Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Self-concept

  • academic self-concept

  • Terms modified by Self-concept

  • self-concept clarity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Factors Associated With Self-Concept in Children With Asthma

    Angela M. McNelis PhD(C)
    PURPOSE. To investigate the relationship of demographic asthma, family, and child factors with self-concept in children with asthma. METHODS. Data were collected twice approximately 4 years apart from both the afected children and their mothers (N = 134) via interviews and self-report questionnaire. FINDINGS. Children who demonstrated more negative attitudes toward their illness, had less satisfaction with family relationships, and used more negative coping behaviors had the poorest self-concepts. Over time, the greatest improvement in self-concept occurred in children whose attitudes and satisfaction with family relationships improved and whose use of negative coping behaviors decreased. CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that some children with asthma, especially girls with severe asthma, appear to be at risk for poor self-concept [source]

    Shaping Self-Concept: The Elusive Importance Effect

    Lew Hardy
    ABSTRACT This study examined the hypothesis that the contributions of specific domains of self-concept to global self-concept are dependent upon their perceived importance. The Self Description Questionnaire III was administered to a sample of 506 male and female participants. Analysis of the data using Marsh's original individually weighted multiple regression model confirmed previous findings of no support for the importance hypothesis. In contrast, the results from alternative individually weighted regression models provided strong support for the importance hypothesis. These alternative models utilized idiographically determined as opposed to nomothetically determined relative importance. The data also showed evidence of strong discounting for certain domains, moderate discounting for other domains, and no discounting for still others. The findings challenge previous thinking on the limited role of the importance hypothesis. [source]

    Subgroups of Attributional Profiles in Students with Learning Difficulties and Their Relation to Self-Concept and Academic Goals

    José Carlos Núñez
    The aim of this article was fourfold: first, to determine whether there are significant differences between students with (N= 173) and without learning disabilities (LD; N= 172) in the dimensions of self-concept, causal attributions, and academic goals. Second, to determine whether students with LD present a uniform attributional profile or whether there are subgroups of attributional profiles among students with LD. Third, to explore differences between these profiles on the dimensions of self-concept, academic goals, perception of competence-incompetence, persistence when faced with failure, peer relationships, and academic achievement. Fourth, to determine whether there are significant differences in the dimensions of self-concept and academic goals between NLD students and the different LD subgroups. The results indicate the existence of two very distinct attributional profiles in students with LD (Helplessness Profile and Adaptive Profile). The implications of these data with regard to theory and research, as well as educational practice, are discussed. [source]

    Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2007
    Herbert W. Marsh
    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N= 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport performance (performance-based measures and teacher assessments), prior sport self-concept had positive effects on subsequent sport performance in both Grade 4 and Grade 6 and for both boys and girls. Coupled with previous REM studies of adolescents in the academic domain, this first test for preadolescents in the sport domain supports the generalizability of REM predictions over gender, self-concept domain, preadolescent ages, and the transition from primary to secondary school. [source]

    The Effects of a Stress-Management Program on Self-concept, Locus of Control, and the Acquisition of Coping Skills in School-Age Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Lois O. Gonzalez PhD

    Self-concept and science achievement: Investigating a reciprocal relation model across the gender classification in a crosscultural context

    Jianjun Wang
    Abstract Science achievement and self-concept are articulated in this study to examine a model of reciprocal relationship during a crosscultural transition. Trend data have been gathered to assess changes of the perceived English importance before and after Hong Kong's sovereignty handover from Britain to China. The data analyses were conducted four times across dimensions of gender and timing over which the political transition took place. Besides small gender differences in the statistical results, weak but significant reciprocal relationships have been found between science achievement and self-concept. In line with a policy of switching the medium of instruction from English to Chinese in most secondary schools, interpretation of different path coefficients obliges incorporation of cross-cultural understanding in science education. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 711,725, 2008 [source]

    Self-concept and mental health status of ,stay-at-home' children in rural China

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2009
    Ke-Fu Zhao
    Abstract Aim:, To describe the self-concept and mental health status of ,stay-at-home' children and to explore the differences between stay-at-home children and non-stay-at-home children. Methods:, A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Changfeng County to collect information on self-concept and mental health status. Children were classified as ,stay-at-home' or ,non-stay-at-home' for data analysis. Results:, Stay-at-home children accounted for 55.1% of children. The two groups of children differed significantly on the total scores of self-concept (stay-at-home, 52.48 ± 14.29; non-stay-at-home, 55.24 ± 15.10). The mental health status of stay-at-home children was poor, with significant difference between them (stay-at-home, 41.17 ± 12.25; non-stay-at-home, 40.14 ± 13.11). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we found that the total P-H score, gender, low family economic status, stay-at-home status and being cared for by an uncle/aunt or an older sibling were independent variables for mental health of the children. Conclusion:, This study suggests that stay-at-home children have a greater risk of mental health problems than their counterparts in rural Anhui province, China. In addition, this study provides useful baseline information on childhood mental health and has identified important risk factors that would be important in planning strategies for prevention of mental health problems for stay-at-home children. [source]

