Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Sexual

  • sexual abuse
  • sexual abuse case
  • sexual act
  • sexual activity
  • sexual advertisement
  • sexual aggression
  • sexual antagonism
  • sexual arousal
  • sexual assault
  • sexual assault history
  • sexual assault nurse examiner
  • sexual assault survivor
  • sexual assault victim
  • sexual attraction
  • sexual behavior
  • sexual behaviour
  • sexual cannibalism
  • sexual character
  • sexual characteristic
  • sexual coercion
  • sexual communication
  • sexual competition
  • sexual concern
  • sexual conflict
  • sexual contact
  • sexual content
  • sexual context
  • sexual cycle
  • sexual desire
  • sexual desire disorder
  • sexual development
  • sexual difference
  • sexual differentiation
  • sexual difficulty
  • sexual dimorphism
  • sexual diploid
  • sexual disorders
  • sexual display
  • sexual division
  • sexual dysfunction
  • sexual encounter
  • sexual encounter profile
  • sexual enjoyment
  • sexual event
  • sexual experience
  • sexual exploitation
  • sexual expression
  • sexual fantasy
  • sexual female
  • sexual frequency
  • sexual function
  • sexual function index
  • sexual function questionnaire
  • sexual functioning
  • sexual harassment
  • sexual health
  • sexual health clinic
  • sexual health issues
  • sexual health problem
  • sexual health promotion
  • sexual history
  • sexual homicide
  • sexual hormones
  • sexual identity
  • sexual impairment
  • sexual imprinting
  • sexual interaction
  • sexual intercourse
  • sexual interest
  • sexual intimacy
  • sexual isolation
  • sexual issues
  • sexual knowledge
  • sexual life
  • sexual maturation
  • sexual maturity
  • sexual medicine society
  • sexual minority
  • sexual morality
  • sexual offence
  • sexual offender
  • sexual offending
  • sexual offense
  • sexual offspring
  • sexual orientation
  • sexual ornament
  • sexual pain
  • sexual partner
  • sexual performance
  • sexual phase
  • sexual polymorphism
  • sexual population
  • sexual practice
  • sexual preference
  • sexual problem
  • sexual quality
  • sexual receptivity
  • sexual recombination
  • sexual relation
  • sexual relationship
  • sexual relationships
  • sexual reproduction
  • sexual responding
  • sexual response
  • sexual risk
  • sexual risk behavior
  • sexual risk behaviour
  • sexual satisfaction
  • sexual segregation
  • sexual selection
  • sexual selection theory
  • sexual self-confidence
  • sexual signal
  • sexual signalling
  • sexual size dimorphism
  • sexual species
  • sexual stage
  • sexual stimulation
  • sexual strategy
  • sexual swelling
  • sexual symptom
  • sexual system
  • sexual trait
  • sexual transmission
  • sexual trauma
  • sexual victimization
  • sexual violence
  • sexual well-being

  • Selected Abstracts


    Michael Crowe
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Longitudinal assessment of symptom and subtype categories in obsessive,compulsive disorder

    Lutfullah Besiroglu M.D.
    Abstract Although it has been postulated that symptom subtypes are potential predictors of treatment response, few data exist on the longitudinal course of symptom and subtype categories in obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD). Putative subtypes of OCD have gradually gained more recognition, but as yet there is no generally accepted subtype discrimination. Subtypes, it has been suggested, could perhaps be discriminated based on autogenous versus reactive obsessions stemming from different cognitive processes. In this study, our aim was to assess whether symptom and subtype categories change over time. Using the Yale,Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom Checklist (Y-BOCS-SC), we assessed 109 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD to establish baseline values, then reassessed 91 (83%) of the initial group after 36±8.2 months. Upon reassessment, we found significant changes from baseline within aggressive, contamination, religious, symmetry and miscellaneous obsessions and within checking, washing, repeating, counting and ordering compulsion categories. Sexual, hoarding, and somatic obsessions, and hoarding and miscellaneous compulsions, did not change significantly. In accordance with the relevant literature, we also assigned patients to one of three subtypes,autogenous, reactive, or mixed groups. Though some changes in subtype categories were found, no subtype shifts (e.g., autogenous to reactive or reactive to autogenous) were observed during the course of the study. Significantly more patients in the autogenous group did not meet OCD criteria at follow-up than did patients in the other groups. Our results suggest that the discrimination between these two types of obsession might be highly valid, because autogenous and reactive obsessions are quite different, both in the development and maintenance of their cognitive mechanisms, and in their outcome. Depression and Anxiety 24:461,466, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Going Dutch in London City Comedy: Economies of Sexual and Sacred Exchange in John Marston's The Dutch Courtesan (1605)

    Marjorie Rubright
    Conventional approaches to London city comedy have explored the genre's dependence upon character types. Through a consideration of the ways in which English and Dutch ethnicity is represented in city comedy, this essay reveals that a critical and methodological revision is necessary. In John Marston's The Dutch Courtesan and Thomas Middleton's The Family of Love, puns and double entendres vivify characterizations of Dutchness and Englishness as unstable and problematically proximate. What emerges is a study of the chiastic interplay of differences and similarities that constitute Englishness and Dutchness in London city comedy. I argue that across the Anglo-Dutch relation identity was more of an analogous phenomenon than a digital one. In tracing how English-identified characters "go Dutch," this essay argues that city comedy was actively exploring and keeping in play the fluidity of signifiers of ethnic difference, especially language, diet, and religious belief. (M.R.) [source]

