Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Seedlings

  • Arabidopsi seedling
  • Arabidopsi thaliana seedling
  • barley seedling
  • beech seedling
  • birch seedling
  • conifer seedling
  • control seedling
  • dark-grown seedling
  • emerging seedling
  • established seedling
  • etiolated seedling
  • inoculated seedling
  • l. seedling
  • maize seedling
  • mutant seedling
  • norway spruce seedling
  • oak seedling
  • pea seedling
  • pine seedling
  • planted seedling
  • rice seedling
  • silver birch seedling
  • spruce seedling
  • sylvestri seedling
  • thaliana seedling
  • tomato seedling
  • tree seedling
  • wheat seedling
  • woody seedling
  • young seedling

  • Terms modified by Seedlings

  • seedling biomass
  • seedling competition
  • seedling decreased
  • seedling density
  • seedling development
  • seedling distribution
  • seedling dynamics
  • seedling emergence
  • seedling emergence method
  • seedling establishment
  • seedling growth
  • seedling height
  • seedling leaf
  • seedling mortality
  • seedling performance
  • seedling population
  • seedling predator
  • seedling recruitment
  • seedling regeneration
  • seedling resistance
  • seedling response
  • seedling root
  • seedling size
  • seedling stage
  • seedling survival
  • seedling survivorship

  • Selected Abstracts

    Polyphenol Oxidase from Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bramley's Seedling): Purification Strategies and Characterization

    Deirdre M. Ni Eidhin
    ABSTRACT Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Bramley's Seedling apples with 75.7-fold purification and 26.5% recovery by ammonium sulfate precipitation, phenyl sepharose chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Molecular weight was estimated to be about 45 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). Optimum PPO activity was at pH 6.5 and greater than 50% activity was retained during storage for 72 h at pH 5.5 to 6.5. Optimum temperature for activity was 30 °C and the enzyme had residual activity of greater than 50% during storage for 72 h at 20 °C to 30 °C and for 24 h at 40 °C to 50 °C. Of the substrates tested, activity was greatest with 4-methylcatechol followed by catechol, pyrogallol, and (,)epicatechin. The most effective inhibitors tested were sodium metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. [source]

    Seed mass and seedling establishment after fire in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Sydney, Australia

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Abstract Relationships between seed mass and several aspects of plant regeneration ecology were investigated in a post-fire environment in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park near Sydney, Australia. We found a significant positive relationship between seed mass and time to seedling emergence (P < 0.001) and a strong negative relationship between seed mass and time between emergence and production of the first true leaf (P < 0.001). Surprisingly, we found no relationship between seed mass and seedling establishment (P = 0.21). It seems most likely that this lack of relationship is a result of the many stochastic factors affecting seedling establishment during any given recruitment episode at any given site. A cause of mortality was assigned to 56% of the 781 seedlings that died during the present study. There was no relationship between cause of death and seed mass (P = 0.28). Of the seedlings for which the cause of death was known, 57% were killed by herbivory and 21% were killed by drought. Seedling,seedling competition affected only one species. [source]

    Hurricane Impacts on a Mangrove Forest in the Dominican Republic: Damage Patterns and Early Recovery,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2001
    Ruth E. Sherman
    ABSTRACT On 22 September 1998, Hurricane Georges passed over the Dominican Republic causing extensive damage to a 4700 ha mangrove forest that has been the site of a detailed study of vegetation and ecosystem dynamics since 1994. We resurveyed the vegetation in permanent plots at 7 and 18 months after the hurricane to document structural damage of the forest and evaluate early recovery patterns. The intensity of damage was patchy across the landscape. Mortality (>5 cm DBH) ranged from 14 to 100 percent (by density) among the 23 different plots and averaged 47.7 percent across all plots. Reductions in total basal area ranged from 9 to 100 percent, averaging 42.4 percent. Mortality increased by 9 percent between surveys at 7 and 18 months post-hurricane. Interspecific differences in susceptibility to wind damage appeared to be a primary factor contributing to spatial patterns in mortality. Laguncularia racemosa experienced much less mortality (26%) than either Rhizophora mangle (50%) or Avicennia germinans (64%), and plot-level mortality was strongly associated with differences in species composition. There were no clear relationships between canopy height and tree damage at this site. Over 80 percent of the of the surviving R. mangle trees exhibited less than 50 percent crown damage, whereas ca 60 percent of the L. racemosa survivors suffered almost complete (75,100%) crown loss. By 18 months after the hurricane, the percentage of L. racemosa trees in the 75 to 100 percent damage class was reduced to 20 percent; in contrast, the health of many R. mangle individuals appeared to be declining, as the percentage of trees in the 50 to 100 percent damage class increased from 16 to 36 percent. Understory light levels, as measured by the gap light index, increased from an average value of 3 percent in the pre-hurricane forest to 51 percent at 7 months after the hurricane and decreased slightly to 47 percent at 18 months. Few saplings (>1 m tall and <5 cm DBH) survived the hurricane; 72 percent of the tagged individuals in transect-based plots and 66 percent of saplings in pre-hurricane canopy gaps were killed. Seedling and sapling populations of all three species appear to be recovering rapidly although their densities still are lower than in the pre-hurricane forest. It is too early to predict the trajectory of forest recovery, and continued monitoring of the spatial and temporal patterns of forest development is needed to improve our understanding of the role that large-scale disturbance events play on the dynamics of mangrove forest ecosystems. RESUMES El 22 de septiembre de 1998, el huracán Georges pasó sobre la República Dominicana causando daños extensos a 47 km2 de manglar que ha sido objeto un estudio detallado de vegetacion y dinámica de la communidad desde 1994. Se tomarón muestras de la vegetación en parcelas permanentes 7 y 18 meses después de paso del huracán para documentar los daños estructurales del bosque y evaluar los modelos de recuperacion temprana que siguieron posteriormente. La intensidad del daño fue irregular a través del paisaje. La mortalidad (>5 cm de dap) fue de 14 a 100 por ciento (para la densidad) en las 23 parcelas con un promedio de 47.7 por ciento. La reducción en área basal total fue de 9 a 100 por ciento con un promedio de 42.4 por ciento. La mortalidad aumentó 9 por ciento a los 7 y 18 meses después del huracán. Las diferencias interspecificas en la susceptibilidad a los daños causados por el viento fueron un factor contribuyente importante en los patrones espacios de mortalidad. Laguncularia racemosa sufrió menor mortalidad (26%) que Rhizophora mangle (50%) o Avicennia germinans (64%), la mortalidad en las parcelas estuvo asociada fuertemente con la diferencia en composición de especies. No hubo ningún patron definido entre la altura del dosel y el daño del árbol. Más del 80 por ciento de los árboles sobrevivientes de R. mangle exhibieron daoñres menores de 50 por ciento en sus copas, mientras que ca 60 por ciento de los L. racemosa sobrevivientes sufrió una perdida casi total (75-100%). Dieciocho meses despues del huracan, el porcentaje de arboles de L. racemosa con daños del 75-100 por ciento se redujó a 20 por ciento; en contraste, la salud de muchos individuos de R. mangle disminuyó conforme el porcentaje de árboles con daños del 50-100 por ciento aumentó de 16 a 36 por ciento. Los niveles de penetración de luz en el sotobosque, medidos como el indice de iluminacion en los claros, aumentó de un promedio de 3 por ciento antes del huracán. a 51 por ciento 7 meses después del huracán, y disminuyo ligeramente a 47 por [source]