    Self-concept and attributions about other women in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    Susan J. McAlpine
    Abstract Self-concept literature and literature on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suggests that women with a history of CSA may have particular ways of perceiving themselves, which, as well as impacting upon relationships within their everyday lives, may also have implications for therapy; whether this is on an individual basis or within a group. This research investigated self-concept and attributions about other women using an adapted version of the self-concept sorting task. Three groups of women were compared: women with a history of CSA, women experiencing depressed mood but without a history of CSA and a healthy non-clinical comparison group of hospital staff. To some extent the current findings supported previous studies indicating that women attempting to cope with the consequences of a history of CSA have a negative self-concept. However, there was evidence to suggest that certain self-aspects are protective or protected. Similarly, there is some support for previous evidence of difficult relationships with mothers. Possible explanations for these findings were discussed and areas for future research suggested.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Massage: , Although women with a history of CSA and depression have a negative view of themselves in comparison to a non-clinical group, there is no qualitative difference between these two groups. , Nor do women with a history of CSA have a more negative view of other women in general than women who are depressed. , Therefore, being aware of the likelihood that an individual may preceive herself, but not other women negatively, a therapist may use therapy to actively increase awareness and address this issue. [source]

    Is dyslexia necessarily associated with negative feelings of self-worth?

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2008
    A review, implications for future research
    Abstract This paper will provide an overview of research in the past 20 years into the relationship between dyslexia and various aspects of self-perception, including self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control. Problems are identified relating to the measurement of some of the most widely used constructs, as is the need for more precise identification of key variables relating to them. Critical issues concerning the assumptions that can be drawn from largely correlational data are highlighted also. The conclusion is drawn that an alternative approach to research in this area is required to enhance our understanding of how those suffering from learning disabilities of a dyslexic nature develop a positive or negative sense of identity. Suggestions are made as to how this can be achieved by drawing upon attribution theory and other aspects of social psychology. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relating therapeutic process to outcome: are there predictors for the short-term course in anorexic patients?

    Almut Zeeck
    Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to explore if process aspects of the first 12 individual psychotherapy sessions of anorexic patients (6 weeks of treatment) are associated with a good or bad outcome at discharge. Method N,=,38 patients with anorexia nervosa (DSM-IV) were treated in a multimodal setting. Process measures were available from the perspectives of both patients and therapists for N,=,344 sessions. Results 79% of the successful patients (discharge BMI,>,17.5) and 68% of the failures could be correctly identified by process variables measured in the initial treatment phase. Patients' experience of negative emotions re therapy between sessions was associated with a bad outcome, whereas a frequent and intense process of ,recreating the therapeutic dialogue' was found to be associated with a good outcome. Early therapeutic interventions with a focus on symptoms and interpersonal relationships were related to a positive outcome, whereas a focus on self-concept was related to a bad outcome. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A stronger latent-variable methodology to actual,ideal discrepancy

    L. Francesca Scalas
    Abstract We introduce a latent actual,ideal discrepancy (LAID) approach based on structural equation models (SEMs) with multiple indicators and empirically weighted variables. In Study 1, we demonstrate with simulated data, the superiority of a weighted approach to discrepancy in comparison to a classic unweighted one. In Study 2, we evaluate the effects of actual and ideal appearance on physical self-concept and self-esteem. Actual appearance contributes positively to physical self-concept and self-esteem, whereas ideal appearance contributes negatively. In support of multidimensional perspective, actual - and ideal -appearance effects on self-esteem are substantially,but not completely,mediated by physical self-concept. Whereas this pattern of results generalises across gender and age, multiple-group invariance tests show that the effect of actual appearance on physical self-concept is larger for women than for men. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessment of multiple implicit self-concept dimensions using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST)

