Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Secondary

  • change secondary
  • choroidal neovascularization secondary
  • cirrhosis secondary
  • cnv secondary
  • complications secondary
  • disease secondary
  • dysfunction secondary
  • failure secondary
  • haematoma secondary
  • impairment secondary
  • infection secondary
  • injury secondary
  • macular oedema secondary
  • neovascularization secondary
  • obstruction secondary
  • oedema secondary
  • pain secondary
  • respiratory failure secondary
  • rupture secondary
  • symptom secondary
  • syndrome secondary

  • Terms modified by Secondary

  • secondary aim
  • secondary alcohol
  • secondary alteration
  • secondary amide
  • secondary amine
  • secondary aml
  • secondary analysis
  • secondary antibody
  • secondary bacterial infection
  • secondary battery
  • secondary benefit
  • secondary benzylic alcohol
  • secondary branch
  • secondary building unit
  • secondary calcite
  • secondary cancers
  • secondary care
  • secondary care setting
  • secondary caries
  • secondary case
  • secondary cause
  • secondary cell wall
  • secondary challenge
  • secondary change
  • secondary chemistry
  • secondary colonization
  • secondary complications
  • secondary component
  • secondary compound
  • secondary condition
  • secondary consequence
  • secondary contact
  • secondary contact zone
  • secondary damage
  • secondary data
  • secondary data analysis
  • secondary data source
  • secondary deformity
  • secondary diagnosis
  • secondary dispersal
  • secondary dystonia
  • secondary education
  • secondary effect
  • secondary effects
  • secondary efficacy endpoint
  • secondary efficacy measure
  • secondary efficacy variable
  • secondary effluent
  • secondary electron
  • secondary end point
  • secondary end-point
  • secondary endpoint
  • secondary event
  • secondary expansion
  • secondary factor
  • secondary failure
  • secondary flow
  • secondary forest
  • secondary generalization
  • secondary glaucoma
  • secondary glioblastoma
  • secondary goal
  • secondary growth
  • secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • secondary hypertension
  • secondary immune response
  • secondary immunization
  • secondary importance
  • secondary infection
  • secondary infections
  • secondary infertility
  • secondary intention
  • secondary interaction
  • secondary intervention
  • secondary involvement
  • secondary ion
  • secondary ion mass spectrometry
  • secondary ion mass spectroscopy
  • secondary lamella
  • secondary level
  • secondary literature
  • secondary loss
  • secondary lymphoid organ
  • secondary lymphoid tissue
  • secondary lysosome
  • secondary malignancy
  • secondary market
  • secondary measure
  • secondary mediator
  • secondary metabolism
  • secondary metabolite
  • secondary metabolite production
  • secondary mineral
  • secondary neoplasm
  • secondary neurogenesi
  • secondary objective
  • secondary osteoporosis
  • secondary outcome
  • secondary outcome measure
  • secondary outcome variable
  • secondary oxidation products
  • secondary palate
  • secondary parameter
  • secondary peak
  • secondary phase
  • secondary phenomenon
  • secondary plastid
  • secondary prevention
  • secondary procedure
  • secondary process
  • secondary production
  • secondary products
  • secondary progressive
  • secondary prophylaxis
  • secondary purpose
  • secondary quality
  • secondary reaction
  • secondary reconstruction
  • secondary reference
  • secondary resistance
  • secondary response
  • secondary role
  • secondary rp
  • secondary school
  • secondary school child
  • secondary school pupil
  • secondary school student
  • secondary sex characteristic
  • secondary sex ratio
  • secondary sexual character
  • secondary sexual trait
  • secondary site
  • secondary somatosensory cortex
  • secondary source
  • secondary species
  • secondary spermatocyte
  • secondary spread
  • secondary stability
  • secondary stage
  • secondary star
  • secondary stroke
  • secondary stroke prevention
  • secondary structural change
  • secondary structural element
  • secondary structure
  • secondary structure content
  • secondary structure element
  • secondary structure prediction
  • secondary structure propensity
  • secondary student
  • secondary succession
  • secondary surgery
  • secondary syphilis
  • secondary task
  • secondary teacher
  • secondary transfer
  • secondary transmission
  • secondary treatment
  • secondary tumor
  • secondary tumour
  • secondary variable
  • secondary vegetation
  • secondary wall
  • secondary wall formation
  • secondary xylem