    Microevolution in agricultural environments: how a traditional Amerindian farming practice favours heterozygosity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae)

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2005
    Benoît Pujol
    Abstract We demonstrate a novel case of selection for heterozygosity in nature, involving inadvertent human selection on a population of domesticated plants. Amerindian farmers propagate cassava (Manihot esculenta) clonally by cuttings. Seedlings also appear spontaneously in fields, and farmers allow them to grow, later using some for cuttings. These ,volunteers' contribute new genotypes. However, many are inbred, whereas multiplied clones are highly heterozygous. We demonstrate the selective retention of heterozygous volunteers. When farmers weeded fields, they killed small volunteers, but retained large ones. Plant size and heterozygosity were correlated, and both increased after weeding. The process we document allows maintenance of genotypically diverse and heterozygous clonal stocks. Demonstrating heterosis in nature usually requires large sample sizes, but novel features of our system allowed escape of this constraint. Traditional agroecosystems offer unusual opportunities for the microevolutionary studies required to give on-farm conservation of genetic resources a solid scientific basis. [source]

    Characterization of Lead Precipitate Following Uptake by Roots of Brassica juncea

    Donald E. R. Meyers
    Abstract Seedlings of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. were grown in solution culture for 14 d prior to exposure to Pb2+ at an activity of 31 ,M for 72 h. Electron-dense deposits found within the apoplast and symplast were analyzed using scanning transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the chemical identity of the deposits and potential toxicity resistance mechanisms. Irrespective of the cellular compartment in which they were found, the deposits contained Pb, O, P, and Cl. For the extracellular deposits, the average Pb:P:O atomic ratio was 1:0.54:3.0, which together with the hexagonal crystal system suggests that Pb is present as chloropyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl). A weak Ca signal also was detected in approximately half of the spectra, possibly indicating the presence of small concentrations of phosphohedyphane (Pb3Ca2(PO4)3Cl). The evidence suggests that B. juncea resists Pb toxicity by storing precipitated Pb in the vacuole. [source]

    Crayfish effects on seeds and seedlings: identification and quantification of damage

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Summary 1. The red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is an invasive species and an important pest of wet-seeded rice fields (Oryza sativa) in California (U.S.A.) and in Portugal. Our work quantifies rice consumption and non-consumptive destruction and identifies the types of direct damage inflicted by crayfish. 2. The following fractions were quantified in the presence and absence of crayfish and at 3 and 6 days of rice development: (1) non-germinated seeds, (2) damaged seeds, (3) seeds not recovered, (4) intact rooted seedlings, (5) rooted damaged seedlings, (6) uprooted intact seedlings, (7) uprooted damaged seedlings. 3. Coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) fragments produced during the feeding process were <2% of the material removed by crayfish. 4. Damage occurred with or without uprooting of the plants, but the incidence of uprooting without consumption was low (1.4%). 5. Consumption of recently developed parts of the rice plant was the main cause of damage and the observed effect was stronger on 6-day-old than on 3-day-old seedlings. Seedlings were more affected by crayfish than were seeds. 6. Crayfish affected the majority of seeds and seedlings available although consumption was low: 0.015 g dry weight (DW) rice g,1 wet weight (WW) crayfish per 12 h at 3 days and 0.063 g DW rice g,1 WW crayfish per 12 h at 6 days. 7. Our results are important for the mitigation of crayfish related problems in rice fields and for understanding the mechanisms of crayfish-macrophyte interactions. [source]

    Xylem root and shoot hydraulics is linked to life history type in chaparral seedlings

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Robert B. Pratt
    Summary 1.,Shrubs in fire prone chaparral communities have evolved different life history types in response to fire. A key to understanding the evolution of life history type differences is to understand how physiological traits are linked to differences in life history type. Vascular adaptations are important for delivering an efficient and stable water supply to evergreen chaparral shrub leaves. This study tested for a link between vascular physiology and life history type in chaparral shrubs. 2.,Chaparral shrub species along the south-western coast of North America survive wildfire by three different life histories. Non-sprouters are killed by fire and re-establish exclusively through germination of fire-stimulated seeds, facultative sprouters re-establish by a combination of vegetative sprouting and fire-stimulated seeds, and obligate sprouters re-establish exclusively by vegetative sprouting because their seeds do not survive fire. Non-sprouters and facultative sprouters establish seedlings in the open canopy post fire environment, whereas obligate sprouters establish seedlings in the shady understory of the mature chaparral canopy. 3.,Seedlings of nine species (Rhamnaceae) representing three each of the different life history types were grown in deep containers in a common garden under treatments of sun and shade. Hydraulic conductance was measured using a high-pressure flow meter for all organs, and a vacuum technique was used to measure conductance of fine and woody roots. We predicted that non-sprouters would exhibit greater hydraulic efficiency than the sprouting species, and that facultative sprouters would be more efficient than the shade tolerant obligate sprouters. 4.,Non-sprouters had the greatest hydraulic conductance per unit leaf and sapwood area at the whole seedling level, whereas facultative and obligate sprouters were not different. Comparing hydraulic conductance across major organs (from fine roots to leaves) showed that the hydraulic system was well coordinated. At the whole seedling level, the root system was more of a bottleneck than the shoot system. This pattern was consistent with high resistance extraxylary pathways in roots and differences in root architecture. 5.,The greater hydraulic efficiency of the non-sprouter life history type is attributed to its post-fire pioneering habit and may partially explain the relatively high speciation in the non-sprouters. Lower hydraulic efficiency is associated with a sprouting life history and greater shade tolerance. The seedling root systems represent a hydraulic bottleneck that may place roots under especially intense selection. [source]

    Environmental signals for seed germination reflect habitat adaptations in four temperate Caryophyllaceae