    Sarah Teige
    This study explored the psychometric properties of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003a) as adapted for the measurement of the implicit self-concept of personality. The EAST was adapted to allow the simultaneous assessment of the three traits shyness, anxiousness, and angriness. In order to test the EAST's psychometric properties, 100 participants completed a trait EAST, Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and direct self-ratings. The EAST showed low internal consistencies and correlated neither with the IATs nor with the direct measures. The main problem of the EAST, namely its low reliability, is discussed, and general conclusions regarding the indirect assessment of the personality self-concept by EASTs are derived. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The impact of exchange programs on the integration of the hostgroup into the self-concept

    Kai Sassenberg
    Two studies analyzed the impact of international exchange programs on students' identity development. More precisely, the authors predict that exchange students integrate the host society (hostgroup) into their self-concept during an exchange year. Study 1 found a stronger social identification with the hostgroup and higher commitment for former exchange students than for future exchange students. Study 2 replicated the difference between former and future exchange students and found in addition that both former and future exchange students had a stronger identification and commitment in comparison to a control group that did neither take part in nor apply for an exchange program. Moreover, in this study the inclusion of the hostgroup into the self-concept was assessed via a response time paradigm. The results indicate that former and future exchange students have a stronger association between the self and the hostgroup than the control sample, but no difference between former and future exchange students was found. The results provide evidence for the impact of interest in and actual intensive intergroup contact on students' self-concept. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fluidity in the self-concept: the shift from personal to social identity

    Rina S. Onorato
    Dominant personality models of the self-concept (e.g. self-schema theory) conceive of the self as a relatively stable cognitive representation or schema. The self-schema controls how we process self-relevant information across a myriad of situations. Conversely, self-categorization theory argues that self-perception is highly variable and context-dependent. It was hypothesized in two studies (N=114 and 200) that the effect of personal self-schemas on information-processing would be eliminated when the context makes a conflicting higher-order identity salient. Results largely supported self-categorization theory. Across various dependent measures (trait endorsements, response latencies, and confidence in self-descriptions), participants generally responded in line with the salient identity, even if this pattern of responding directly contradicted their personal self-schema. Implications for dominant personality models of the self-concept are examined. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    ,We're all individuals': group norms of individualism and collectivism, levels of identification and identity threat

    Jolanda Jetten
    Three studies were conducted to investigate the power of group norms of individualism and collectivism to guide self-definition and group behavior for people with low and high levels of group identification. Study 1 demonstrates that in an individualist culture (North America), those who identify highly with their national identity are more individualist than low identifiers. In contrast, in a collectivist culture (Indonesia) high identifiers are less individualist than low identifiers. Study 2 manipulates group norms of individualism and collectivism, and shows a similar pattern on a self-stereotyping measure: High identifiers are more likely to incorporate salient group norms prescribing individualism or collectivism into their self-concept than low identifiers. Study 3 replicates this effect and shows that high identifiers conform more strongly to group norms, and self-stereotype themselves in line with the salient norm than low identifiers when their group is threatened. Hence, the findings suggest that when there is a group norm of individualism, high identifiers may show individualist behavior as a result of conformity to salient group norms. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Child Weight Status and Young Adult Quality of Life: Is There a Reason for Concern?

    Holly S. Kihm
    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between child weight status and young adult quality of life. One hundred sixty-four college students participated in the study. Students completed four questionnaires that were used to assess physical and psychosocial variables. Several statistical analyses, including correlations and hierarchal regression models, were employed to test the study's hypotheses. Results from the study showed that child weight status was negatively associated with adult quality of life, and child self-concept was a mediating variable within the relationship. Recognizing the relationship between child weight status and young adult quality of life stresses the importance of addressing psychosocial concerns related to weight status during childhood in efforts to achieve a greater quality of life in adulthood. [source]

    Teacher,child interactions: relations with children's self-concept in second grade

    Geertje Leflot
    Abstract This study examined whether teacher,child interactions characterized by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support at the beginning of second grade predicted children's global, academic, social, and behavioural self-concept at the end of second grade. The study was conducted in 30 second grade classrooms with 570 children and their teachers. Data included teacher reports of teacher,child interactions and child reports of self-concept. Results showed that, when controlling for the initial level of self-concept, children's social self-concept was predicted by teacher involvement, structure, and autonomy support. In addition, teacher autonomy support predicted high academic self-concept. Finally, these teacher,child interaction characteristics did not contribute to the behavioural and global self-concept. The results were similar for boys and girls. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Maternal limit-setting in toddlerhood: Socialization strategies for the development of self-regulation