  • Selected Abstracts


    Radcliffe Lisk MRCP
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ABSTRACT A survey on beliefs and purchase intent of irradiated foods was conducted among 300 Argentine students, covering secondary/high school, food science and nonfood science university, and 100 nonstudent adults. Other factors considered were the type of information provided (introductory, process description and benefits) and the city of residence (small agricultural city and big city). The most important benefits were considered to be microorganism reduction and improved sanitation. On the other hand, insecurity and doubts were the main reasons why respondents would not buy these foods. Only 14% said they would definitely buy irradiated foods. Considering their doubts and insecurities, it is probable that if these respondents see a food labeled as "irradiated," they would not choose to buy it. Within developing countries such as Argentina, the promotion of this technology by government agencies would be very costly, and at present, these costs would not seem to be justified. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The negative perceptions of consumers would hinder the successful implementation of food irradiation. The doubts or insecurities that consumers of developing countries have are similar to those that consumers of developed countries have. Most respondents answered that irradiated foods should be labeled as such. If food irradiation was to be pursued further, the place to start would be in food science curricula as this is the basis of future professionals in charge of researching its use and/or implementing the process. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Robert G. Sheath
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Acute Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Right Ventricular Pacing in a Patient With Sinus Node Dysfunction and Severe Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Giancarlo H. Speziani MD
    Right ventricular pacing has been associated with worsening symptoms of heart failure in patients with cardiomyopathy. We describe a patient with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy and sinus node dysfunction who developed acute worsening of pulmonary hypertension immediately after right ventricular pacing. [source]

    Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Findings of Pulmonary Valve Cyst Secondary to Pulmonary Valvuloplasty

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2009
    Harvinder Dod M.D.
    Real time two-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a mobile echolucent mass attached to the pulmonary valve in a 25-year-old adult, 20 years following balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. The mass was surgically excised and pathology showed it to be a cyst. [source]

    Unusual Pulmonary Venous Flow Profile in a Patient with Mitral Valve Perforation Secondary to Bacterial Endocarditis

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2006
    Shalini Modi M.D.
    Pulmonary venous flow patterns have been well described in the literature to assess severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) and the degree of diastolic dysfunction. We report a case of posterior mitral leaflet perforation due to bacterial endocarditis causing an alteration of pulmonary venous flow, not previously described in the literature. This pulmonary venous flow pattern is unique in that it reflects dynamic changes in left atrial pressure in the background of severe MR. [source]

    Descending Aorta Obstruction Secondary to Left Subclavian Stent: An Uncommon Source of Emboli

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2003
    John W. Willson R.D.C.S.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Opportunism of Conidiobolus obscurus stems from depression of infection in situ to progeny colonies of host alatae as disseminators of the aphid-pathogenic fungus

    Guo-Zhong Zhang
    Summary Conidiobolus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) includes common aphid pathogens but causes sporadic mycosis worldwide. This epizootiological opportunism was explored herein by examining the potential of mycosis transmission in the progeny colonies of 513 Myzus persicae alates as disseminators of C. obscurus often infecting aphids. The alates exposed to spore showers were flown for 2.05 (0.01,8.95) km on flight mills and then reared individually on cabbage at 20,23°C for 14 day colonization. All truly infected alates were mycosed within 6 days and averagely left 3.9 (0,15) nymphs while those uninfected produced 11.6 (0,35) nymphs during the same period. Secondary and tertiary infections occurred only in 16.2% and 4.8% of the progeny colonies of the mycosed alates respectively, due to c. 60% of the cadavers forming resting spores. Most of the contagious infections appeared on days 4,8 after colonization and no more occurred from day 11 onwards. Trends of colony sizes (last-day averaging 51.5 aphids) and mycosis transmission (sixth-day maximum 6.3%) fit well to logistic (r 2 = 0.99) and Gompertz growth models (r 2 = 0.91) respectively. The results confirm that the opportunism of C. obscurus stems from depression of contagious infection after dissemination by host alates and suggest that it be overwhelmed by the prevalence of other non-resting fungal species. [source]

    The role of ICOS in the development of CD4 T cell help and the reactivation of memory T cells