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    F. Vandelook
    Summary 1Requirements for dormancy break and seed germination are specific for all species and depend chiefly on phylogeny, geographical distribution, habitat preference and life cycle. Studying germination requirements of closely related species with a similar geographic distribution allows one to attribute variation in germination requirements to differences in habitat preference between the species. 2We investigated requirements for dormancy break and the effect of environmental signals on induction of germination in seeds of four closely related Caryophyllaceae species growing in a variety of habitats (Moehringia trinervia, Stellaria holostea, S. nemorum and S. graminea). The species studied depend on disturbances in the vegetation for seed germination and subsequent seedling establishment. 3Seedlings of all four species emerged both in summer and spring. Stellaria nemorum and M. trinervia, both growing in temperate forests, emerged mainly in summer under a closed forest canopy. Seeds of S. graminea, occurring in grasslands, did germinate in summer at an open site, but could not germinate under a closed forest canopy. Seedlings of S. holostea were observed in late summer when buried at an open site or in early spring when sown in a forest patch. 4Seeds of S. holostea and M. trinervia were completely dormant at dispersal in early summer, while germination was low in fresh seeds of S. graminea and S. nemorum. Dormancy was broken, to a certain extent, during all three after-ripening treatments applied (dry storage, cold and warm stratification). 5The effect of three gap-detection signals (light, fluctuating temperatures, nitrates) on germination of fresh and dry stored seeds was tested. Seeds of S. holostea only germinated in response to daily fluctuating temperatures. Although light was the most important signal affecting germination of S. graminea and M. trinervia, we also observed a positive effect of fluctuating temperatures and nitrates on germination. The effect of fluctuating temperatures on germination of S. nemorum was small in both light and dark incubated seeds. Seed germination in this species generally occurred in response to addition of light and nitrates. 6This study on dormancy breaking and germination requirements of the four species enabled us to expose, sometimes subtle, differences in germination requirements. These contrasting germination patterns were related to differences in the species' habitat preferences. [source]

    Do shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings depend longer on seed reserves?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Functional growth analysis of three Bignoniaceae species
    Summary 1.,A functional growth analysis was used to determine the duration of strict dependency on seed reserves for energy and nitrogen in three woody Bignoniaceae species (Tabebuia rosea DC., Challichlamys latifolia K. Schum. and Pithecoctenium crucigerum A. Gentry) which differed in cotyledon function (photosynthetic, semi-photosynthetic and storage) and shade tolerance (probability of seedling establishment and survival in the understorey). 2.,Seedlings were raised from seeds in sand culture under combinations of three nitrogen levels (daily supply of nutrient solution containing 100, 10 and 0% of 2·6 mm N) and two irradiances (27 and 1% full sun). Time course of biomass, non-cotyledonous biomass and leaf area for 40 days post-germination were compared to identify when the external availability of nitrogen or light began to affect seedling growth. 3.,Seedlings of all species became dependent on external energy supply earlier than they did on nitrogen supply. In all species seed nitrogen was sufficient to support positive seedling growth for 40 days in shade, but not in sun. 4.,Tabebuia rosea with photosynthetic cotyledons responded to light availability earlier than more shade-tolerant species with storage cotyledons. Challichlamys latifolia, the most shade-tolerant species, had the highest nitrogen concentration in seeds and was the last to respond to external nitrogen availability. Thus seedlings of the most shade-tolerant species depended on seed reserves for the longest period for both energy and nitrogen. 5.,Relative growth rate after seedlings initiated autotrophic growth was in a trade-off relationship with seedling survivorship in the understorey across the three species. Tabebuia rosea, the least shade-tolerant species, had the highest positive net carbon balance in sun and shade. 6.,Functional morphology of cotyledons and concentration of seed nitrogen deserve as much attention as seed size as correlates of contrasting seedling regeneration strategies. [source]

    Different Patterns of Physiological and Molecular Response to Drought in Seedlings of Malt- and Feed-type Barleys (Hordeum vulgare)

    M. Rapacz
    Abstract A number of physiological and molecular characteristics are proposed as selection criteria for drought tolerance. This study measured the associations between physiological and molecular characteristics of drought response in malting and fodder spring barleys. Plants of 13 malt- and 14 feed-type Polish genotypes were exposed to drought at the four-leaf stage for 7 days. Drought susceptibility indexes (DSI) were calculated for membrane integrity, water status, gas exchange and PSII photochemical activity. Accumulation of HVA1 and SRG6 transcripts in drought was measured with real-time PCR. A wide range of variation in the drought response was observed among studied genotypes. Malting barleys were less sensitive to drought than feed-barleys according to all the traits studied. In both groups, different patterns of relationships between traits were observed. In malting genotypes only, CO2 assimilation rates in drought, as well as PSII efficiency were related to both water content and the accumulation of HVA1 transcript in leaves. On the other hand the SRG6 expression was highly correlated in both groups of barley with the photochemical efficiency of PSII. The results suggest that different physiological, biochemical and molecular characteristics should be applied in the selection towards drought resistance in the case of malting and fodder barleys. [source]

