Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Self-report

  • adolescent self-report
  • child self-report
  • maternal self-report
  • patient self-report
  • retrospective self-report
  • youth self-report

  • Terms modified by Self-report

  • self-report assessment
  • self-report data
  • self-report instrument
  • self-report instruments
  • self-report inventory
  • self-report measure
  • self-report methods
  • self-report questionnaire
  • self-report rating
  • self-report scale
  • self-report survey

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    We evaluate two alternative explanations for the converging gender gap in arrest,changes in women's behavior versus changes in mechanisms of social control. Using the offense of drunk driving and three methodologically diverse data sets, we explore trends in the DUI gender gap. We probe for change across various age groups and across measures tapping DUI prevalence and chronicity. Augmented Dickey-Fuller time-series techniques are used to assess changes in the gender gap and levels of drunk driving from 1980 to 2004. Analyses show women of all ages making arrest gains on men,a converging gender gap. In contrast, self-report and traffic data indicate little or no systematic change in the DUI gender gap. Findings support the conclusion that mechanisms of social control have shifted to target female offending patterns disproportionately. Little support exists for the contention that increased strain and liberalized gender roles have altered the gender gap or female drunk-driving patterns. [source]

    Protective factors for youth considered at risk of criminal behaviour: does participation in extracurricular activities help?

    Jodi M. Burton
    Background There is a lack of research investigating the potential protective effect of participation in extracurricular activities on youth who are at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. Aim This study examined the potential for participation in extracurricular activities to act as a protective factor for youth deemed at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. Method One hundred and sixty-nine secondary students from Glasgow, Scotland completed two questionnaires (the Youth Self-Report and an additional information sheet) requesting information about their participation in extracurricular and delinquent activities as well as their possible risk factors. Activities included sports, non-sports (hobbies and games), current activities (youth clubs and other organisations) and previous involvement in activities. Risk factors included residing in a broken home, having four or more siblings, academic failure and lacking a nonparental very important person. Delinquent activities included rule-breaking and aggressive behaviours. Results Independent samplest-tests found that females participated in significantly more non-sports and previous activities than males and that males participated in significantly more rule-breaking behaviour than females. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that gender and participation in sports were strong predictors of rule-breaking behaviour. A significant positive correlation was found between participation in sports and involvement in aggressive behaviour. Conclusion The results suggest that participation in extracurricular activities does not act as a protective factor for youth, regardless of whether or not they are considered to be at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. The significant correlation found between participation in sports and involvement in aggressive behaviour suggests that youth participation in sports may act as a risk factor. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Employer burden of mild, moderate, and severe major depressive disorder: mental health services utilization and costs, and work performance,