    Elizabeth LeCuyer
    Early findings from the Prohibition Coding Scheme (PCS; Houck & LeCuyer, 1995; LeCuyer-Maus & Houck, 2002; Medvin & Spieker, 1985) revealed that maternal limit-setting styles with toddlers were differentially related to later child social competence, self-concept, and delay of gratification. For this study, the PCS was revised to provide more information about the specific strategies mothers used during limit-setting in relation to those outcomes. Results from the PCS-Revised (PCS-R; LeCuyer & Houck, 2004) included that the more time mothers spent actively distracting their toddlers away from a prohibited object during limit-setting, as early as 12 months, the longer their children could delay gratification at age 5 years. Mothers who spent more time sensitively following and being engaged in their toddler's own interests (other than the prohibited object), again as early as 12 months, had more socially competent children with more developed self-concepts at age 3 years. Maternal use of reasoning statements later in toddlerhood also related to higher levels of social competence. Maternal limits and prohibitions were not related to these outcomes, and appeared to contribute to the development of self-regulation mainly by creating the opportunity for the use of other, less directive strategies. The findings indicate that these strategies may be important to include in intervention programs for the promotion of toddler and child development of self-regulation. [source]

    Oral health-related quality of life in children: Part I. How well do children know themselves?

    A systematic review
    Abstract:, Objective:, Paediatric oral disorders are likely to have a negative effect on the quality of life. Until recently, children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using parents as informants. Instruments have now been developed, which have demonstrated that with appropriate questionnaire techniques, valid and reliable information can be obtained from children. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of the existing literature about child perceptions of OHRQoL and their validation. Methods:, A computerized search was conducted using Medline, ISI, Lilacs and Scielo for children's perception of OHRQoL. The inclusion criteria were: the articles should contain well-validated instruments and provide child perceptions of OHRQoL. Results:, From 89 records found, 13 fulfilled the criteria. All studies included in the critical appraisal of the project suggested good construct validity of overall child perceptions of OHRQoL. However, children's understanding of oral health and well-being are also affected by variables (age, age-related experiences, gender, race, education, culture, experiences related to oral conditions, opportunities for treatment, childhood period of changes, back-translating questionnaire, children self-perceived treatment need). Conclusions:, The structure of children's self-concept and health cognition is age-dependent as a result of their continuous cognitive, emotional, social and language development. By using appropriate questionnaire techniques, valid and reliable information can be obtained from children concerning their OHRQoL. [source]

    Pathways mediating sexual abuse and eating disturbance in children

    Stephen Wonderlich
    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and eating disorders in a sample of children. Method Twenty 10,15-year-old female children who were receiving treatment following reported childhood sexual abuse and 20 age-matched controls were compared on a series of measures assessing eating disorder behaviors, body image concerns, substance use, mood, impulsive behavior, and self-concept. Results Sexually abused children reported higher levels of eating disorder behaviors, impulsive behaviors, and drug abuse than controls. Furthermore, behavioral impulsivity provided the strongest mediational effect between a history of childhood sexual abuse and purging and restrictive dieting behavior. Drug use proved to be a significant secondary mediator of the childhood sexual abuse eating disorder behavior association. Discussion These data support the hypothesis that childhood sexual abuse is related to disordered eating in children, and extend similar findings that have been previously reported with adults. Behavioral impulsivity and drug use appear to be significant mechanisms that influence eating disorder behavior following childhood sexual abuse. © 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 29: 270,279, 2001. [source]

    The behavioural consequences of self-congruency in volunteers

    Asunción Beerli
    The authors of this paper studied some aspects of volunteers from a marketing angle in order to analyse the differences in the self-concept of volunteers collaborating with either charitable, or ecological organisations; to examine the differences between the images of charitable and ecological organisations; and to show the role of self-congruency as an influence on of the type of organisation with which to collaborate. Some conclusions derived from this study can be used to attract volunteers through corporative social marketing actions. Copyright © 2004 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

    Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients

    Krystyna Cholowski PhD
    Aim. To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background. Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method. Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003,2004. Results. Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t -tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion. Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more successful ongoing rehabilitation for older HF patients. We identify a significantly enhanced educative role for nurses in this context. Relevance to clinical practice. We suggest that nurses dealing with compliance issues among older patients need to monitor behaviour through addressing both the quality of affect during the patient's response to HF (self-concept, -esteem and -efficacy) as well as the quality of health-related metacognitive knowledge underlying the self-regulatory decisions (such as the patients conceptions of ,wellness' and the strategic knowledge underpinning its achievement and maintenance). [source]