    Effects of Interactions of Moisture Regime and Nutrient Addition on Nodulation and Carbon Partitioning in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    T. Boutraa
    Major limitations of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in arid and semiarid regions are lack of moisture and low soil fertility. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soil moisture and N : P : K (20 : 10 : 10) fertilizer on root and shoot growth of two cultivars of bean: cv. Carioca, an indeterminate Brazilian landrace, and cv. Prince, a determinate cultivar grown in Europe. Carioca appears generally stress-tolerant while Prince is intolerant. Seedlings were grown in pots of non-sterile soil at 30, 60 or 90 % field capacity (FC), and given 0, 0.1 or 1 g (kg soil),1 of compound fertilizer. The soil contained a population of effective Rhizobium. Growth of both cultivars was greatest in the high moisture and high nutrient treatments. Root fractions were highest at low nutrient supply; the effect of water was not significant. Leaf fraction decreased as root fraction increased. Numbers of nodules were highest at high and intermediate moisture when no fertilizer was applied. Numbers were lowest at 30 % FC and at the highest fertilizer rate. Masses of nodules and fractions followed the same pattern. Decreasing water regime reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of Prince, while Carioca maintained high RGR at unfavourable conditions of water and nutrients. Net assimilation rates (NAR) were unaffected by nutrient addition, and reduced by low moisture regime. Water use efficiencies (WUEs) were reduced by water stress but increased by nutrient deficiency. The water utilization for dry matter production was optimal at 60 % FC. Einflüsse der Interaktionen von Bodendenfeuchte und Düngung auf die Knöllchenbildung und Kohlenstoff verteilung bei zwei Bohnenkultivaren (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Der begrenzende Hauptfaktor der Bohnenproduktion in ariden und semiariden Regionen sind der Feuchtigkeitsmangel und die Bodenfruchbarkeit. Es wurde ein Experiment durchgeführt, um die Wirkungen des Bodenwassers und von N : P : K (20 : 10 : 10) Dünger auf das Wurzel- und Sproßwachstum an zwei Kultivaren von Bohnen (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca, eine brasilianischen, indeterminierte Landsorte und cv. Prince, eine determinierter in Europa angebauter Kultivar) zu untersuchen. Carioca erscheint grundsätzlich streßtoleranter im Vergleich zu Prince. Die Sämlinge wurden in Gefäßen mit nichtsterilisiertem Boden unter Feldkapazitäten von 30,60 oder 90 % mit 0, 0,1 oder 1 g eines Volldüngers angezogen. Der Boden enthielt eine Population von wirksamem Rhizobium. Das stärkste Wachstum wurde bei beiden Kultivaren unter dem Einfluß des höchsten Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes und der höchsten Düngermenge gefunden. Der Wurzelanteil war bei der geringen Düngermenge am niedrigsten. Der Einfluß der Bodenfeuchtigkeit war nicht signifikant. Der Blattanteil nahm mit zunehmendem Wurzelanteil ab. Die Anzahl der Knötchen war bei hoher und mittlerer Bodenfeuchte und ohne Düngeranwendung am höchsten. Die Anzahl war am geringsten bei 30 % FC und der höchsten Düngermenge. Die Knötchenmasse und ihr Anteil reagierte entsprechend. Abnehmende Bodenfeuchte reduzierte die relative Wachtumsrate (RGR) von Prince, während Carioca einen hohen RGR auch bei ungünstigen Bedingungen bezüglich Wasser und Düngung behielt. Die Nettoassimilationsraten wurden durch die Düngung nicht beeinflußt; sie gingen bei geringer Bodenfeuchte zurück. Die Wassernutzungseffiziens (WUE) wurde bei Wasserstreß reduziert, nahm aber bei Düngermangel zu. Die Wassernutzung für die Trockenmasseproduktion war bei 60 % Feldkapazität am höchsten. [source]

    Varietal Differences in Development of Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings on Compacted Soils

    L. O. Soyelu
    Differences among open-pollinated tropical maize (Zea mays L.) varieties in seedling development and establishment on compacted soils were studied. Soil dry density was used as an index of compaction. Three soil compaction levels and 12 traits associated with development and establishment of maize seedlings were investigated. A control (without compaction) was also included. Varietal differences were observed for most traits measured. Genetic differences for seedling development on compacted soil were detected. Varietal differences contributed about three times the contribution of compaction to total variability in the traits. Better seedling development and performance were obtained in moderately compacted soil than in the control. Shoot length, shoot dry weight and per cent dry matter in roots were good indicators of the tolerance of maize seedlings to compaction. A physiological strategy for maize seedling establishment on compacted soil was proposed. The implications of the results for seed testing were also highlighted. It was concluded that consideration should be given to the genotype of maize destined for use in ecologies prone to high soil densities. All varieties of maize grown in an agroecological zone could be screened to identify genotypes tolerant of higher soil densities. The seeds could then be multiplied and distributed to farmers. Sortenunterschiede in der Entwicklung von Mais (Zea mays L.)-Sämlingen in verdichteten Böden Sortenunterschiede der Sämlingsentwicklung und des Aufwuchses wurden in verdichteten Böden bei fremdbestäubenden tropischen Mais (Zea mays L.)-Sorten untersucht. Die Bodentrockendichte wurde als Index für die Verdichtung verwendet. Drei Verdichtungsstärken und zwölf Behandlungen im Zusammenhang mit der Entwicklung und dem Anwuchs von Maissämlingen wurden untersucht. Eine Kontrolle (ohne Bodenverdichtung) wurde berücksichtigt. Sortenunterschiede wurden für die meisten Eigenschaften gemessen. Genetische Differenzen der Sämlingsentwicklung in verdichteten Böden konnten beobachtet werden. Sortendifferenzen trugen etwa dreifach im Vergleich zur Bodenverdichtung im Hinblick auf die Gesamtvariabilität der Eigenschaften bei. Bessere Sämlingentwicklung und Sämlingsleistung wurden an moderat verdichteten Böden im Vergleich zur Kontrolle beobachtet. Die Sprosslänge, das Sprosstrockengewicht und die Trockenmasse prozent in Wurzeln gaben gute Hinweise hinsichtlich der Toleranz der Maissämlinge gegenüber Bodenverdichtung. Eine physiologische Strategie für die Maissämlingsentwicklung in verdichteten Böden wird vorgeschlagen. Die Bedeutung der Ergebnisse für Samentestzwecke wurde betont. Es wird angenommen, dass Genotypen für den Anbau in ökologischen Bedingungen, die starke Bodenverdichtungen aufweisen, berücksichtigt werden sollten. Da viele Maissorten in agroökologischen Gebieten angebaut werden, sollten diese getestet werden, um Genotypen mit Toleranz gegenüber stärkerer Bodenverdichtung zu identifizieren. Diese Samen könnten dann vermehrt und an Landwirt abgegeben werden. [source]

    What controls woodland regeneration after elephants have killed the big trees?

    Stein R. Moe
    Summary 1Top-down regulation of ecosystems by large herbivores is a topic of active debate between scientists and managers, and a prime example is the interaction between elephants Loxodonta africana and trees in African savannas. A common assumption among wildlife managers is that a local reduction in elephant numbers will ultimately allow woodland to self-restore to a desired former state. Such regeneration is, however, dependent on the survival of seedlings of impacted tree species. We conducted a field experiment to investigate seedling predation in the elephant-transformed Chobe riparian woodland of northern Botswana. 2We planted seedling gardens in (i) complete exclosures that excluded all herbivores except small rodents and invertebrates, (ii) semi-permeable exclosures that excluded ungulates but included primates, lagomorphs, all rodents, gallinaceous birds, etc, and (iii) completely open plots. Seedlings were of two tree species decreasing in the area (Faidherbia albida and Garcinia livingstonei) and two that are increasing (Combretum mossambicense and Croton megalobotrys). 3After 9 months, seedling survival ranged from >75% for all species in the complete exclosure to <20% for Faidherbia albida in the open plots. Survival of all seedlings except C. megalobotrys declined precipitously in open plots during the dry season when invertebrates are largely dormant but when impalas Aepyceros melampus (locally abundant ungulates) increase the browse components of their diets. 4Seedling survival in the open plots was negatively related to local impala density but unrelated to that of any other browser. 5Synthesis and applications. Our findings relate to the current debate about managing elephants to restore southern African savanna landscapes to desired historical states. Various seedling predators, including the ubiquitous impala Aepyceros melampus, regulate the regeneration of trees from seedlings, and our experiments support the hypothesis that tall closed-canopy woodlands originate during episodic windows of opportunity for seedling survival. To artificially recreate such a window would require the decimation of seedling predators as well as elephants, which is impractical at the landscape scale. [source]