    Simmi Mahajan
    Abstract We have addressed the role of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) in the development of T cell help for B cells and in the generation, survival and reactivation of memory CD4 T cells and B cells. We find that while T cell help for all antibody isotypes (including IgG2c) is impaired in ICOS knockout (ICOS-KO) mice, the IFN-, response is little affected, indicating a defect in helper function that is unrelated to cytokine production. In addition, the ICOS-negative T cells do not accumulate in B cell follicles. Secondary (memory), but not primary, clonal proliferation of antigen-specific B cells is impaired in ICOS-KO mice, as is the generation of secondary antibody-secreting cells. Analysis of endogenous CD4 memory cells in ICOS-KO mice, using MHC class,II tetramers, reveals normal primary clonal expansion, formation of memory clones and long-term (10,wk) survival of memory cells, but defective expansion upon reactivation in vivo. The data point to a role of ICOS in supporting secondary, memory and effector T cell responses, possibly by influencing cell survival. The data also highlight differences in ICOS dependency of endogenous T cell proliferation in vivo compared to that of adoptively transferred TCR-transgenic T cells. [source]

    Hemicrania Continua Secondary to an Ipsilateral Brainstem Lesion

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2007
    Marcelo M. Valença MD
    We describe a 47-year-old woman with a 3-year history of a continuum mild-moderate right-side headache, with exacerbations, associated with stabbing volleys of pain on right orbit-temporal region (10/10) and right eye ptosis and lacrimation with conjunctival injection. The pain was completely abolished with indomethacin (100 mg per day). The diagnosis of hemicrania continua was made according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. The headache presentation was precipitated by a stroke and a right-side brainstem lesion was present at magnetic resonance imaging. This case report shows anatomoclinical evidence of the involvement of brainstem structures on the pathophysiology of hemicrania continua. [source]

    Urban-Rural Differences in a Memory Disorders Clinical Population

    Sarah B. Wackerbarth PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare patient characteristics and family perceptions of patient function at one urban and one rural memory disorders clinic. DESIGN: Secondary, cross-sectional data analyses of an extant clinical database. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: First time visits (n = 956) at two memory disorders clinics. MEASUREMENTS: Patient and family-member demographics and assessment results for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), activities of daily living (ADLs), the Memory Change and Personality Change components of the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist. RESULTS: In both clinics, patients and family members were more likely female. The typical urban clinic patient was significantly more likely to be living in a facility and more educated than the typical rural patient. Urban and rural patients did not show significant differences in age- and education-adjusted MMSE scores or raw ADL/IADL ratings, but the urban family members reported more memory problems, twice as many personality changes, more-frequent behavior problems, and more adverse reactions to problems. CONCLUSION: Physicians who practice in both urban and rural areas can anticipate differences between patients, and their families, who seek a diagnosis of memory disorders. Our most important finding is that despite similarities in reported functional abilities, urban families appear to be more sensitive to and more distressed by patients' cognitive and behavioral symptoms than rural families. These differences may reflect different underlying needs, and should be explored in further research. [source]

    Collagen Metabolism Is Markedly Altered in the Hypertrophic Cartilage of Growth Plates from Rats with Growth Impairment Secondary to Chronic Renal Failure

    Jesús Álvarez
    Abstract Skeletal growth depends on growth plate cartilage activity, in which matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is one of the major processes contributing to the final length of a bone. On this basis, the present work was undertaken to ascertain if growth impairment secondary to chronic renal insufficiency is associated with disturbances of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the growth plate. By combining stereological and in situ hybridization techniques, we examined the expression patterns of types II and X collagens and collagenase-3 in tibial growth plates of rats made uremic by subtotal nephrectomy (NX) in comparison with those of sham-operated rats fed ad libitum (SAL) and sham-operated rats pair-fed with NX (SPF). NX rats were severely uremic, as shown by markedly elevated serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, and growth retarded, as shown by significantly decreased longitudinal bone growth rates. NX rats showed disturbances in the normal pattern of chondrocyte differentiation and in the rates and degree of substitution of hypertrophic cartilage with bone, which resulted in accumulation of cartilage at the hypertrophic zone. These changes were associated with an overall decrease in the expression of types II and X collagens, which was especially marked in the abnormally extended zone of the hypertrophic cartilage. Unlike collagen, the expression of collagenase-3 was not disturbed severely. Electron microscopic analysis proved that changes in gene expression were coupled to alterations in the mineralization as well as in the collagen fibril architecture at the hypertrophic cartilage. Because the composition and structure of the ECM have a critical role in regulating the behavior of the growth plate chondrocytes, results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that alteration of collagen metabolism in these cells could be a key process underlying growth retardation in uremia. [source]

