the contralateral side. Collectively, our data demonstrate the selective death of newborn immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following moderate injury with CCI in mice. This selective vulnerability of newborn immature dentate neurons may contribute to the persistent impairment of learning and memory post-TBI and provide an innovative target for neuroprotective treatment strategies. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


PGE2 receptor EP1 renders dopaminergic neurons selectively vulnerable to low-level oxidative stress and direct PGE2 neurotoxicity

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 14 2007
Emilce Carrasco
Abstract Oxidative stress and increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity are both implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the key products of COX-2 activity and PGE2 production is increased in PD. However, little is known about its role in the selective death of dopaminergic neurons. Previously, we showed that oxidative stress evoked by low concentrations of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was selective for dopaminergic neurons in culture and fully dependent on COX-2 activity. We postulated that this loss was mediated by PGE2 acting through its receptors, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Using double-label immunohistochemistry for specific EP receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), we identified EP1 and EP2 receptors on dopaminergic neurons in rat SN. EP2 receptors were also found in non-dopaminergic neurons of this nucleus, as were EP3 receptors, whereas the EP4 receptor was absent. PGE2, 16-phenyl tetranor PGE2 (a stable synthetic analogue), and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (an EP1 receptor,selective agonist) were significantly toxic to dopaminergic cells at nanomolar concentrations; EP2- and EP3-selective agonists were not. We challenged dopaminergic neurons in embryonic rat mesencephalic primary neuronal cultures and tested whether these receptors mediate selective 6-OHDA toxicity. The nonselective EP1,3 receptor antagonist AH-6809 and two selective EP1 antagonists, SC-19220 and SC-51089, completely prevented the 40%,50% loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by exposure to 5 ,M 6-OHDA. Together, these results strongly implicate PGE2 activation of EP1 receptors as a mediator of selective toxicity in this model of dopaminergic cell loss. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Oxidized/misfolded superoxide dismutase-1: the cause of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Edor Kabashi PhD
The identification in 1993 of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutations as the cause of 10 to 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, which represents 1 to 2% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases, prompted a substantial amount of research into the mechanisms of SOD1-mediated toxicity. Recent experiments have demonstrated that oxidation of wild-type SOD1 leads to its misfolding, causing it to gain many of the same toxic properties as mutant SOD1. In vitro studies of oxidized/misfolded SOD1 and in vivo studies of misfolded SOD1 have indicated that these protein species are selectively toxic to motor neurons, suggesting that oxidized/misfolded SOD1 could lead to ALS even in individuals who do not carry an SOD1 mutation. It has also been reported that glial cells secrete oxidized/misfolded mutant SOD1 to the extracellular environment, where it can trigger the selective death of motor neurons, offering a possible explanation for the noncell autonomous nature of mutant SOD1 toxicity and the rapid progression of disease once the first symptoms develop. Therefore, considering that sporadic (SALS) and familial ALS (FALS) cases are clinically indistinguishable, the toxic properties of mutated SOD1 are similar to that of oxidized/misfolded wild-type SOD1 (wtSOD1), and secreted/extracellular misfolded SOD1 is selectively toxic to motor neurons, we propose that oxidized/misfolded SOD1 is the cause of most forms of classic ALS and should be a prime target for the design of ALS treatments. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]