    Tertiary relict trees in a Mediterranean climate: abiotic constraints on the persistence of Prunus lusitanica at the eroding edge of its range

    Fernando Pulido
    Abstract Aim, To investigate the ecophysiological traits allowing persistence of a subtropical relict tree (Prunus lusitanica L.) under a dry Mediterranean climate at the eroding edge of its range. Location, A glasshouse for the study under controlled conditions and two marginal populations located in riparian forests of central Spain and exposed to summer drought, in contrast to subtropical populations that grow in mountain cloud forests. Methods, Two experiments were conducted to assess tolerance to the abiotic conditions found in riparian habitats. In a glasshouse experiment, gas-exchange and light-use parameters were measured to evaluate seedling responses to a factorial combination of irradiance (60%, 10%, 2% and 0.5% full sun) and moisture (well watered control and drought stress). In a parallel field experiment, irradiance and soil moisture were measured as predictors of seedling survival at two sites in which half the seedlings were subjected to a threefold increase in summer precipitation by adding water every 10 days. Results Soil moisture strongly determined survival both in the glasshouse and in the two field sites. In the field, periodic addition of water failed to increase survival. Water-use efficiency (WUE) increased with drought. Seedlings did not tolerate deep shade (2,0.5%) and their performance and survival were better when exposed to moderate (10%) or high (60%) irradiance. The effect of water stress on seedling performance was stronger at moderate irradiance, moderate at high irradiance and negligible at very low light. Seedling size (height and number of leaves) attained after 1 month of experimental treatments had a positive effect on survival at the end of the summer, hence greater survival was not achieved at the expense of vertical growth. Main conclusions, While studies in Macaronesia have shown that P. lusitanica occupies a wide range of moisture conditions along mountain slopes, it behaves as an obligate riparian species in dry peripheral populations. Intolerance to deep shade and tolerance to moderate and high irradiance allow the species to grow in small and moist gaps, or in treeless river sections. Despite the species' low range filling in marginal, drought-prone regions, long-term persistence might have been achieved through shifts to riparian habitats serving as local refuges. [source]

    Comparison of temperate and tropical rainforest tree species: growth responses to temperature

    S. Cunningham
    Abstract Aim, To investigate whether the latitudinal distribution of rainforest trees in Australia can be explained by their growth responses to temperature. Methods, The rainforest canopy trees Acmena smithii (Poir.) Merrill & Perry, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Castanospermum australe Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook., Eucryphia lucida (Labill.) Baill., Heritiera trifoliolata (F. Muell.) Kosterm., Nothofagus cunninghamii (Hook.) Oerst., Sloanea woollsii F. Muell. and Tristaniopsis laurina (Sm.) Wilson & Waterhouse were selected to cover the latitudinal range of rainforests in eastern Australia. Seedlings of these species were grown under a range of day/night temperature regimes (14/6, 19/11, 22/14, 25/17, and 30/22 °C) in controlled-environment cabinets. These seedlings were harvested after 16 weeks to determine differences in growth rate and biomass allocation among species and temperature regimes. Results, The temperate species showed maximum growth at lower temperatures than the tropical species. However, there was considerable overlap in the growth rates of the temperate and tropical rainforest types across the temperature range used. Maximum growth of the tropical rainforest types was associated with changes in biomass allocation whereas the temperate rainforest types showed no significant changes in biomass allocation across the temperature range. Main conclusions, All species showed temperatures for maximum growth that were considerably higher than those previously shown for maximum net photosynthesis. The growth responses to temperature of the rainforest species under these experimental conditions provided limited evidence for their restriction to certain latitudes. These growth responses to temperature showed that the physiological assumptions used in various types of vegetation-climate models may not be true of Australian rainforest trees. [source]

    Response of Faidherbia albida (Del.) A. Chev., Acacia nigrescens Oliver. and Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd ex Del. seedlings to simulated cotyledon and shoot herbivory in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe

    Sijabulile Dube
    Abstract Woody plant seedling establishment is constrained by herbivory in many semi-arid savannas. We clipped shoots and cotyledons of three woody species 5-day (=,early') or 28-day (= ,late') post-emergence to simulate herbivory. Seedlings had shoot apex, one or two cotyledon(s) removed, or were retained intact. Survival rates were ,80%, ,40% and ,20% for Acacia nilotica, Acacia nigrescens and Faidherbia albida respectively. F. albida mobilized stored cotyledon reserves faster and consequently shed the cotyledons earlier than the two Acacia species. Cotyledons were shed off as late as 70 days post-emergence with 5-day shedding earlier than 28-day and cotyledon life-span decreasing with intensity of defoliation. Shoot apex removal 28-day resulted in higher compensatory growth than 5-day in all three species. Cotyledon removal had no effect on shoot length, while shoot apex removal reduced shoot length. In F. albida root growth was stimulated by shoot apex removal. We conclude that potential tolerance to herbivory in terms of seedling survival was of the order A. nilotica > A. nigrescens > F. albida, timing of shoot apex and cotyledon removal influenced seedling growth in terms of biomass and that shoot apex removal stimulated compensatory growth which is critical to seedling survival. Résumé L'établissement de jeunes plants ligneux est contrarié par l'herbivorie dans de nombreuses savanes semi arides. Nous avons coupé les pousses et les cotylédons de trois espèces ligneuses à 5-j (= tôt) ou à 28 j (= tard) après leur émergence pour simuler l'herbivorie. On coupait l'apex de la tige et un ou deux cotylédons, ou on les laissait intacts. Le taux de survie était , 80%, , 40% et , 20% pour Acacia nilotica, Acacia nigrescensetFaidherbia albida respectivement. F. albida mobilisait plus rapidement les réserves stockées dans les cotylédons et par conséquent perdait les cotylédons plus tôt que les deux espèces d'acacia. Les cotylédons étaient perdus jusqu'à 70 jours après leur apparition, les 5-j les perdant plus tôt que les 28-j, et la durée de vie des cotylédons diminuait avec l'intensité de la défoliation. L'enlèvement des cotylédons n'avait pas d'effet sur la longueur de la pousse, tandis que celui de l'apex la réduisait. Chez F. albida, la croissance des racines était stimulée par l'enlèvement de l'apex. Nous concluons que la tolérance potentielle à l'herbivorie, en termes de survie des jeunes plants, suit cet ordre-ci : A. nilotica > A. nigrescens > F. albida; que le moment de l'enlèvement du bourgeon apical et des cotylédons influence la croissance des jeunes plants en termes de biomasse; et que l'enlèvement du bourgeon apical stimule une croissance compensatoire qui est critique pour la survie du jeune plant. [source]