    Howard G. Birnbaum Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: Treatment utilization/costs and work performance for persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) by severity of illness is not well documented. Methods: Using National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (2001,2002) data, US workforce respondents (n=4,465) were classified by clinical severity (not clinically depressed, mild, moderate, severe) using a standard self-rating scale [Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR)]. Outcomes included 12-month prevalence of medical services/medications use/costs and workplace performance. Treatment costs (employer's perspective) were estimated by weighing utilization measures by unit costs obtained for similar services used by MDD patients in claims data. Descriptive analysis across three severity groups generated ,2 results. Results: Using a sample of 539 US workforce respondents with MDD, 13.8% were classified mild, 38.5% moderate, and 47.7% severe cases. Mental health services usage, including antidepressants, increased significantly with severity, with average treatment costs substantially higher for severe than for mild cases both regarding mental health services ($697 vs. $388, ,2=4.4, P=.019) and antidepressants ($256 vs. $88, ,2=9.0, P=.001). Prevalence rates of unemployment/disability increased significantly (,2=11.7, P=.003) with MDD severity (15.7, 23.3, and 31.3% for mild, moderate, and severe cases). Severely and moderately depressed workers missed more work than nondepressed workers; the monthly salary-equivalent lost performance of $199 (severely depressed) and $188 (moderately depressed) was significantly higher than for nondepressed workers (,2=10.3, P<.001). Projected to the US workforce, monthly depression-related worker productivity losses had human capital costs of nearly $2 billion. Conclusions: MDD severity is significantly associated with increased treatment usage/costs, treatment adequacy, unemployment, and disability and with reduced work performance. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Juan R. Ordoñana
    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and skin conductance) were registered. Perceived threat and efficacy varied according to the characteristics of the message. High-threat messages elicited significantly different levels of autonomic arousal than low-threat messages. Following of behavioral recommendation was higher among subjects who were exposed to the high threat / high efficacy stimulus, those who reported high perceived threat, and for those who showed an autonomic response pattern related to the facilitation of attentional processes. Résumé Les auto-évaluations et les réactions psychophysiologiques aux messages véhiculant des peurs Cette étude fut réalisée afin d'évaluer la relation entre les auto-évaluations et les réactions psychophysiologiques à des messages véhiculant des peurs ainsi que les changements suscités par ceux-ci. 92 sujets ont visionné un de quatre messages variant en niveau de danger (élevé ou faible) et d,efficacité (forte ou faible). En même temps, des mesures psychophysiologiques (le rythme cardiaque et la conduction cutanée) furent enregistrées. La perception de danger et d'efficacité variait suivant les caractéristiques du message. Les messages à danger élevé suscitaient des niveaux d,éveil autonome sensiblement différents des messages à faible danger. Le suivi de recommandations comportementales était plus élevé chez les sujets ayant été exposés au stimulus à danger élevé et à forte efficacité, chez ceux ayant déclaré une perception de danger élevé ainsi que chez ceux ayant présenté un schéma de réaction autonome liéà la facilitation des processus attentionnels. Abstract Selbstauskünfte zu und psychophysiologische Reaktionen auf Furchtappelle Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Beziehung zwischen den Aussagen zu und den psychophysiologischen Reaktionen auf Furchtappelle und Verhaltensänderungen zu untersuchen. 92 Teilnehmer sahen eine von vier Botschaften, die nach dem Grad der Gefahr (hoch vs. niedrig) und der Selbstwirksamkeit (hoch vs. niedrig) variierten. Begleitend wurden psychophysiologische Messungen (Herzfrequenz, Hautleitwiderstand) durchgeführt. Die wahrgenommene Bedrohung und Selbstwirksamkeit variierte nach den Charakteristika der Botschaft. Bei Botschaften mit hoher Gefahr zeigten die Teilnehmer einen anderen Grad an autonomer Erregung als bei Botschaften mit geringer Gefahr. Teilnehmer, die den Stimulus mit hoher Gefahr und hoher Selbstwirksamkeit rezipiert hatten, folgten den Verhaltensempfehlungen häufiger als diejenigen, die eine hohe wahrgenommene Gefahr berichteten und jene, die ein autonomes Reaktionsmuster zeigten, welches im Zusammenhang mit Zuwendung und Aufmerksamkeit steht. Resumen Los Auto-Reportes y las Respuestas Psico-Fisiológicas a las Apelaciones al Miedo Este estudio fue designado para evaluar la relación entre los auto-reportes y las respuestas psico-fisiológicas a las apelaciones al miedo y los cambios de comportamiento provocados por estos. 92 sujetos observaron 1 de 4 mensajes que variaron en su nivel de amenaza (alto o bajo) y la eficacia (alta o baja). Concomitantemente, las medidas psico-fisiológicas (pulso cardíaco y conductor de la piel) fueron registradas. La amenaza percibida y la eficacia variaron de acuerdo a las características del mensaje. Los mensajes de amenaza alta provocaron diferentes niveles significativos de excitación nerviosa que los mensajes de amenaza baja. Siguiendo la recomendación de comportamiento fue más alta entre los sujetos que fueron expuestos a la amenaza alta/ eficacia de estímulo alta, aquellos que reportaron una amenaza percibida alta, y para los que mostraron pautas de respuesta nerviosas relacionadas con la facilitación de los procesos de atención. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Reliability and validity of the Youth Self-Report, Bangladesh version

    Takashi Izutsu
    Abstract The objectives of this study were to develop the Bangladesh version of the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and assess its reliability and validity in an adolescent population in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. One-hundred-and-eighty-seven boys (mean age: 14.6 years, SD: 2.1) and 137 girls (mean age: 15.2 years, SD: 2.0) from residential areas, and 27 boys (mean age: 17.0, SD: 1.4) and 14 girls (mean age: 15.4, SD: 2.8) from a psychiatric hospital, all within the range of 11,18 years, were interviewed using a questionnaire that consisted of the Bangla translation of the YSR and other questions. Thirty-eight randomly selected adolescents were administered the same questionnaire one week after the first administration. All the core scores and most of the subscales showed high internal consistency other than small item-number subscales, and satisfactory test- retest reliability. Good discriminant validity was shown for most of the scale scores. This study showed that the Bangla translation of the YSR had sufficient reliability and validity for use in Bangladesh. The cutoff scores of the scales were higher for the Bangla version than for the original English version, and further studies exploring this point would be an asset. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pain Assessment in Persons with Dementia: Relationship Between Self-Report and Behavioral Observation