    Sexual and Religious Politics in Book I of Spenser's Faerie Queene

    Harry Berger Jr.
    Recent criticism that professes to be gender-sensitive and post-new-historicist still refuses to entertain the possibility that The Faerie Queene might distance itself from the misogyny embedded in the spectrum of Reformation discourses from the Puritan to the Papist pole. But Spenser could have found and reacted to misogyny not only in the religious polemics of his century but also in the intertextual archive of precursors to which The Faerie Queene so richly alludes. The problematic treatment of woman in Book 1 is not ingenuous, peripheral, nor accidental. Far from merely participating in the misogynist metaphorics of religious polemics, Book 1 performs a critique of it. Spenser shows how the male protagonist's fear and loathing of himself gets displaced to female scapegoats,Error, Duessa, Lucifera, Night,and how Una reinforces this evasive process of self-correction. In the episodes of Una's adventure with the lion (canto 3) and the house of Pride (canto 4), Book 1 interrogates both romance conventions and anti-papist allegory. [source]

    Sexual or clonal origin?

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 3-4 2005
    A morpho-ecological, molecular analysis in a patch of Ajuga reptans L. (Lamiaceae)
    Spatial clonal structure and patch colonisation in Ajuga reptans L. (Lamiaceae), a common stoloniferous semi-rosette plant, were studied using a combined morpho-ecological and molecular genetic approach. Within a natural patch from a forest near Diedorf (Thuringia, Germany), the spatial clonal structure was analysed, correlating both datasets: Morphologically, characteristics of clonal growth and clonal reproduction were studied, the spatial distribution of modules was mapped and merigenet relationships were reconstructed. Samples from the patch and its surroundings, and an additional sample from Berlin were then analysed by AFLP fingerprinting using four different primer combinations to identify genets. Most divergence in banding patterns was already obtained for samples from the Diedorf forest. Within the patch, however, most samples had very similar fingerprints, indicating their belonging to the same genet and hence a clonal origin, although they are morphologically separated into three "plants". Based on AFLP data, the relationships of one sample remained ambiguous; but the correlation with morphological data helped to interpret the pattern and indicated that the sample is probably a dividual of the clone, too. The relevance of the observed vegetative multiplication (clonal growth and subsequent clonal reproduction) for patch colonisation and maintenance are discussed. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Generativer (sexueller) oder klonaler Ursprung? Eine morpho-ökologische und molekulare Analyse in einem ,patch' von Ajuga reptans L. (Lamiaceae) Die räumliche klonale Struktur und die ,patch' Besiedlung von Ajuga reptans L. (Lamiaceae), einer häufigen Halbrosettenpflanze mit Ausläufern, wurden mit einem morpho-ökologischen und molekular-genetischen Ansatz kombiniert analysiert. Die Untersuchung wurde in einem ,patch' aus einem Wald bei Diedorf (Thüringen) durchgeführt: Morphologisch wurden Merkmale des klonalen Wachstums und der klonalen Reproduktion untersucht, die räumliche Verteilung der Module kartiert und Merigenet-Beziehungen rekonstruiert. Für Proben aus dem ,patch', aus dessen näherer Umgebung und einer Pflanze aus Berlin wurden AFLP Analysen mit vier verschiedenen Primer-Kombinationen durchgeführt, um genetische Individuen (Genets) zu identifizieren. Die meisten Unterschiede in den Fragmentmustern zeigten sich bereits zwischen Proben aus Diedorf. Die ,patch'-Proben (morphologisch aufgeteilt in drei "Pflanzen") hatten jedoch sehr ähnliche fingerprints, was ihre Zugehörigkeit zum selben Genet und eine klonale Abstammung belegt. Für eine Probe ließen sich die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen mit den AFLP Daten nicht sicher klären. Der Abgleich mit den morphologischen Ergebnissen ermöglichte jedoch eine Interpretation, und deutet auf die Zugehörigkeit zum Klon. Die Bedeutung der "vegetativen Multiplikation" (durch klonales Wachstum und klonale Reproduktion) für die Besiedlung und dauerhafte Besetzung von ,patches' wird diskutiert. [source]

    Programme alignment in higher-level planning processes: a four-country case-study for Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Rebecca Dodd
    Abstract With international development assistance focussed on poverty reduction, national and sector-wide planning processes have become increasingly important in setting agendas. Sector-Wide Approaches (SWAps), Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), and other higher level planning processes, including Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reporting, have required new levels of engagement in national and sectoral planning processes. For Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), this has had mixed consequences, despite raising the profile of SRH in national planning agendas, and emphasizing the potential of SRH to contribute to the reduction of poverty. Drawing on case-study research from four countries, this paper analyzes alignment of SRH policy with higher-level planning processes. It found that SRH managers are rarely engaged in higher-level planning processes, and while SRH features prominently in the [health] sections of PRSPs, it is not reflected in other sections, and does not necessarily correspond to more resources. Despite these limitations, these planning processes offer synergies that could improve the contribution of SRH to health sector development and poverty reduction. The paper recommends that local donor organizations, including key UN agencies, offer greater support for SRH programme managers in promoting the pro-poor and systems-wide strengths of SRH programmes to planners and policy makers. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sexual and gender minority therapy and systemic practice