    Evaluation of the capacity of three halophytes to desalinize their rhizosphere as grown on saline soils under nonleaching conditions

    Mokded Rabhi
    Abstract In the sabkha of Soliman (N-E Tunisia), soil samples of the upper 20 cm were taken during the driest period of the year (July,August) from inside and outside tufts of two perennial halophytes: Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq. and Suaeda fruticosa Forssk., both from family Chenopodiaceae. Samples were analysed for electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract (ECe) and soluble sodium (Na+) content. Then, tufts were divided into three size categories and their shoot biomass production and Na+ content were determined. Our results showed a considerable contribution of shoot Na+ accumulation to rhizosphere desalination. The capacity of the two native halophytes A. indicum. and S. fruticosa to desalinize saline soils was compared with that of an introduced halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae). Seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing 8 kg of saline soil each. Pots were irrigated with tap water during 170 days without leaching. Our results confirmed the contribution of shoot Na+ accumulation to soil desalination. They showed also that among the three studied species, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. seems to be the most convenient to be used for this purpose in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation is too low to leach salts from rhizosphere. Résumé Dans la sebkha de Soliman (N-E de la Tunisie), des échantillons de sol ont été prélevés dans les 20 cm supérieurs pendant la période la plus sèche de l'année (juillet-août) à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur des touffes de deux halophytes pérennes, Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd) Moq. et Suaeda fructicosa Forsk., appartenant tous deux à la famille des Chenopodiaceae. L'analyse des échantillons s'est basée sur la conductivitéélectrique de la pâte saturée (ECe) et le contenu en sodium (Na+) soluble. Par ailleurs, les touffes d'halophytes ont été réparties en trois catégories selon leur taille, puis des touffes représentatives de chaque catégorie ont été récoltées pour la détermination de la biomasse et la charge en Na+ de leurs parties aériennes. Nos résultats ont montré que l'accumulation de ces ions au niveau des organes aériens contribue considérablement au dessalement de la rhizosphère. La capacité des deux halophytes locales A. indicum et S. fructicosa de dessaler des sols salins a été comparée à celle d'un halophyte introduite, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae). De jeunes plantules ont été cultivées sous serre dans des pots contenant chacun huit kilos de sol salin. Les pots ont été irrigués à l'eau de ville pendant 170 jours sans lessivage. Nos résultats ont confirmé la contribution de l'accumulation de Na+ par les organes photosynthétiques au dessalement du sol. Ils ont montré, également, que, parmi les trois espèces étudiées, S. portulacastrum semble être la plus prometteuse pour un tel programme dans les régions arides et semi-arides où les précipitations sont assez faibles pour lessiver les sels de la rhizosphère. [source]

    Natural regeneration and population dynamics of the tree Afzelia quanzensis in woodlands in Southern Africa

    Karin Gerhardt
    Abstract The logging of tree species of high commercial value is increasing throughout the African continent, yet the ecology of these species is generally poorly known. We studied the regeneration pattern and size class distribution of Afzelia quanzensis populations in northern South Africa over a 5-year period. Recruitment was low as the annual seedling mortality was >65%. Seedlings were located under the canopy and were affected by drought and browsing. The adults were scattered or were in a clump-dispersed pattern, which would result in higher recruitment of offspring near parents. Individuals of 0,10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were few, while there were 32 trees ha,1 at >10 cm DBH with an annual mortality of 0.8%. Annual diameter increments varied between 0.06 and 0.28 cm. It appears that the transition from the sapling into the juvenile stage could be a bottleneck in the regeneration of the species. A longer study, including more rainfall cycles, may reveal other patterns as dry and wet years have different impacts on dynamics. Résumé La coupe d'espèces d'arbres de grande valeur commerciale augmente dans tout le continent africain, pourtant l'écologie de ces espèces est généralement mal connue. Nous avons étudié le schéma de régénération et la distribution des classes d'âge des populations d'Afzelia quanzensis dans le nord de l'Afrique du Sud pendant cinq ans. Le recrutement était faible car la mortalité annuelle des jeunes plants était de plus de 65%. Les jeunes plans se trouvaient sous la canopée et étaient affectés par la sécheresse et par le broutage des animaux. Les adultes étaient dispersés ou se trouvaient en un schéma en bosquet, qui résulte en un plus fort recrutement de la progéniture près des parents. Les individus de 0,10 cm DBH étaient rares, alors qu'il y avait32 arbres ha,1à >10 cm DBH, avec une mortalité annuelle de 0,8%. L'incrément annuel du diamètre variait entre 0,06 et 0,28 cm. Il semble que la transition entre le stade de jeune arbre et celui de juvénile pourrait bien constituer un étranglement dans la régénération de l'espèce. Une étude plus longue, comprenant plus de cycles de pluies, pourrait révéler un autre schéma étant donné que les années sèches et humides ont des impacts différents sur cette dynamique. [source]

    Physiological and biochemical traits involved in the genotypic variability to salt tolerance of Tunisian Cakile maritima