    Ann L. Horgas RN
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between self-report and behavioral indicators of pain in cognitively impaired and intact older adults. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, correlational study of older adults. SETTING: Data were collected from residents of nursing homes, assisted living, and retirement apartments in north-central Florida. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-six adults, mean age 83; 64 cognitively intact, 62 cognitively impaired. MEASUREMENTS: Pain interviews (pain presence, intensity, locations, duration), pain behavior measure, Mini-Mental State Examination, analgesic medications, and demographic characteristics. Participants completed an activity-based protocol to induce pain. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent self-reported regular pain. Controlling for analgesics, cognitively impaired participants reported less pain than cognitively intact participants after movement but not at rest. Behavioral pain indicators did not differ between cognitively intact and impaired participants. Total number of pain behaviors was significantly related to self-reported pain intensity (,=0.40, P=.000) in cognitively intact elderly people. CONCLUSION: Cognitively impaired elderly people self-report less pain than cognitively intact elderly people, independent of analgesics, but only when assessed after movement. Behavioral pain indicators do not differ between the groups. The relationship between self-report and pain behaviors supports the validity of behavioral assessments in this population. These findings support the use of multidimensional pain assessment in persons with dementia. [source]

    Agreement Between Self-Report of Disease Diagnoses and Medical Record Validation in Disabled Older Women: Factors That Modify Agreement

    Crystal F. Simpson MD
    Objectives: To determine the agreement between self-report of chronic disease and validated evidence of disease using multiple ascertainment methods and to assess effects of cognition, education, age, and comorbidity. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Community Baltimore, Maryland. Participants: One thousand two community-dwelling disabled women aged 65 and older. Measurements: Kappa statistics were calculated to determine the relationship between self-report of 14 diseases and standardized algorithms. Analyses were stratified using Mini-Mental State Examination score, education, number of chronic diseases, and age. Results: Kappa was excellent for hip fracture (HF), Parkinson's disease (PD), diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, stroke, and disc disease (DD); fair to good for angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction; and poor for peripheral arterial disease, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and lung disease. Overall, kappa decreased with decreasing cognition and education, increasing age, and four or more diseases. Conclusion: In disabled older women, self-report of physician diagnosis of HF, PD, DM, cancer, stroke, and DD appears valid. In general, increasing comorbidity and age and decreasing cognition and education do not reduce validity for diseases where agreement was excellent overall. [source]

    Comparing Structural Equation Models That Use Different Measures of the Level of Response to Alcohol

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
    Marc A. Schuckit
    Background:, The two measures of a low level of response (LR) to alcohol, an alcohol challenge and the retrospective Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol questionnaire (SRE), each identify individuals at high risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. These measures also perform similarly in identifying subjects with unique functional brain imaging characteristics. However, few data are available regarding whether alcohol challenge-based and SRE-based LRs operate similarly in structural equation models (SEMs) that search for characteristics, which help to mediate how LR impacts alcohol outcomes. Methods:, Two hundred and ninety-four men from the San Diego Prospective Study were evaluated for their LR to alcohol using alcohol challenges at ,age 20. At ,age 35, the same subjects filled out the SRE regarding the number of drinks needed for effects 15 to 20 years earlier. The two different LR scores for these men were used in SEM analyses evaluating how LR relates to future heavy drinking and to drinking in peers (PEER), alcohol expectancies (EXPECT), and drinking to cope (COPE) as potential mediators of the LR to drinking pattern (ALCOUT) relationships. Results:, While the 2 LR measures that were determined 15 years apart related to each other at a modest level (r = 0.17, p < 0.01), the SEM results were similar regardless of the LR source. In both alcohol challenge-based and SRE-based LR models, LR related directly to ALCOUT, with partial mediation from PEER and COPE, but not through EXPECT in these 35-year-old men. Conclusions:, Consistent with the >60% overlap in prediction of outcomes for the 2 LR measures, and with results from functional brain imaging, alcohol challenge- and SRE-based LR values operated similarly in SEM models in these men. [source]

    Maternal Self-Report of Oral Health in 4-Year-Old Pacific Children from South Auckland, New Zealand: Findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study

    Philip J. Schluter PhD
    Abstract Objectives: To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. Methods: The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Results: Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing ,1/day, 47 percent having no adult assistance with brushing, 57 percent routinely snacking or drinking immediately prior to bed, and 26 percent yet to receive their first dental checkup. Maternal practices were also poor, with 34 percent brushing ,1/day and 50 percent having never seen or last visiting a dentist over 5 years ago. Significant differences were seen in many practices between the major ethnic subgroups. Of children attending the school dental service, 22 percent were reported having at least one filling and/or extraction. In multivariable analyses, variables corresponding to mother's toothbrushing frequency, child snacking or drinking prior to bed, and duration of breastfeeding were significantly associated with reported filling and/or extraction experience; but no difference was seen between the three major maternal ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: Many mothers and their Pacific children have poor basic oral hygiene and dietary practices that increase the oral health risk in these children. Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced. [source]