    Catherine Butler
    While there has been an increase in papers addressing working with lesbian and gay clients over the past two decades, this paper builds on this historical context to combine the latest developments in therapy with sexual and gender minority clients with principles of systemic theory and practice. Clear guidelines are provided on how to apply sexual and gender minority therapy within a systemic frame. Specific issues relating to sexual and gender minority couple and family work are addressed, with the provision of further suggestions and resources. [source]

    Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and psychological comorbidity

    Summary Background, A growing number of studies have shown the impact of psychological comorbidities on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients' symptom reports and healthcare-seeking behaviour. Aim, To review the reported relationship between GERD and psychological comorbidity. Methods, Review of the literature on GERD and psychological comorbidity. Results, Psychological comorbidity is common among GERD patients and appears to afflict all GERD phenotypes. Sexual and physical abuse is also common in GERD patients. Stress enhances perception of oesophageal acid exposure. Treatment for GERD, especially in those who are not responsive to antireflux treatment, may require further evaluation for psychological comorbidity. Conclusions, Psychological comorbidity is very common in GERD patients and is likely to play an important role in response, or failure of response, to proton pump inhibitor treatment. [source]

    Partner Notification Methods for African American Men Being Treated for Trichomoniasis: A Consideration of Main Men, Second Hitters, and Third Players

    Bronwen Lichtenstein
    This pilot study sought information on African American men's preferences for partner notification methods for a common sexually transmitted infection called trichomoniasis. Two focus groups of African American men were convened at a public STI clinic where they were being treated for trichomoniasis. The groups identified a sexual hierarchy in men's preferences for methods of partner notification. The hierarchy consisted of main men (Cake Daddies), second men (Second Hitters), and third or fourth men (Third Players), with placement depending on age, income, and social status. Health department employees affirmed the existence of a sexual hierarchy in a separate focus group. Sexual and economic bartering formed the basis of the hierarchy, and the secrecy involved in such arrangements presented a considerable challenge for STI control. Disease intervention specialists who were responsible for contact tracing spoke of cat-and-mouse methods in contacting the men without understanding fully exactly how the hierarchy influenced men's responses to partner notification. The findings suggest that STI control efforts must take the sexual hierarchy and its privacy implications into account if partner notification methods are to be acceptable to African American men. [source]

    Sexual and gender-related harassment in medical education and research training: results from a Swedish survey

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2003
    Charlotte Larsson
    Objective, The aims of this study were to establish the level of perceived sexual and gender-related harassment in undergraduate and doctoral studies, in which environment the events occurred, which categories of persons had committed the harassment, and other aspects of sexual harassment at the Faculty of Medicine, Gothenburg University. Methods, A questionnaire was distributed to all registered male and female undergraduate students (n= 605) and doctoral students (n=743) by mail to their home addresses. Results, The response rate was 62% (840/1348). Of the total study population, 59% (495/840) of respondents reported at least one experience of derogatory jokes and comments, 54% (454/840) of respondents reported at least one experience of gender-related discrimination, and 22% (187/840) of respondents reported at least one incident of sexual harassment. More severe types of sexual harassment were reported by 9% (79/840) of respondents. Women, and especially undergraduate women, were more often exposed to all kinds of harassment than were men. Lecturers/professors, doctors and co-students were the categories most often identified as the harassers. The harassment mostly occurred during lectures, clinical work and coffee breaks. The most common types of self-perceived mistreatment were derogatory jokes and comments. Conclusion, This survey shows that sexual harassment happens to both men and women, although it is more commonly experienced by female undergraduate and doctoral students, and that it occurs in both the university and hospital environments. Universities should develop action plans to prevent such events. Students and teachers should be well informed about appropriate measures to take in situations where harassment is known or suspected to occur. [source]

    Synergism between mutational meltdown and Red Queen in parthenogenetic biotypes of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa

    OIKOS, Issue 2 2007
    a Bruvo
    Do parasites and accumulation of deleterious mutations act synergistically in balancing the costs of sex? We addressed this possibility in the freshwater planarian flatworm Schmidtea polychroa. Sexual and parthenogenetic forms of this species sometimes coexist but show no ecological separation. Previous studies indicate that in a mixed sexual/ parthenogenetic population in Lago di Caldonazzo (N. Italy) parthenogens get more frequently infected with parasites. At the same time, they suffer from higher embryo mortality, which has been interpreted as a sign of accumulation of deleterious mutations. In the present study, we test whether these two factors are correlated, by focusing on the differences among the clonal lineages of a predominantly parthenogenetic subpopulation. Our results suggest that, for two out of three parasite types found, the infections are positively associated with the indirect measure of host mutation load. [source]