    The self-presentation and self-development of serious wildlife tourists

    Susanna Curtin
    Abstract The notion of self-concept and choice of tourism products has yet to be applied to wildlife tourism. The question of how consumers perceive themselves is considered fundamental to understanding purchase and consumption behaviours. This ethnographic study is based upon ,serious' wildlife tourism participants, for whom studying fauna and flora is the primary motivation for travel. The findings demonstrate how the ,culture' of ,serious' wildlife tourism is made up of individuals who differentiate themselves from other tourists in terms of dress, behaviour, development of skills, equipment and intellectual capital, illustrated by their desire to scope, identify and photograph wildlife. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Performer's Reactions to Procedural Injustice: When Prosocial Identity Reduces Prosocial Behavior1

    Adam M. Grant
    Considerable research has examined how procedural injustice affects victims and witnesses of unfavorable outcomes, with little attention to the "performers" who deliver these outcomes. Drawing on dissonance theory, we hypothesized that performers' reactions to procedural injustice in delivering unfavorable outcomes are moderated by prosocial identity,a helping-focused self-concept. Across 2 experiments, individuals communicated unfavorable outcomes decided by a superior. Consistent with justice research, when prosocial identities were not primed, performers experienced greater negative affect and behaved more prosocially toward victims when a superior's decision-making procedures were unjust. Subtly activating performers' prosocial identities reversed these reactions. Results highlight how roles and identities shape the experience and delivery of unfavorable outcomes: When procedures are unjust, prosocial identity can reduce prosocial behavior. [source]

    The Effects of Charismatic Leadership on Followers' Self-Concept Accessibility

    Jim Paul
    Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993) suggested that the effects of charismatic leadership on followers' motivation are mediated by the increased salience of collective identities in followers' self-concepts. This study empirically examines the effects of leadership messages on followers' self-concept accessibilities. Charismatic and integrative (combined charismatic and individualized consideration) leadership increased the accessibility of followers' collective self-concepts. Individualized consideration increased the accessibility of followers' private self-concepts. These results support the propositions of the self-concept-based theory of charismatic leadership. Charismatic and integrative leadership messages from a leader resulted in higher follower collective self-concept accessibilities than did routinized messages. This finding underscores the importance of a charismatic leader, even when charismatic messages have become routinized. [source]

    Sexual Abuse of Boys

    Sharon M. Valente RN
    TOPIC:, Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. PURPOSE:, In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. SOURCES USED:, Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. CONCLUSIONS:, Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children. [source]

    Factors Associated With Self-Concept in Children With Asthma

    Angela M. McNelis PhD(C)
    PURPOSE. To investigate the relationship of demographic asthma, family, and child factors with self-concept in children with asthma. METHODS. Data were collected twice approximately 4 years apart from both the afected children and their mothers (N = 134) via interviews and self-report questionnaire. FINDINGS. Children who demonstrated more negative attitudes toward their illness, had less satisfaction with family relationships, and used more negative coping behaviors had the poorest self-concepts. Over time, the greatest improvement in self-concept occurred in children whose attitudes and satisfaction with family relationships improved and whose use of negative coping behaviors decreased. CONCLUSIONS. Results suggest that some children with asthma, especially girls with severe asthma, appear to be at risk for poor self-concept [source]

    The influence of violent and nonviolent computer games on implicit measures of aggressiveness

    Matthias Bluemke
    Abstract We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal,as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance,were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social,cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures. Aggr. Behav. 36:1,13, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Self-evaluation and social comparison amongst adolescents with learning difficulties

    Jason Crabtree
    Abstract Two studies are presented which examine self-evaluation in adolescents with learning difficulties and how these adolescents strategically protect their self-concept through the use of social comparison. Study one involved 145 adolescents with learning difficulties and the same number of non-disabled adolescents aged between 11 to 16 years. All adolescents completed Harter's ,Self Perception Profile for Children' (SPPC). No significant overall differences were found between the self-evaluations of the adolescents with learning difficulties and non-disabled adolescents. In addition, adolescents with learning difficulties strategically devalued less favourable comparison dimensions and valued more positive comparison attributes. Study two utilized a four condition between-groups design with a sample of 68 adolescents with learning difficulties. All participants completed the SPPC, but the availability of a social comparison group was systematically varied between conditions. The self-evaluations made by adolescents changed significantly when the social comparison group made available was altered. The findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical implications and in terms of inclusion policies for adolescents with learning difficulties. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]