    The Overlap in Predicting Alcohol Outcome for Two Measures of the Level of Response to Alcohol

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
    Marc A. Schuckit
    Background:, Two different measures have been used to establish a person's level of response (LR) to alcohol as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders. LR values established by the alcohol challenge protocol and the Self-Report of the Effects of Ethanol (SRE) questionnaire usually correlate at 0.3 to 0.4, up to 0.6. However, it is not clear how this correlation relates to the ability of each measure to predict alcohol outcomes. This paper evaluates that overlap. Methods:, Sixty-six Caucasian males (mean age = 22 years) from 2 protocols participated in alcohol challenges with 0.75 ml/kg of ethanol, filled out the SRE, and were followed with a structured interview ,5 years later. The relationship between the subjective feelings of intoxication at the time of peak breath alcohol levels from the alcohol challenge and the SRE score for a time early in the drinking career were evaluated regarding predicting the drinks per occasion in the 6 months prior to follow-up. Results:, Cross-sectional correlations between alcohol challenge and SRE LR's ranged from ,0.25 (p < 0.05) to ,0.32 (p = 0.02) for the full sample, and the 2 LR measures correlated with drinking at follow-up (,0.26 and 0.41, respectively). The SRE measure was more robust than the challenge in a regression analysis predicting the outcome in the context of other baseline predictors (e.g., drinking at baseline). As much as 60% of the ability of the more well established (gold standard) alcohol challenge LR to predict outcome was shared with the SRE. The alcohol challenge accounted for as much as 44% of the ability of the SRE to predict outcome. Conclusions:, The SRE-generated LR overlapped considerably with the alcohol challenge LR in the ability to predict future heavier drinking. [source]

    Elementary Students' Sleep Habits and Teacher Observations of Sleep-Related Problems

    Denise H. Amschler PhD Professor
    ABSTRACT: Sleep affects the health and well-being of children and plays a key role in preventing disease and injury, stability of mood, and ability to learn. Unfortunately, children often do not get adequate sleep on a regular basis. This study surveyed 199 fifth-grade students regarding their sleep habits using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) instrument (child's form), the Morningness/Eveningness (M/E) Scale, and additional demographic questions. Students' teachers also were asked to evaluate their students' behavior using the Teacher's Daytime Sleepiness Questionnaire (TDSQ). Results indicated many students experienced problems with sleep-related behavior. However, correlating the TDSQ scale with the SSR Daytime Sleepiness Subscale produced a weak correlation coefficient, indicating teachers may not be able to accurately identify students with sleep problems. Overall findings indicated these students displayed sleep behavior similar to other US children. However, research involving children's sleep behavior is limited, and more research is needed. Parents should monitor their children's sleep times, and teachers need to be aware how sleep deprivation can affect children's mood, reaction time, and concentration. Health education curricula need to include sleep-related instruction at all grade levels to address this concern. [source]

    The risks and benefits of being a young female adolescent standardised patient

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2006
    KD Blake
    Objective, To follow the progress of young female adolescents, as risk-taking standardised patients (SPs), and to monitor for adverse affects that role-playing may have on the adolescents. Methods, A prospective design was used in which 11 female adolescents, aged 13,15 years, were recruited from 2 schools. The adolescents were trained to portray risk-taking individuals with a medical condition and were interviewed with their SP mother by final-year medical students 1,3 times a month over 6,14 months. A control group was selected from both schools (n = 6). Main outcome measures were pre- and post-interviews using standardised questionnaires [Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Piers Harris Children's Self Concept Scale (SCS),] and focus groups. Results, The adolescent group simulated 111 interviews (mean per adolescent 10.1, SD = 6.2) each lasting 60,70 minutes. Quantitative data, The pre- and post-scores from the YSR and SCS demonstrated no significant differences within the SP study participants or between the control group vs. the study group. Focus group findings, The initial focus group acted as a debriefing exercise and prompted the adolescents to request that they come out of their role when giving feedback. Subsequent focus group discussion was around the medical student performance and their family doctors. Conclusion, Adolescent females showed no adverse effects when used extensively to portray risk-taking SPs. The focus groups provided the adolescents with an opportunity to debrief together. The adolescent SPs reported benefiting from this study but requested unanimously that they come ,out of character' when giving feedback to the medical students. [source]