    Same-Sex Activity Among Women May Be a Marker for Adverse Sexual and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    D. Hollander
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Implications of Racial and Gender Differences In Patterns of Adolescent Risk Behavior for HIV And Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Carolyn Tucker Halpern
    CONTEXT: Sexual and substance use behaviors covary in adolescence. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) differs according to race and gender, yet few studies have systematically investigated risk behavior patterns by subgroup, particularly with nationally representative data. METHODS: A priori considerations and K-means cluster analysis were used to group 13,998 non-Hispanic black and white participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1, according to self-reported substance use and sexual behavior. Multinomial logit analyses examined racial and gender differences by cluster. RESULTS: Among 16 clusters, the two defined by the lowest risk behaviors (sexual abstinence and little or no substance use) comprised 47% of adolescents; fewer than 1% in these groups reported ever having received an STD diagnosis. The next largest cluster,characterized by sexual activity (on average, with one lifetime partner) and infrequent substance use,contained 15% of participants but nearly one-third of adolescent with STDs. Blacks were more likely than whites to be in this group. Black males also were more likely than white males to be in three small clusters characterized by high-risk sexual behaviors (i.e., having had sex with a male or with at least 14 partners, or for drugs or money). Black females generally were the least likely to be in high-risk behavior clusters but the most likely to report STDs. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' risk behavior patterns vary by race and gender, and do not necessarily correlate with their STD prevalence. Further investigation of adolescents' partners and sexual networks is needed. [source]

    The ironic detachment of Edward Gibbon

    Harry Trosman
    Edward Gibbon, the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, has been widely recognized as a master of irony. The historian's early life with parents he found self-serving and unreliable, his reaction to the events surrounding the death of his mother at the age of 9 and the decline of his father, left an impact on his personality and played a role in determining his choice of his life work. Irony has been approached from a psychoanalytic perspective as a mode of communication, as a stylistic device, as a modality through which one might view reality and as a way of uncovering the linkage between pretense and aspiration, between the apparent and the real. Gibbon's ironic detachment can be understood as rooted in his life history. He felt detached from his family of origin, in need of a protective device which would enable him to deal with passion. Sexual and aggressive impulses mobilized defensive postures that were later transformed into an attitude of skepticism and an interest in undercutting false beliefs and irrational authority, positions he attributes to religious ideation which served to instigate historical decline. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY: Satisfaction (Sexual, Life, Relationship, and Mental Health) Is Associated Directly with Penile,Vaginal Intercourse, but Inversely with Other Sexual Behavior Frequencies

    Stuart Brody PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Some sex therapists and educators assume that many sexual behaviors provide comparable sexual satisfaction. Evidence is required to determine whether sexual behaviors differ in their associations with both sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of life. Aims., To test the hypothesis that satisfaction with sex life, life in general, sexual partnership, and mental health correlates directly with frequency of penile,vaginal intercourse (PVI) and inversely with frequency of both masturbation and partnered sexual activity excluding PVI (noncoital sex). Methods., A representative sample of 2,810 Swedes reported frequency of PVI, noncoital sex, and masturbation during the past 30 days, and degree of satisfaction with their sex life, life in general, partnership, and mental health. Main Outcome Measures., Multivariate analyses (for the sexes separately and combined) considering the different satisfaction parameters as dependent variables, and the different types of sexual activities (and age) as putative predictors. Results., For both sexes, multivariate analyses revealed that PVI frequency was directly associated with all satisfaction measures (part correlation = 0.50 with sexual satisfaction), masturbation frequency was independently inversely associated with almost all satisfaction measures, and noncoital sex frequencies independently inversely associated with some satisfaction measures (and uncorrelated with the rest). Age did not confound the results. Conclusions., The results are consistent with evidence that specifically PVI frequency, rather than other sexual activities, is associated with sexual satisfaction, health, and well-being. Inverse associations between satisfaction and masturbation are not due simply to insufficient PVI. Brody S, and Costa RM. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies. J Sex Med 2009;6:1947,1954. [source]

    Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge in Cystic Fibrosis Female Patients and Their Parents

    Aleksandra Korzeniewska MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The changing outcomes for young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients means that reproductive health issues have become an integral part of CF management. Aim., The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and experiences of reproductive and sexual health issues in women with CF and to investigate the knowledge and reproductive health attitudes of their parents. Main Outcome Measures., Assessment of reproductive and sexual health knowledge in female CF patients and their parents. Methods., A questionnaire study directed to 120 Polish women with CF aged 16 years and older and their parents. Results., Sixty-four patients and their parents responded to the questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of the patients started sexual intercourse at a mean age of 19.2 years. Eighty-four percent of all sexually active women reported that they did not use any form of contraception. Only 32.8% of women understood the problems connected with their own and male fertility in CF. Popular scientific publications and other CF patients were identified as the most important source of information. Only 23% of parents understood the problems connected with female fertility in CF; 44% of parents thought that man with CF had normal fertility. Seventy-five percent of the women and 40% of the parents felt that sexual health discussions should begin between age 12 and 14 years with a CF doctor and the mother. Conclusions., Our study showed that significant knowledge gaps exist regarding fertility issues in both CF patients and CF parents. Women with CF have some general knowledge about sexual issues but insufficient knowledge to have a safe sexual life. The results helped us to develop the educational program for CF patients. Korzeniewska A, Grzelewski T, Jerzy,ska J, Majak P, So,oniewicz A, Stelmach W, and Stelmach I. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge in cystic fibrosis female patients and their parents. J Sex Med 2009;6:770,776. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PAIN: Pain, Psychosocial, Sexual, and Psychophysical Characteristics of Women with Primary vs.