    Off-Pump Total Cavopulmonary Connection in a Patient with Hypoplastic Right Pulmonary Artery and Right Lung Secondary to Kyphoscoliosis

    Murat Ugurlucan M.D.
    Pulmonary vasculature and status of the lungs are critically important for the success of the operation. In this report, we present a 10-year-old patient with single ventricle heart and severely hypoplastic unilateral pulmonary artery and respective lung due to kyphoscoliosis who underwent extracardiac Fontan procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass, successfully. [source]

    Lobectomy for Pulmonary Vein Occlusion Secondary to Radiofrequency Ablation

    Pulmonary Vein Occlusion After RF Ablation., Pulmonary vein stenosis, a recognized complication of transcatheter radiofrequency ablation in the left atrium, is often asymptomatic. Significant stenosis is commonly treated with percutaneous balloon dilation with or without stenting. We encountered a case of complete pulmonary vein occlusion that caused lobar thrombosis, pleuritic pain, and persistent cough. Imaging studies revealed virtually no perfusion to the affected lobe. A lobectomy was performed, resolving the persistent cough and pain. Pulmonary vein occlusion should be suspected in patients who present with pulmonary symptoms after having undergone ablative procedures for atrial fibrillation. This condition may necessitate surgical intervention if interventions such as balloon dilation or stenting are not possible or are ineffective.,(J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 1055-1058, September 2010) [source]

    Headaches and Hypertension: Primary or Secondary?

    Joel Handler MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cutaneous Hyalohyphomycosis Secondary to Paecilomyces Species Treated with Voriconazole in an Immune Compentent Host

    H. Skelton
    Paecilomyces, a hyalohyphomycosis, is an uncommon cause of cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Most cases reported have occurred in patients with impaired host defenses or following a surgical procedure, and have proven highly resistant to anti fungal therapies. A 60-year-old man presented with scattered non-healing verrucous lesions as well as ulcers and excoriations on the upper extremities and trunk. The lesion had begun shortly after the patient was scratched by prickly okra. The patient had no underlying health problems and he was on no medication. Histology revealed epidermal hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, with papillomatosis with intraepidermal micro-abscess formation. Within the dermis there was a mixed acute and chronic granulomatous infiltrate. With GMS stain numerous pleomorphic yeast forms and pseudohyphael forms were seen. Cultures confirmed Paecilomyces species. The patient was treated with Voriconazole with complete resolution of his lesion. Paecilomyces is an emerging fungal pathogen, which in our immune competent patient manifest as widespread cutaneous disease. [source]

    MRI Changes in Thrombotic Microangiopathy Secondary to Malignant Hypertension

    Mandeep Garewal MD
    ABSTRACT Thrombotic microangiopathy with thrombocytopenia and intravascular hemolysis are characteristic of three disorders: malignant hypertension (MH), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP). We describe a patient with thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to malignant hypertension that caused extensive bilateral cortical ischemic infarction. [source]

    Lumbar Dural Ectasia Secondary to Spinal Fusion: A Report of Two Cases

    Tom A. Hong MMS
    ABSTRACT Two cases of lumbar dural ectasia secondary to spinal fusion are presented. Background history of dural ectasia is discussed; computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging characteristics of dural ectasia are shown and possible causes are discussed. [source]

    Clinical trial: esomeprazole for moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-related sleep disturbances

    D. Johnson
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 182,190 Summary Background, Nighttime heartburn, common among patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is associated with substantial clinical effects. GERD-related sleep disturbances are underappreciated and undertreated. Aim, To evaluate the efficacy of esomeprazole on GERD-related nighttime heartburn and associated sleep disturbances. Methods, In this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (endoscopies not required) received esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo each morning for 4 weeks. Heartburn symptoms and GERD-related sleep disturbances were evaluated using the validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and validated Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Results, The analysis included 262 patients (esomeprazole, n = 137; placebo, n = 125). Significantly more patients receiving esomeprazole achieved nighttime heartburn relief (primary end point) than those receiving placebo (34.3% vs. 10.4%; P < 0.0001). Secondary end points such as relief of GERD-related sleep disturbances (P = 0.006), days without GERD-related sleep disturbances (P = 0.0003) and complete resolution of sleep disturbances (P < 0.0001) favoured esomeprazole over placebo. Sleep quality, work productivity and regular daily activities also improved significantly with esomeprazole vs. placebo. Conclusions, Esomeprazole 20 mg is effective for patients with moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving heartburn symptoms, sleep quality, work productivity and functionality. [source]