    Validity of the osu post-traumatic stress disorder scale and the behavior assessment system for children self-report of personality with child tornado survivors,

    Linda Garner Evans
    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale,Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP). Correlations were significant at 0.01 between BASC-SRP scales of Anxiety, Atypicality, and Clinical Maladjustment, and at least 0.05 between OSU PTSDS-CF scales for Social Stress, Depression, Inadequacy, and Emotional Symptoms Index (ESI). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded significant differences at 0.01 between children with and without PTSD, based on OSU PTSDS-CF cut-off scores, for BASC-SRP Anxiety, Atypicality, and Clinical Maladjustment. ANOVAs were significant at 0.05 for Social Stress, Locus of Control, Relationship with Parents, and ESI. Results yielded moderate effect sizes, and BASC-SRP means were within normal limits for all groups. Practitioners are encouraged to supplement the BASC-SRP with PTSD measures in children who have experienced trauma. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Temperament and stress response in children with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2003
    Paola M. Conte
    Objective To examine temperament, stress response, child psychological adjustment, family environment, pain sensitivity, and stress response differences between children and adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFMS), children with arthritis, and healthy controls. Parental psychological adjustment was also measured. Methods Subjects included 16 children with JPFMS, 16 children with arthritis, and 16 healthy controls. Participants completed the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised (DOTS-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, Family Environment Scale (FES), Sensitivity Temperament Inventory for Pain (STIP), and Youth Self-Report. Responsiveness to an acute stressor was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels before and after venipuncture. Parents were asked to complete the parent versions of the DOTS-R, FES, STIP, Child Behavior Checklist, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results Children and adolescents with JPFMS demonstrated more temperamental instability, increased levels of depression and anxiety, less family cohesion, and higher pain sensitivity compared with the other 2 groups. Parents of children with JPFMS, in rating themselves, also reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, and lower overall psychological adjustment compared with parents of children in the other groups. Conclusion These results suggest that a psychobiologic perspective may contribute to an increased understanding of JPFMS in children and adolescents, facilitating an approach to investigating the interaction of factors that appear to place a child at risk for development of a pain syndrome. Because temperamental instability, sensitivity to pain, vulnerability to stress, psychological adjustment, family context, and parental psychopathology are individual risk factors, the interaction of these factors may explain the breadth of symptoms associated with this pain syndrome, as well as its severity. [source]

    Pain in Adolescent Psychiatric Patients

    Bjørn Reigstad
    Background:, Little is known about the extent of pain among adolescent psychiatric patients, and the relationships with psychosocial factors and psychiatric symptoms. Method:, A representative sample of 129 adolescent patients were assessed with measures including the Youth Self-Report, the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and instruments assessing self-perceptions, coping styles, stresses, sociodemographic factors, and childhood abuse. Results:, More than half of the adolescents (54%) reported to be bothered currently by frequent pain. Frequent pain correlated with depression, self-harm, suicide attempt, and with ruminative and emotion oriented coping. Adolescents suffering from frequent pain had more often experienced childhood abuse/neglect. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, alcohol intoxication and childhood neglect were the strongest concurrent predictors of frequent pain. Conclusions:, Clinicians should ask child and adolescent psychiatric patients about pain, and be aware of possible connections with abuse/neglect, depression and suicidality. [source]

    Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly

    P. M. Doraiswamy
    Doraiswamy PM, Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Kyutoku Y, Carmody TJ, Macleod L, Venkatraman S, Burks M, Stegman D, Witte B, Trivedi MH. Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly. Objective:, To evaluate psychometric properties and comparability ability of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vs. the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology,Clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) and Self-report (QIDS-SR16) scales to detect a current major depressive episode in the elderly. Method:, Community and clinic subjects (age ,60 years) were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and three depression scales randomly. Statistics included classical test and Samejima item response theories, factor analyzes, and receiver operating characteristic methods. Results:, In 229 elderly patients (mean age = 73 years, 39% male, 54% current depression), all three scales were unidimensional and with nearly equal Cronbach , reliability (0.85,0.89). Each scale discriminated persons with major depression from the non-depressed, but the QIDS-C16 was slightly more accurate. Conclusion:, All three tests are valid for detecting geriatric major depression with the QIDS-C16 being slightly better. Self-rated QIDS-SR16 is recommended as a screening tool as it is least expensive and least time consuming. [source]