    Secondary Provoked Vestibulodynia
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a common cause of dyspareunia, are typically considered a homogeneous group. However, research suggests that differences on some factors (e.g., medical history, pain characteristics, psychological functioning, treatment response) exist based upon whether the pain was present at first intercourse (primary PVD: PVD1) or developed at some later point (secondary PVD: PVD2). Aims., The purpose of this study was to examine differences in demographic variables, pain characteristics, psychosocial and psychosexual adjustment, and pain sensitivity between women with PVD1 and PVD2. Methods., Twenty-six women suffering from PVD (13 with PVD1 and 13 with PVD2) completed a screening assessment, a standardized gynecological examination, an interview, questionnaires, and a quantitative sensory testing session. Main Outcome Measures., These included pain ratings during the gynecological examination and interview, scores on measures of psychosocial/sexual functioning (e.g., Short Form-36 [SF-36] Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index), and thresholds and pain ratings during thermal sensory testing over the dominant forearm and vulvar vestibule. Results., The women with PVD1 were more likely to be nulliparous, but they were not significantly different from the women with PVD2 on other demographic variables or in their pain ratings during the gynecological examination. The women with PVD1 reported lower levels of social and emotional functioning and heightened anxiety surrounding body exposure during sexual activity, and they also displayed lower heat pain tolerance over the forearm and lower heat detection and pain thresholds at the vulvar vestibule than the women with PVD2. Conclusions., The findings from this study support previous research indicating that women with PVD1 and PVD2 differ in a number of domains. Further research is needed to confirm and elaborate on these findings. Sutton KS, Pukall C, and Chamberlain S. Pain, psychosocial, sexual, and psychophysical characteristics of women with primary vs. secondary provoked vestibulodynia. J Sex Med 2009;6:205,214. [source]

    The Effect of Comorbidity and Socioeconomic Status on Sexual and Urinary Function and on General Health-Related Quality of Life in Men Treated with Radical Prostatectomy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Pierre I. Karakiewicz MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Different treatments for localized prostate cancer (PCa) may be associated with similar overall survival but may demonstrate important differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Therefore, valid interpretation of cancer control outcomes requires adjustment for HRQOL. Aim., To assess the effect of comorbidity and socioeconomic status (SES) on sexual and urinary function as well as general HRQOL in men treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) for PCa. Methods., We sent a self-addressed mail survey, composed of the research and development short form 36-item health survey, the PCa-specific University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Prostate Cancer Index (PCI), as well as a battery of items addressing SES and lifetime prevalence of comorbidity, to 4,546 men treated with RP in Quebec between 1988 and 1996. Main Outcome Measures., The association between comorbidity, SES, and HRQOL was tested and quantified using univariable and multivariable linear regression models. Results., Survey responses from 2,415 participants demonstrated that comorbidity and SES are strongly related to sexual, urinary, and general HRQOL in univariable and multivariable analyses. In multivariable models, the presence of comorbid conditions was associated with significantly worse HRQOL, as evidenced by lower scale scores by as much as 17/100 points in general domains, and by as much as 10/100 points in PCa-specific domains. Favorable SES characteristics were related to higher general (up to 9/100 points) and higher PCa-specific (up to 8/100 points) HRQOL scale scores. Conclusions., Comorbidity and SES are strongly associated with sexual, urinary and general HRQOL. Karakiewicz PI, Bhojani N, Neugut A, Shariat SF, Jeldres C, Graefen M, Perrotte P, Peloquin F, and Kattan MW. The effect of comorbidity and socioeconomic status on sexual and urinary function and on general health-related quality of life in men treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. J Sex Med 2008;5:919,927. [source]