    Quasi-maximum likelihood estimation of periodic GARCH and periodic ARMA-GARCH processes

    Abdelhakim Aknouche
    Primary: 62F12; Secondary: 62M10, 91B84 Abstract., This article establishes the strong consistency and asymptotic normality (CAN) of the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE) for generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroscedastic (GARCH) and autoregressive moving-average (ARMA)-GARCH processes with periodically time-varying parameters. We first give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a strictly periodically stationary solution of the periodic GARCH (PGARCH) equation. As a result, it is shown that the moment of some positive order of the PGARCH solution is finite, under which we prove the strong consistency and asymptotic normality of the QMLE for a PGARCH process without any condition on its moments and for a periodic ARMA-GARCH (PARMA-PGARCH) under mild conditions. [source]

    Ghrelin receptor agonist (TZP-101) accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetes and symptomatic gastroparesis

    Summary Background, TZP-101 is a synthetic, selective ghrelin agonist in development for gastroparesis. Aim, To assess safety and effects of TZP-101 in diabetes patients with symptomatic gastroparesis. Methods, Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus received placebo and TZP-101 (80, 160, 320 or 600 ,g/kg) infusions in a cross-over manner following a radiolabelled meal. Blood glucose levels were stabilized using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Primary endpoints were gastric half emptying and latency times. Secondary measures included assessment of gastroparesis symptoms and endocrine responses. Results, Ten patients with type 1 (n = 7) or 2 (n = 3) diabetes, moderate-to-severe gastroparesis symptoms and ,29% retention 4 h after a radiolabelled solid meal were enrolled. TZP-101 produced significant reductions in solid meal half-emptying (20%, P = 0.043) and latency (34%, P = 0.037) times vs. placebo. Reductions in overall postmeal symptom intensity (24%) and postprandial fullness (37%) following TZP-101 infusion were not statistically significant. Most adverse events were mild and self-limiting and there were no identifiable differences in numbers or types of adverse events between TZP-101 and placebo. Conclusions, This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the ghrelin agonist TZP-101 is well-tolerated in diabetes patients with moderate-to-severe chronic gastroparesis and shows statistically significant improvements in gastric emptying. [source]

    Evaluation of Pimobendan and N-Terminal Probrain Natriuretic Peptide in the Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease in Dogs

    K.J. Atkinson
    Background: Pimobendan is a positive inotrope and vasodilator that may be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) secondary to degenerative mitral valve disease. Hypothesis: Pimobendan decreases the severity of PHT measured echocardiographically and improves quality-of-life scores. Changes in N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations will reflect improvement in severity of PHT. Animals: Ten client-owned dogs with peak tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity (TRFV) ,3.5 m/s. Methods: Prospective short-term, double-blinded, crossover design, with a long-term, open-label component. Short term, dogs were randomly allocated to receive either placebo or pimobendan (0.18,0.3 mg/kg PO q12 h) for 14 days. After a 1-week washout, they received the alternative treatment for 14 days, followed by pimobendan open-label for 8 weeks. Results: Short-term comparison: peak TRFV decreased in all dogs on pimobendan compared with placebo from a median of 4.40 (range, 3.2,5.6) to 3.75 (range, 2.4,4.8) m/s (P < .0001). NT-proBNP concentration decreased after treatment with pimobendan from a median of 2,143 (range, 450,3,981) to 1,329 (range, 123,2,411) pmol/L (P= .0009). All dogs improved their quality-of-life score (P= .006). In the long-term comparisons, peak TRFV decreased in all dogs from a median of 4.28 (range, 3.5,5.7) to 3.52 (range, 2.4,5.0) m/s (P < .0001). No significant changes in NT-proBNP or quality-of-life scores were detected. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan lowered severity of measurable PHT, improved quality-of-life scores, and decreased NT-proBNP concentrations short-term. Long term, only the reduction in TRFV was maintained. [source]

    Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Secondary to Hemangiosarcoma in a Dog

    Maria Josefa Fernández-del Palacio
    First page of article [source]

    A phylogeny of anisopterous dragonflies (Insecta, Odonata) using mtRNA genes and mixed nucleotide/doublet models