    Facilitating involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous during out-patient treatment: a randomized clinical trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    Kimberly S. Walitzer
    ABSTRACT Aim This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA),a 12-Step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach,during skills-focused individual treatment. Design Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. Participants, setting and intervention A total of 169 alcoholic out-patients (57 women) assigned randomly to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facilitating AA, a motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA or treatment as usual, with no special emphasis on AA. Measurements Self-report of AA meeting attendance and involvement, alcohol consumption (percentage of days abstinent, percentage of days heavy drinking) and negative alcohol consequences. Findings Participants exposed to the 12-Step directive condition for facilitating AA involvement reported more AA meeting attendance, more evidence of active involvement in AA and a higher percentage of days abstinent relative to participants in the treatment-as-usual comparison group. Evidence also suggested that the effect of the directive strategy on abstinent days was mediated partially through AA involvement. The motivational enhancement approach to facilitating AA had no effect on outcome measures. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment providers can use a 12-Step-based directive approach to effectively facilitate involvement in AA and thereby improve client outcome. [source]

    Self-report and biochemical measures of alcohol consumption

    ADDICTION, Issue 2003
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Genetic Probes of Three Theories of Maternal Adjustment: II.

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2001
    Environmental Influences, Genetic
    This is the first report of the Twin Mom Study, an investigation of three hypotheses concerning influences on maternal adjustment. These hypotheses concern the role of the marital and parent-child relationships in mediating genetic influences on maternal adjustment and on the importance of the mothers' marital partners as a specifiable source of influences on their adjustment not shared with their sisters. The study's sample of 150 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 176 dizygotic (DZ) twins was drawn randomly from the Swedish Twin Registry and is, with some small exceptions, likely to be representative of women in the Swedish population. The sample included the marital partners of these twins and their adolescent children. Self-report and coded videotapes were a source of information about family process. Results reported in this first report focus on comparability of American and Swedish samples on scales measuring psychiatric symptoms, and on an analysis of genetic and environmental influences on nine measures of mothers' adjustment. Results suggest comparability between the US and Sweden. Genetic influences were found for all measures of adjustment, particularly in the psychological manifestations of anxiety and for smoking. The pattern of findings also underscored the importance of influences unique to each sibling within the twin pair, thus focusing attention on the potential role of marital partners in maternal adjustment. Results also suggested that experiences shared by the twin sisters, experiences unrelated to their genetic similarity, may influence their fearfulness and alcohol consumption. Our model did not include these influences and thus must be amended. [source]

    Self-report of memory and affective dysfunction in association with medication use in a sample of individuals with chronic sleep disturbance

    Mary Pat McAndrews
    Abstract Benzodiazepines produce memory disturbance after acute administration. It is not clear whether chronic use of benzodiazepines is hazardous to memory processes. Epidemiological data indicate that a large proportion (10,30 per cent) of individuals with sleep dysfunction take hypnotic aids for a year or longer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate self-reported memory dysfunction in a sample of individuals who considered their sleep disturbance sufficiently severe to seek investigation in sleep clinics. It was hypothesized that individuals taking benzodiazepines for sleep would report greater perceived everyday memory failures than individuals taking other sleep aids or no medication. Questionnaires were given to 368 individuals referred into the study by investigators in six sleep disorders clinics. All respondents completed a lengthy (700-item) questionnaire, which included scales assessing memory difficulties, affective status and sleep disturbance. Respondents also reported any medication use for sleep problems and duration of use of the current drug. Information on medication use was reported by 289 participants. Fifty-six per cent of respondents reported using some form of psychoactive medication (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, Zopiclone). Twenty-two per cent reported using no medication. Analysis of covariance showed that these medications had no detectable effect on subjective memory difficulties during chronic use, F(4,226)=1·34, p=0·25. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cerebral dominance and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability

    D. Rowe
    Abstract Studies of the general population without intellectual disability have suggested an association between atypical handedness and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs). Mixed handedness is taken as an index of diminished cerebral dominance or laterality. The present study addressed the question of whether such findings extend to the neurodevelopmentally ,at risk' population of adults with intellectual disability and SSDs compared with appropriate controls. Fourteen patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and SSD were compared with 14 controls with intellectual disability alone. Assessments of self-reported hand preference and relative hand skill were completed. Self-report of hand preference revealed highly significantly greater mixed-handedness in the SSD group. Furthermore, relative hand skill performance was significantly diminished for the dominant hand. The discrepancy between dominant and non-dominant hand functioning was lower in the SSD group and this association was highly significant. The results of the present study support the usefulness of such detailed laterality assessment in this population. Mixed laterality, over and above that of the population with general intellectual disability and developmental disorder, was associated with SSD. These results are consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and its cognitive neuropsychiatric/neuropsychological sequelae. [source]

    Pain management in children with and without cognitive impairment following spine fusion surgery