    Threatened Peripheral Populations in Context: Geographical Variation in Population Frequency and Size and Sexual Reproduction in a Clonal Woody Shrub

    especies en riesgo; límites de distribución; poblaciones periféricas; reproducción sexual; Vaccinium stamineum Abstract:,Geographically peripheral populations of widespread species are often the focus of conservation because they are locally rare within political jurisdictions. Yet the ecology and genetics of these populations are rarely evaluated in a broader geographic context. Most expectations concerning the ecology and evolution of peripheral populations derive from the abundant-center model, which predicts that peripheral populations should be less frequent, smaller, less dense, and have a lower reproductive rate than central populations. We tested these predictions and in doing so evaluated the conservation value of peripheral populations for the clonal shrub Vaccinium stamineum L. (Ericaceae, deerberry), which is listed as threatened in Canada. Based on 51 populations sampled from the center to the northern range limits over 2 years, population frequency and size declined toward the range limit, but ramet density increased. Sexual reproductive output varied widely among populations and between years, with many populations producing very few seeds, but did not decline toward range margins. In fact seed mass increased steadily toward range limit, and this was associated with faster germination and seedling growth, which may be adaptive in seasonal northern environments. Our results did not support the prediction that clonal reproduction is more prevalent in peripheral populations or that it contributed antagonistically to the wide variation in seed production. Peripheral populations of V. stamineum are as productive as central populations and may be locally adapted to northern environments. This emphasizes the importance of a broad geographical perspective for evaluating the ecology, evolution, and conservation of peripheral populations. Resumen:,Las poblaciones geográficamente periféricas de una especie de amplia distribución a menudo son el foco de conservación porque son raras localmente dentro de jurisdicciones políticas. Sin embargo, la ecología y genética de estas poblaciones son evaluadas poco frecuentemente en un contexto geográfico más amplio. La mayoría de las expectaciones relacionadas con la ecología y evolución de las poblaciones periféricas se derivan del modelo centro-abundante, que predice que las poblaciones periféricas son menos frecuentes, más pequeñas, menos densas y menor tasa reproductiva que poblaciones centrales. Probamos estas predicciones y al hacerlo evaluamos el valor de conservación de poblaciones periféricas de una especie de arbusto clonal (Vaccinium stamineum L., Ericaceae), que está enlistada como amenazada en Canadá. Con base en 51 poblaciones muestreadas del centro hacia los límites norteños de su distribución durante 2 años, la frecuencia y tamaño poblacional declinó hacia los límites de su distribución, pero la densidad de rametos aumentó. La reproducción sexual varió ampliamente entre las poblaciones y entre años, con muchas poblaciones produciendo muy pocas semillas, pero no declinó hacia los límites de su distribución. De hecho, la masa de semillas incrementó sostenidamente hacia los límites, y esto se asoció a una acelerada germinación y crecimiento de plántulas, lo cual puede ser adaptativo en ambientes norteños estacionales. Nuestros resultados no sustentaron la predicción de que la reproducción clonal es más prevaleciente en poblaciones periféricas o que contribuye antagónicamente a la amplia variación en la producción de semillas. Las poblaciones periféricas de V. stamineum son tan productivas como las poblaciones centrales y pueden estar adaptadas localmente a ambientes norteños. Esto enfatiza la importancia de una perspectiva geográfica amplia cuando se evalúa la ecología, evolución y conservación de poblaciones periféricas. [source]

    Juvenile sex offenders and institutional misconduct: the role of thought psychopathology

    Matt Delisi
    Background,Little is known about the institutional behaviour of incarcerated sex offenders. Aim,To study the relationships between juvenile sex offending, thought psychopathology and institutional misconduct. Method,We applied negative binomial regression and Area Under Curve Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC-ROC) analyses to self-report and records data from institutionalised delinquents (N = 813) committed to the California Youth Authority to explore the links between sex offending and institutional misconduct, controlling for offender demographics, institution, index offence, and self-reported and official criminal history. Results,Juvenile sex offending was associated with six forms of institutional misconduct (sexual, general and total misconduct as reviewed by parole board) over 12 and 24 months prior to rating. Two measures of thought psychopathology, which were related to psychosis-like thought, were significantly associated with juvenile sex offender status. These constructs did not, however, mediate the independent predictive effects of adolescent sex offending on institutional misconduct. Conclusion,Interventions to help incarcerated young offenders are likely to be particularly important for those with a sex offending history as they are otherwise likely to persist with antisocial behaviours of all kinds within and beyond the institution. Attention to their thought processes may be particularly useful. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders

    A.Ph. Van Wijk
    Introduction,Several studies have paid attention to the relationship between psychiatric disorders and adolescent offending but few have distinguished different types of offenders, especially within the category of youngsters who have committed sex offences. Aim,To test for relationships between psychiatric disorder and specific offence category among young male offenders. Method,Nationwide data were extracted from Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Services (FPD) files for five groups of offenders, as defined by their index offence: 308 violent sex offenders; 134 non-violent sex-offenders; 270 sex offenders against children; 3148 violent offenders and 1620 offenders charged with any crime other than interpersonal body contact crimes. They were compared on individual characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria. Having a diagnosis of a paraphilia alone was exclusively associated with sex offending, therefore all such youths were excluded from further analyses. The OVERALS technique was used to explore possible relationships between offence, psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic and individual characteristics among the remaining young men for whom all pertinent data were available (n = 1894). Results,Sex offenders constituted a distinct group of juvenile delinquents. Developmental disorders were more common among non-violent sex offenders and child molesters. Violent offences were more typical of delinquents from immigrant backgrounds. Conclusion,Group differences in types of psychiatric diagnoses may reflect differences in aetiological factors for the various types of sexual and other delinquent behaviour, and this would be worthy of further study. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Understanding sexual offending in schizophrenia