    G. Fleck
    Abstract The application of mixed nucleotide/doublet substitution models has recently received attention in RNA-based phylogenetics. Within a Bayesian approach, it was shown that mixed models outperformed analyses relying on simple nucleotide models. We analysed an mt RNA data set of dragonflies representing all major lineages of Anisoptera plus outgroups, using a mixed model in a Bayesian and parsimony (MP) approach. We used a published mt 16S rRNA secondary consensus structure model and inferred consensus models for the mt 12S rRNA and tRNA valine. Secondary structure information was used to set data partitions for paired and unpaired sites on which doublet or nucleotide models were applied, respectively. Several different doublet models are currently available of which we chose the most appropriate one by a Bayes factor test. The MP reconstructions relied on recoded data for paired sites in order to account for character covariance and an application of the ratchet strategy to find most parsimonious trees. Bayesian and parsimony reconstructions are partly differently resolved, indicating sensitivity of the reconstructions to model specification. Our analyses depict a tree in which the damselfly family Lestidae is sister group to a monophyletic clade Epiophlebia + Anisoptera, contradicting recent morphological and molecular work. In Bayesian analyses, we found a deep split between Libelluloidea and a clade ,Aeshnoidea' within Anisoptera largely congruent with Tillyard's early ideas of anisopteran evolution, which had been based on evidently plesiomorphic character states. However, parsimony analysis did not support a clade ,Aeshnoidea', but instead, placed Gomphidae as sister taxon to Libelluloidea. Monophyly of Libelluloidea is only modestly supported, and many inter-family relationships within Libelluloidea do not receive substantial support in Bayesian and parsimony analyses. We checked whether high Bayesian node support was inflated owing to either: (i) wrong secondary consensus structures; (ii) under-sampling of the MCMC process, thereby missing other local maxima; or (iii) unrealistic prior assumptions on topologies or branch lengths. We found that different consensus structure models exert strong influence on the reconstruction, which demonstrates the importance of taxon-specific realistic secondary structure models in RNA phylogenetics. [source]

    Small bowel mucosal injury is reduced in healthy subjects treated with celecoxib compared with ibuprofen plus omeprazole, as assessed by video capsule endoscopy

    SUMMARY Background, Small bowel mucosal injury associated with non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is being increasingly recognized. Aim, To evaluate the incidence of small bowel injury in healthy subjects receiving celecoxib or ibuprofen plus omeprazole using video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Methods, Subjects with normal baseline VCE were randomly assigned to receive celecoxib 200 mg b.d., ibuprofen 800 mg t.d.s. plus omeprazole 20 mg o.d. or placebo for 2 weeks. The primary end point was mean number of small bowel mucosal breaks per subject. Secondary end points included correlation of faecal calprotectin levels with the primary outcome. Results, After treatment, the mean number of small bowel mucosal breaks per subject and the percentage of subjects with mucosal breaks were 0.7/25.9% for ibuprofen/omeprazole compared with 0.2/6.4% for celecoxib and 0.1/7.1% placebo (both comparisons P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between celecoxib and placebo in any measure. Mean increases in faecal calprotectin levels were higher in subjects receiving ibuprofen/omeprazole compared with celecoxib (P < 0.001), but no correlation was determined between these levels and small bowel mucosal breaks. Conclusions, Among healthy subjects with no baseline endoscopic lesions, celecoxib was associated with significantly fewer small bowel mucosal breaks than ibuprofen/omeprazole as assessed by VCE. [source]

    Agreement of efficacy assessments for five-grass pollen sublingual tablet immunotherapy

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2009
    A. Didier
    Background:, The optimal dose of five-grass pollen sublingual tablet immunotherapy (SLIT) was established recently by the primary criteria Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score (RTSS) from the first treatment season. Secondary and exploratory criteria, such as RTSS at peak pollen season, exploratory combined symptom and rescue medication use score, quality of life and immunological markers are calculated and described in this analysis. Methods:, Six hundred and twenty-eight patients with grass pollen rhinoconjunctivitis (,2 years duration) were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Europe. Patients received once-daily SLIT (Stallergenes, Antony, France) of 100IR, 300IR, 500IR or placebo, starting 4 months before grass pollen season and throughout the 2005 season. Patients were instructed to take rescue medication only if symptoms were severe and record symptom severity on using the RTSS. Results:, Both 300IR and 500IR doses significantly reduced mean RTSS at pollen peak (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0014, respectively) and the exploratory combined score (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0026, respectively) compared with placebo. Compared with patients in the placebo group, those who were taking the 300IR and 500IR doses reported significantly improved quality of life using the mean Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores during the peak of the pollen season (P < 0.0001) and at the end of the pollen season (P = 0.0031 and P , 0.0001, respectively). Specific immunoglobulin G4 increased significantly depending on the SLIT dose (P < 0.0001). Conclusions:, All secondary efficacy criteria, including efficacy at pollen peak, combined score, quality of life and immunological changes, indicate that 300IR tablets represent the optimal dose and suggest it is appropriate for use in clinical practice. [source]