    Shobha Malviya MD
    Background:,We compared pain assessment and management practices in children with and without cognitive impairment (CI) undergoing spine fusion surgery. Methods:,The medical records of 42 children (19 with CI and 23 without) were reviewed and data related to demographics, surgery, pain assessment and management, and side-effects were recorded. Results:,Fewer children with CI were assessed for pain on postoperative days (POD) 0,4 compared to those without CI (P < 0.002). Self-report was used for 81% of pain assessments in children without CI, while a behavioural tool was used for 75% of assessments in cognitively impaired children. Children with CI received smaller total opioid doses on POD 1,3 compared to those without CI (P , 0.02). Furthermore, children without CI received patient/nurse-controlled analgesia for more postoperative days than children with CI (P=0.02). Conclusions:,Our data demonstrate a discrepancy in pain management practices in children with and without CI following spine fusion. [source]

    HIV and sexually transmitted disease risk among male Hispanic/Latino migrant farmworkers in the Southeast: Findings from a pilot CBPR study

    Scott D. Rhodes PhD
    Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors of Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study was designed to describe risk factors for HIV and STD infection, explore personal characteristics associated with condom use, and evaluate the feasibility of collecting self-report and biomarker data from farmworkers. Methods Self-report and biomarker data were collected from a sample of male farmworkers living in 29 camps in North Carolina during the 2008 growing season. Results Over half of the 100 male workers, mean age 37.1 (range 19,68) years, reported binge drinking during the past 12 months. Forty percent of those who reported having had sex during the past 3 months indicated that they were under the influence of alcohol. Knowledge of HIV and STD transmission and prevention was low. Among the 25 workers who reported having had sex during the past 3 months, 16 and 2 reported using a condom consistently during vaginal and anal sex, respectively, and nearly 1 out of 6 workers reported paying a woman to have sex. Two workers tested positive for syphilis. Conclusions Farmworkers in this sample demonstrated significant HIV and STD risks; however, when exploring potential bivariate associations with consistent condom use no statistically significant associations were identified perhaps due to the small sample size. Because it was feasible to collect self-report and biomarker data related to HIV and STDs from Hispanic/Latino farmworkers, research needed to further explore risks and develop interventions to reduce disease exposure and transmission among this vulnerable population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:976,983, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Self-report on the social skills rating system: Analysis of reliability and validity for an elementary sample

    James Clyde Diperna
    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; F.M. Gresham & S.N. Elliott, 1990) is a norm-referenced measure of students' social and problem behaviors. Since its release, much of the published reliability and validity evidence for the SSRS has focused primarily on the Teacher Report Form. The purpose of this study was to explore reliability and validity evidence of scores on the SSRS-Student Elementary Form (SSRS-SEF) for children in Grades 3 to 5. Findings provided support for the use of Total scale as a measure of student social behavior for initial screening purposes; however, evidence for the subscales was not as strong as predicted. Directions for future research regarding reliability and validity of scores from the SSRS-SEF are discussed. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 345,354, 2005. [source]

    Modulation of spinal reflexes by aversive and sexually appetitive stimuli

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Stephanie Both
    Abstract In this study, modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes by sexual stimulation was investigated. T reflexes are augmented in states of appetitive and defensive action and modified by differences in arousal intensity. Reflexes were expected to be facilitated by both pleasant (sexual) and unpleasant (anxiety) stimuli. Subjects were exposed to a sexual, an anxiety-inducing, a sexually threatening, and a neutral film excerpt. Genital arousal, emotional experience, subjective action tendencies, and T reflexes were monitored. Self-report and genital data confirmed the affective states as intended. T reflex amplitude significantly increased during viewing of emotionally arousing film excerpts as compared with a neutral film excerpt. T reflexes were facilitated by the sex stimulus to the same extent as by the anxiety and sexual threat stimuli. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state, generating sex-specific autonomic and general somatic motor system responses, which prepare the organism for action. [source]

    Comparing self-reported and measured high blood pressure and high cholesterol status using data from a large representative cohort study