    Christopher R. Drake M Clin Psych MAPS
    Background Studies have found an elevated incidence of violent sexual offences in males with schizophrenia. The relationship between sexual offending and psychiatric illness is, however, complex and poorly defined. Aims The aim of the present article is to delineate possible mechanisms that underlie offensive sexual behaviour in schizophrenia that can be used as a framework for assessing and treating these behaviours. A review of research pertaining to the aetiology of sexual deviance in schizophrenia was conducted, focusing in particular on the role of early childhood experiences, deviant sexual preferences, antisocial personality traits, psychiatric symptomatology and associated treatment effects, the impact of mental illness on sexual and social functioning, and other potential contributory factors. Towards a typology It is proposed that schizophrenic patients who engage in sexually offensive activities fall into four broad groups: (1) those with a pre-existing paraphilia; (2) those whose deviant sexuality arises in the context of illness and/or its treatment; (3) those whose deviant sexuality is one manifestation of more generalized antisocial behaviour, and (4) factors other than the above. This classification provides a useful framework for evaluating and treating sexually offensive behaviours in schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Previous experience of spontaneous or elective abortion and risk for posttraumatic stress and depression during subsequent pregnancy

    Lydia Hamama
    Abstract Background: Few studies have considered whether elective and/or spontaneous abortion (EAB/SAB) may be risk factors for mental health sequelae in subsequent pregnancy. This paper examines the impact of EAB/SAB on mental health during subsequent pregnancy in a sample of women involved in a larger prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across the childbearing year (n=1,581). Methods: Women expecting their first baby completed standardized telephone assessments including demographics, trauma history, PTSD, depression, and pregnancy wantedness, and religiosity. Results: Fourteen percent (n=221) experienced a prior elective abortion (EAB), 13.1% (n=206) experienced a prior spontaneous abortion (SAB), and 1.4% (n=22) experienced both. Of those women who experienced either an EAB or SAB, 13.9% (n=220) appraised the EAB or SAB experience as having been "a hard time" (i.e., potentially traumatic) and 32.6% (n=132) rated it as their index trauma (i.e., their worst or second worst lifetime exposure). Among the subset of 405 women with prior EAB or SAB, the rate of PTSD during the subsequent pregnancy was 12.6% (n,51), the rate of depression was 16.8% (n=68), and 5.4% (n,22) met criteria for both disorders. Conclusions: History of sexual trauma predicted appraising the experience of EAB or SAB as "a hard time." Wanting to be pregnant sooner was predictive of appraising the experience of EAB or SAB as the worst or second worst (index) trauma. EAB or SAB was appraised as less traumatic than sexual or medical trauma exposures and conveyed relatively lower risk for PTSD. The patterns of predictors for depression were similar. Depression and Anxiety, 2010.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Risk factors and outcome in ambulatory assault victims presenting to the acute emergency department setting: Implications for secondary prevention studies in PTSD

    Peter P. Roy-Byrne M.D.
    Abstract Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma victims is an important public health goal. Planning for the studies required to validate prevention strategies requires identification of subjects at high risk and recruitment of unbiased samples that represent the larger high-risk population (difficult because of the avoidance of many trauma victims). This study recruited high-risk victims of interpersonal violence (sexual or physical assault) presenting to an urban emergency department for prospective 1- and 3-month follow-up. Of 546 victims who were approached about participating, only 56 agreed to be contacted and only 46 participated in either the 1- or 3-month interviews. Of the 46, 43 had been previously victimized with a mean of over six traumas in the group; 21% had prior PTSD, 85% had prior psychiatric illness, and 37% had prior substance abuse. Sixty-seven percent had positive urine for alcohol or drugs on presentation. Fifty-six percent developed PTSD at 1 or 3 months with the rate declining between 1 and 3 months. There was high use of medical and psychiatric services. These findings document both the difficulty of recruiting large samples of high-risk assault victims to participate in research, and the high rate of prior traumatization, PTSD, substance use, and psychiatric morbidity in these subjects which, if still active at the time of victimization, may complicate efforts to document preventive treatment effects. Depression and Anxiety 19:77,84, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ontogeny of vasotocin-expressing cells in zebrafish: Selective requirement for the transcriptional regulators orthopedia and single-minded 1 in the preoptic area

    Jennifer L. Eaton
    Abstract The neurohypophysial peptide arginine vasotocin, and its mammalian ortholog arginine vasopressin, influence a wide range of physiological and behavioral responses, including aspects of sexual and social behaviors, osmoregulation, stress response, metabolism, blood pressure, and circadian rhythms. Here, we demonstrate that, in zebrafish (Danio rerio), the vasotocin precursor gene arginine vasotocin-neurophysin (avt) is expressed in two domains in the developing embryo: the dorsal preoptic area and the ventral hypothalamus. In the dorsal preoptic area, avt -expressing cells are intermingled with isotocin-neurophysin (ist) -expressing cells, and these neurons project to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary). In the dorsal preoptic area, the transcriptional regulators orthopedia b (otpb) and simple-minded 1 (sim1) are required for expression of both avt and ist. In contrast, otp and sim1 are not required for avt expression in the ventral hypothalamus. Thus, the development of these two avt expression domains is influenced by separate gene regulatory networks. Developmental Dynamics 237:995,1005, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The zebrafish bHLH PAS transcriptional regulator, single-minded 1 (sim1), is required for isotocin cell development