    Megdiche Wided
    Abstract Cakile maritima (family: Brassicaceae) was collected from three provenances belonging to different bioclimatic stages (humid, semi arid and arid) in Tunisia to study their eco-physiological and biochemical responses to salinity. Seedlings were cultivated on inert sand for 20 days under NaCl treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 mm NaCl). Plant response to salinity was provenance- and salt-dependent. At 100 mm NaCl, growth parameters (leaf biomass, area, number per plant and relative growth rate) were improved in plants from Jerba (originating from arid bioclimatic stage) compared with the control, while growth was reduced in those from Tabarka (from humid area). High salt levels (400 mm NaCl) decreased the plant growth in the three provenances, but plants in Tabarka were the most salt sensitive. The relative salt tolerance of plants from Jerba and Bekalta provenances was associated with low levels of malondialdehyde as well as of electrolyte leakage and endoproteolytic activity. Salt reduced leaf hydration, the decrease in water content being dose-dependent and more pronounced in Tabarka. Increase in salinity led to significant increase in leaf succulence and decrease in leaf water potential, especially in Jerba plants. The plants from the latter displayed the highest leaf levels of Na+ and Cl,, proline, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and polyphenols. Overall, the higher salt tolerance of plants from Jerba provenance, and to a lower extent of those from Bekalta, may be partly related to their better capacity for osmotic adjustment and to limit oxidative damage when salt-challenged. Résumé Cakile maritima a été collecté (famille des Brassicaceae) dans trois provenances appartenant à des étages bioclimatiques différentes (humide, semi-aride et aride) de la Tunisie, dans le but d'étudier leurs réponses éco-physiologique et biochimique à la salinité. Des plantules ont été cultivées dans du sable inerte pendant vingt jours avec des doses croissantes de NaCl (0, 100, 200 et 400 mm NaCl). La réponse de Cakile maritima dépend de la provenance et de la salinité du milieu. A 100 mm de NaCl, les paramètres de croissance (biomasse, surface et nombre des feuilles par plante ainsi que le taux de la croissance relative) ont été améliorés chez Djerba (zone bioclimatique aride) par comparaison aux plantes témoins, tandis que la croissance a été réduite chez Tabarka (zone humide). A la plus forte dose de sel (400 mm), une réduction de la croissance des trois provenances a été enregistrée avec une nette sensibilité chez les plantes de la provenance Tabarka. La tolérance relative des deux provenances Djerba et Bekalta est associée à une faible teneur en malondialdéhyde ainsi qu'une fuite d'électrolyte et activité endo-protéolytique modérées. Le traitement salin a réduit l'hydratation des feuilles et cette diminution du contenu en eau est dose-dépendante et elle est plus prononcée chez Tabarka. En outre, l'augmentation de la salinité du milieu a entrainé une élévation de la succulence des feuilles concomitante à une diminution du potentiel hydrique notamment chez Djerba. Les plantes de cette dernière ont été les plus riches en Na+ et Cl - , en proline, carbohydrates, en protéines solubles et en polyphénols. En général, la tolérance au sel de la provenance Djerba, et à moindre degré Bekalta, est en partie reliée à la meilleure capacité d'ajustement osmotique et la limitation des dommages oxydatifs sous stress salin. [source]

    Ecological recovery of an afromontane forest in south- western Uganda

    J. B. Lejju
    Abstract A study of the regeneration of an afromontane forest was carried out in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP), south-western Uganda. The area landscape has been subjected to agricultural encroachment for the last 50 years. The landscape was changed by terracing and removing the indigenous vegetation and replacing it with exotic tree species. Stratified random sampling was employed in sampling the vegetation. There was a significant difference in species richness and density in the three habitat types. The natural forest supported the highest stem density (75%) and the lowest stem density (4%) was recorded under exotic woodlots. Seedlings (<2 cm, diameter at breast height) accounted for the majority of juveniles in the three habitats. The natural forest had the highest density (24,625 seedlings ha,1) and exotic woodlots supported the lowest stem density (1350 seedlings ha,1). The level of regeneration in the encroachment area is influenced by the intensity of cultivation and soil nutrients. The advanced growth beneath the exotic woodlots, especially black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and Eucalyptus sp. stands is relatively impoverished. This condition beneath the exotic species suggests that a low diverse community of native species is able to exploit this environment. [source]

    Growth features of Acacia tortilis and Acacia xanthophloea seedlings and their response to cyclic soil drought stress

    D. O. Otieno
    Abstract Seedlings of Acacia tortilis (Forsk) Hyne and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions. Control plants were watered daily while other treatments involved withholding water for 2, 4 and 6 days with 1-day rehydration to container capacity. Compared to A. tortilis, A. xanthophloea seedlings showed higher leaf area, relative growth rates and total dry weight production under adequate water supply conditions. However, with increased water stress, A. xanthophloea seedlings could not alter their pattern of carbon allocation, retaining their root : shoot (r : s) ratio of about 0.5. By comparison, A. tortilis seedlings shifted carbon allocation to the roots, leading to a r : s ratio of 1.5 in water-stressed seedlings, compared to 0.5 in the control plants. The ability of A. tortilis to reallocate carbon to the roots away from the shoots and to actually increase root growth compared to A. xanthophloea was a dehydration postponement strategy that may be important in species survival during drought. Résumé On a fait pousser des plants d'Acacia tortilis (Forsk) et d'Acacia xanthophloea Benth en serre, dans des conditions bien contrôlées. Les plants de contrôle étaient arrosés chaque jour, alors que les autres traitements consistaient à ne pas arroser pendant 2, 4 et 6 jours puis d'arroser un jour à la limite de capacité du container. Comparés àA.tortilis, les plants d'A.xanthophloea avaient une surface foliaire supérieure, un meilleur taux de croissance relative et une plus forte production totale de poids sec lorsque les conditions d'apport d'eau étaient correctes. Cependant, lorsque les conditions d'hydratation devenaient plus stressantes, les plants d'A.xanthophloea ne pouvaient pas modifier le schéma de leur répartition de carbone, conservant un rapport racines : pousses (r : p) d'environ 0,5. Par comparaison, les pousses d'A.tortilis pouvaient déplacer la répartition de carbone en faveur des racines, aboutissant à un rapport r : p de 1,5 chez les plants soumis à un stress hydrique, comparé au 0,5 relevé chez les plants de contrôle. La capacité qu'a A.tortilis de rediriger le carbone vers les racines au lieu des pousses et d'augmenter ainsi la croissance des racines, par comparaison avec ce qui se passe chez A. xanthophloea, est une stratégie destinée à retarder la déshydratation qui peut être importante pour la survie des espèces en période de sécheresse. [source]

    Abiotic and biotic drivers of seedling survival in a hurricane-impacted tropical forest

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Liza S. Comita
    Summary 1. ,Many forests experience periodic, large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and cyclones, which open the forest canopy, causing dramatic changes in understorey light conditions and seedling densities. Thus, in hurricane-impacted forests, large variations in abiotic and biotic conditions likely shape seedling dynamics, which in turn will contribute to patterns of forest recovery. 2. ,We monitored 13 836 seedlings of 82 tree and shrub species over 10 years following Hurricane Georges in 1998 in a subtropical, montane forest in Puerto Rico. We quantified changes in the biotic and abiotic environment of the understorey and linked seedling dynamics to changes in canopy openness and seedling density, and to spatial variation in soil type, topography and tree density. 3. ,Canopy openness was highest when first measured after Hurricane Georges and dropped significantly within c. 3 years, while seedling densities remained high for c. 5 years post-hurricane. When all species and census intervals were analysed together, generalized linear mixed effects models revealed that canopy openness, seedling and adult tree densities were significant drivers of seedling survival. 4. ,The relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors changed over time. Separate analyses for each census interval revealed that canopy openness was a significant predictor of survival only for the first census interval, with lower survival at the highest levels of canopy openness. The effect of conspecific seedling density was significant in all intervals except the first, and soil type only in the final census interval. 5. ,When grouping species into life-history guilds based on adult tree susceptibility to hurricane damage, we found clear differences among guilds in the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on seedling survival. Seedlings of hurricane-susceptible and intermediate guilds were more strongly influenced by canopy openness, while seedlings of the hurricane-resistant group were less affected by conspecific seedling density. Individual species-level analyses for 12 common species, however, showed considerable variation among species within guilds. 6. ,Synthesis. Our results suggest that hurricanes shape species composition by altering understorey conditions that differentially influence the success of seedlings. Thus, predicted increases in the intensity and frequency of hurricanes in the Caribbean will likely alter seedling dynamics and ultimately the species composition in hurricane-impacted forests. [source]