    Grammar Acquisition and Processing Instruction: Secondary and Cumulative Effects,by BENATI, ALESSANDRO G., & JAMES F. LEE

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Production and characterization of an allergen panel for component-resolved diagnosis of celery allergy

    Merima Bublin
    Abstract In celery a relevant food allergen source, three allergens have been identified so far: Api g 1 and Api g 4, and one glycosylated protein, Api g 5. For component-resolved food allergy diagnosis high amounts of well-defined allergens are needed. Depending on the individual celery allergen, protocols for heterologous production and purification from natural source, respectively, were established to obtain homogenous protein batches. Afterwards the purified recombinant allergens, Api g 1, Api g 4 and natural Api g 5 were characterized regarding their structural integrity and immunological activity. Therefore, several methods were applied. Proteins were identified by partial N-terminal sequencing, protein mass was verified by MS and sequence integrity by MALDI-TOF and N-terminal sequencing after tryptic digestion. Presence of isoforms in natural allergen preparations was identified by 2-DE. Secondary and tertiary structures were evaluated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Finally, IgE binding capacity was verified using selected sera from celery allergic patients in IgE immunoblots and IgE ELISA. These well-defined celery allergens will be used to prove the concept of component-resolved diagnosis and will contribute to improve food allergy diagnosis in the future. [source]

    The Collapse of the Classic Maya: A Case for the Role of Water Control

    Lisa J. Lucero
    This article focuses on the role of water control in the emergence and demise of Classic Maya political power (c. C.E. 250-950), one that scholars have long underestimated. The scale of water control correlates with the degree of political power, reflected in three levels of Maya civic-ceremonial centers,regional, secondary, and minor. Such power derives from a complex relationship among center location, seasonal water supply, amount of agricultural land, and settlement density. Maya kings monopolized artificial reservoirs and other water sources during annual drought, providing the means to exact tribute from subjects. Climate change undermined the institution of rulership when existing ceremonies and technology failed to provide sufficient water. The collapse of rulers' power at regional centers in the Terminal Classic (c. C.E. 850-950) had differing impacts on smaller centers. Secondary and minor centers not heavily dependent on water control survived the drought and the collapse of regional centers. [Keywords: political power, water control, Classic Maya collapse] [source]

    Bilateral Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Relief of Central Dysesthetic Pain and Intentional Tremor Secondary to Spinal Cord Surgery: A Case Report

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 4 2002
    Roberto Fabian Rodríguez MD
    Abstract Objectives. Our objective was to describe and analyze through a third party disinterested observer the results obtained by using motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for the treatment of central dysesthetic diffuse-distal type of paraplegic pain and intentional tremor secondary to the total removal of a cervical ependymoma. Design. Retrospective case report with discussion. Methods. A 69-year-old female, who after satisfactory removal of a cervical ependymoma, developed a central dysesthetic diffuse-distal type of paraplegic pain and intentional tremor associated with mild cerebellar deficit. Neurologic compromise became so intense that it prevented the patient from leading an independent lifestyle. Conservative treatments failed and a unilateral trial of MCS was performed. After a four-day satisfactory unilateral trial, a bilateral electrode, Resume II (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), was inserted through a small craniotomy and a dual-channel RF activated receiver was implanted. During the second month of follow-up an independent observer personally interviewed the patient and assessed results through a multimodal approach, encompassing several analog scales used to measure the different components of the painful experience; a daily life activities scale and drug intake. Results. Evoked painful phenomena were dramatically improved, but the steady component of pain was only moderately relieved. The patient's tremor improved to allow for the performance of simple movements such as independent eating. Conclusion. In this single case report MCS was extremely useful in eliminating almost all of the patient's pain-evoked phenomena. Both steady burning pain and tremor were also improved. This is only one case report and MCS warrants further investigation as to its utility in controlling central dysesthetic pain in paraplegia and postchordotomy dysesthesias. [source]