    Anne Taylor
    Abstract Objective: To examine the relationship between self-reported and clinical measurements for high blood pressure (HBP) and high cholesterol (HC) in a random population sample. Method: A representative population sample of adults aged 18 years and over living in the north-west region of Adelaide (n=1537) were recruited to the biomedical cohort study in 2002/03. In the initial cross-sectional component of the study, self-reported HBP status and HC status were collected over the telephone. Clinical measures of blood pressure were obtained and fasting blood taken to determine cholesterol levels. In addition, data from a continuous chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were used to assess the consistency of self-reported measures over time. Result: Self-report of current HBP and HC showed >98% specificity for both, but sensitivity was low for HC (27.8%) and moderate for HBP (49.0%). Agreement between current self-report and clinical measures was moderate (kappa 0.55) for HBP and low (kappa 0.30) for HC. Demographic differences were found with younger people more likely to have lower sensitivity rates. Self-reported estimates for the surveillance system had not varied significantly over time. Conclusion: Although self-reported measures are consistent over time there are major differences between the self-reported measures and the actual clinical measurements. Technical aspects associated with clinic measurements could explain some of the difference. Implications: Monitoring of these broad population measures requires knowledge of the differences and limitations in population settings. [source]

    Unwanted sexual advances at work: variations by employment arrangement in a sample of working Australians

    Anthony D. LaMontagne
    Abstract Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing unwanted sexual advances at work (UWSA) is greater for precariously-employed workers in comparison to those in permanent or continuing employment. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in Victoria (66% response rate, N=1,101). Employment arrangements were analysed using eight differentiated categories, as well as a four-category collapsed measure to address small cell sizes. Self-report of unwanted sexual advances at work was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for gender, age, and occupational skill level. Results: Forty-seven respondents reported UWSA in our sample (4.3%), mainly among women (37 of 47). Risk of UWSA was higher for younger respondents, but did not vary significantly by occupational skill level or education. In comparison to Permanent Full-Time, three employment arrangements were strongly associated with UWSA after adjustment for age, gender, and occupational skill level: Casual Full-Time OR = 7.2 (95% Confidence Interval 1.7-30.2); Fixed-Term Contract OR = 11.4 (95% CI 3.4-38.8); and Own-Account Self-Employed OR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.2-11.7). In analyses of females only, the magnitude of these associations was further increased. Conclusions: Respondents employed in precarious arrangements were more likely to report being exposed to UWSA, even after adjustment for age and gender. Implications: Greater protections from UWSA are likely needed for precariously employed workers. [source]

    Self-report of physical symptoms associated with using mobile phones and other electrical devices

    Leena H. Korpinen
    Abstract The aim of our work was to study the working-age population's self-reported physical symptoms associated with using mobile phones and other electrical devices. A qualitative method was applied using an open-ended question in a questionnaire, which included questions about the possible influence of new technical equipment on health. We then created subgroups of respondents for different self-reported symptoms associated with mobile phones and other electrical devices. The research questions were: (1) how the respondents described physical symptoms associated with using mobile phones and other electrical devices and (2) how the answers can be classified into subgroups based on symptoms or devices. We identified the following categories: (1) respondents with different self-reported symptoms which they associated with using mobile phones (headache, earache, or warmth sensations), (2) respondents who had skin symptoms when they stayed in front of a computer screen, (3) respondents who mentioned physical symptoms associated with using mobile phones and other electrical devices. Total prevalence of self-reported physical symptoms associated with using mobile phones and other electrical devices (categories 1 and 2) was 0.7%. In the future it will be possible to obtain new knowledge of these topics by using qualitative methods. Bioelectromagnetics 30:431,437, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pubertal Development: Correspondence Between Hormonal and Physical Development

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2009
    Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff
    Puberty is advanced by sex hormones, yet it is not clear how it is best measured. The interrelation of multiple indices of puberty was examined, including the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS), a picture-based interview about puberty (PBIP), and a physical exam. These physical pubertal measures were then associated with basal hormones responsible for advancing puberty. Participants included 160 early adolescents (82 boys). Puberty indices were highly correlated with each other. The physical exam stages correlated well with boys' and girls' testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone and less so with girls' estradiol. The PDS and PBIP were similarly related to basal hormones. Self-report may be adequate when precise agreement is unnecessary. Multiple measures of puberty are viable options, each with respective strengths. [source]

    Accounting Recognition, Moral Hazard, and Communication,

    Abstract Two complementary sources of information are studied in a multiperiod agency model. One is an accounting source that partially but credibly conveys the agent's private information through accounting recognition. The other is an unverified communication by the agent (i.e., a self-report). In a simple setting with no communication, alternative labor market frictions lead to alternative optimal recognition policies. When the agent is allowed to communicate his or her private information, accounting signals serve as a veracity check on the agent's self-report. Finally, such communication sometimes makes delaying the recognition optimal. We see contracting and confirmatory roles of accounting as its comparative advantage. As a source of information, accounting is valuable because accounting reports are credible, comprehensive, and subject to careful and professional judgement. While other information sources may be more timely in providing valuation information about an entity, audited accounting information, when used in explicit or implicit contracts, ensures the accuracy of the reports from nonaccounting sources. [source]