    Dispersal and gene flow of Populus nigra (Salicaceae) along a dynamic river system

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Eric Imbert
    Summary 1,We used genetic markers to study gene flow of the riparian pioneer tree species Populus nigra along the Drôme river (France). This dioecious species is supposed to have more efficient dispersal mechanisms for pollen (wind) and seeds (wind and water) than other trees. 2,Seedlings belonging to the same reproduction/migration event were sampled in 22 riparian forest fragments along the river and their genetic diversity assessed through six nuclear microsatellites. 3,We found a high level of diversity and significant differentiation among populations. The significant isolation by distance allowed us to reject the infinite island model of migration. 4,Gene flow parameters were higher in the upper, mountainous part than in the alluvial plain downstream. There was no accumulation of diversity downstream, indicating migration rates were symmetrical upstream and downstream. This was confirmed by computing individual migration parameters between adjacent populations. 5,The results are discussed with regard to the dispersal mechanisms of seeds and pollen. The discrepancy between potential gene flow and effective gene flow is interpreted as an effect of fragmentation, due to the alteration of the natural dynamics of the riparian ecosystem rather than to physical barriers. [source]

    A flexible sand coating (Conniflex) for the protection of conifer seedlings against damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis

    Göran Nordlander
    Abstract 1 A new method for the physical protection of conifer seedlings against feeding damage by Hylobius abietis (L.), is described and evaluated in field trials in Swedish forest plantations. 2 The lower 60% of the stem of the seedling is protected by the Conniflex coating, consisting of fine sand (grain size = 0.2 mm) embedded in an acrylate dispersion that remains flexible after drying. 3 Seedlings are treated in the nursery by a large-scale application procedure involving four steps: (i) spraying the seedlings with water; (ii) application of fixative to the lower sections of the stems, (iii) application of fine sand to the fixative; and (iv) drying of the fixative. 4 A field experiment over three seasons demonstrated a significant increase in survival for coated seedlings compared with untreated seedlings. The survival rate increased from 29% to 97% for Scots pine and from 26% to 86% for Norway spruce. Coating the lower 30% of the stem (instead of 60%) provided inferior protection, resulting in only 64% survival in spruce. 5 Field trials in 11 commercial plantation areas indicated that the Conniflex sand coating was as effective in protecting seedlings as treatment with the insecticide imidacloprid. 6 The new method of coating conifer seedlings with fine sand provides an effective and environmentally sound alternative to insecticide treatment. [source]

    Coronatine Alleviates Water Deficiency Stress on Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Xiangwen Li
    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 ,M for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO2 and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. [source]

    Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Yun-Zhou Qiao
    Abstract Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (± 25) ,mol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/m2) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same. [source]

    Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree

    Ya-Qin Han
    Abstract In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S. macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter, the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees. [source]

    Screening for Barley yellow dwarf virus -Resistant Barley Genotypes by Assessment of Virus Content in Inoculated Seedlings


    Abstract The content of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in roots and leaves of barley seedling plants differing in their level of resistance was assessed by quantitative ELISA 1,42 days after inoculation with the strain of BYDV (PAV). High virus accumulation in roots and low concentration in leaves was characteristic of the period 9,15 days after inoculation. In leaves, the differences in virus content between resistant and susceptible genotypes became significant after 15 days and resistance to virus accumulation was better expressed 30,39 days after inoculation. Roots of resistant materials exhibited evident retardation of virus accumulation and the greatest difference in virus content between resistant and susceptible plants was detected 9 days after inoculation. By these criteria, the selected winter and spring barley cultivars and lines (in total 44 materials) fell in to five groups according to field reactions and the presence or absence of the Yd2 resistance gene. There were highly significant and positive relations between ELISA values and 5-year field data on symptomatic reactions and grain-yield reductions due to infection. Using the described method, resistant and moderately resistant genotypes (both Yd2 and non- Yd2) were significantly differentiated from susceptible genotypes. The possible use of this method in screening for BYDV resistance is discussed. [source]

    Genetic Analysis of the Latent Period of Stripe Rust in Wheat Seedlings

    H. Dehghani
    Abstract Genetics of slow-rusting resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) was studied by a half-diallel design using six wheat varieties, Tiritea (susceptible), Tancred, Kotare, Otane, Karamu, and Briscard. The parents and 15 F1 progenies were evaluated in the greenhouse by three pathotypes 7E18A,, 38E0A+, and 134E134A+. The latent period was measured as the number of days from inoculation to the appearance of the first pustule. For each pathotype a randomized complete block design was used and data were analysed by methods of Griffing and Hayman. The range of average degree of dominance was from complete dominance to over-dominance. Positive and negative degrees of dominance were observed for each pathotype that showed the reversal of dominance. Analysis of variance showed the importance of both additive and dominance effects in controlling the latent period. Broad-sense heritabilities were 0.99 and narrow-sense heritabilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. Briscard and Karamu for the pathotypes 38E0A+ and 134E134A+, Kotare for the pathotype 7E18A, and Tancred for the pathotype 38E0A+ had significant and positive general combining ability (GCA) (more resistance) for latent period. The crosses of Kotare with Tancred, Briscard and Karamu indicated the highest and positive specific combining ability (SCA) for the pathotype 7E18A,. Significant additive genetic component and moderate narrow-sense heritability indicate the possibility of improving for longer latent period of stripe rust in breeding programmes. [source]

    Fusarium culmorum Infection of Barley Seedlings: Correlation between Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Content

    Fusarium culmorum is a serious plant pathogen, especially on cereals. The production of deoxynivalenol (DON) by F. culmorum is believed to play a role in pathogenesis. This relationship has been almost exclusively studied in connection with head blight. The present paper reports the first finding of DON in cereal seedlings infected with F. culmorum. A pathogenicity test was performed, including 70 isolates of this pathogen from different sites within northern and central Europe. All isolates caused disease on barley seedlings. For 15 isolates with varying aggressiveness, the DON content in the 19-day-old-barley seedlings was determined. There was a significant correlation between DON concentration and disease index. The aggressiveness of two outlying isolates with very low DON production is discussed. The results indicate that for F. culmorum isolates of the DON chemotype, production of this toxin influences the aggressiveness of the isolates towards barley seedlings. [source]