    Jennifer L. Eaton
    Abstract A wide range of physiological and behavioral processes, such as social, sexual, and maternal behaviors, learning and memory, and osmotic homeostasis are influenced by the neurohypophysial peptides oxytocin and vasopressin. Disruptions of these hormone systems have been linked to several neurobehavioral disorders, including autism, Prader-Willi syndrome, affective disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Studies in zebrafish promise to reveal the complex network of regulatory genes and signaling pathways that direct the development of oxytocin- and vasopressin-like neurons, and provide insight into factors involved in brain disorders associated with disruption of these systems. Isotocin, which is homologous to oxytocin, is expressed early, in a simple pattern in the developing zebrafish brain. Single-minded 1 (sim1), a member of the bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional regulatory genes, is required for terminal differentiation of mammalian oxytocin cells and is a master regulator of neurogenesis in Drosophila. Here we show that sim1 is expressed in the zebrafish forebrain and is required for isotocin cell development. The expression pattern of sim1 mRNA in the embryonic forebrain is dynamic and complex, and overlaps with isotocin expression in the preoptic area. We provide evidence that the role of sim1 in zebrafish neuroendocrine cell development is evolutionarily conserved with that of mammals. Developmental Dynamics 235:2071,2082, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Female Adolescents and Their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2000
    Sabina Faiz Rashid
    This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's families and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their ,purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their ,space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately `secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were underwater. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations. [source]

    Childhood adversity in alcohol- and drug-dependent women presenting to out-patient treatment

    Abstract Eighty alcohol- and/or drug-dependent women who were consecutive admissions to a representative out-patient alcohol and drug service in Christchurch were interviewed with the aim of establishing the extent of exposure to childhood adversity including childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse and parental problems. The results show that a sizeable percentage of the women came from backgrounds characterized by parental conflict and alcohol and drug problems. Within their first 15 years 51% were subjected to sexual abuse involving attempted or completed oral, anal or vaginal intercourse and 39% were exposed regularly to physical abuse perpetrated by their parents or main parental figures. Over half reported experiencing emotional abuse rated as being ,very distressing' and two-thirds had been exposed to ,very distressing' parental problems. The main implication for clinical practice arising from the results of this study is the need for the development of a broader approach to alcohol and drug service provision. In order to achieve positive treatment outcomes, alcohol and drug services may need to routinely screen and plan treatment for childhood adversity and associated problems in all clients presenting for alcohol and drug treatment. [source]

    The cost-effectiveness of consistent and early intervention of harm reduction for injecting drug users in Bangladesh

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Lorna Guinness
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess the cost-effectiveness of the CARE-SHAKTI harm reduction intervention for injecting drug users (IDUs) over a 3-year period, the impact on the cost-effectiveness of stopping after 3 years and how the cost-effectiveness might vary with baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Design Economic cost data were collected from the study site and combined with impact estimates derived from a dynamic mathematical model. Setting Dhaka, Bangladesh, where the HIV prevalence has remained low despite high-risk sexual and injecting behaviours, and growing HIV epidemics in neighbouring countries. Findings The cost per HIV infection prevented over the first 3 years was US$110.4 (33.1,182.3). The incremental cost-effectiveness of continuing the intervention for a further year, relative to stopping at the end of year 3, is US$97 if behaviour returns to pre-intervention patterns. When baseline IDU HIV prevalence is increased to 40%, the number of HIV infections averted is halved for the 3-year period and the cost per HIV infection prevented doubles to US$228. Conclusions The analysis confirms that harm reduction activities are cost-effective. Early intervention is more cost-effective than delaying activities, although this should not preclude later intervention. Starting harm reduction activities when IDU HIV prevalence reaches as high as 40% is still cost-effective. Continuing harm reduction activities once a project has matured is vital to sustaining its impact and cost-effectiveness. [source]

    Biology, distribution and impacts of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.),

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 1 2007
    M. Mekki
    Silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium, is listed as a noxious weed in its native range (Americas) and as an invasive alien plant in many countries across the world. Its local pattern of distribution in the EPPO region indicates that it is still in an establishment phase. S. elaeagnifolium invasiveness could be related to several biological traits: copious production of sexual and asexual propagules, its facility for long-distance dispersion, its ability to endure considerable drought and to dominate shallow-rooted vegetation, especially during summer dry periods, and its capacity to suppress more valuable species because it is unpalatable and toxic to cattle. Invasion of the Mediterranean semi-arid region by S. elaeagnifolium was mainly facilitated by irrigation and animal production. Low moisture stress may favour this invasive species and sheep are an important pathway for its long-distance dispersal. Once established, it is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate because of its network of creeping horizontal and deep vertical roots. Its phenotypic plasticity enables it to adopt a rosette-like growth pattern to escape control by repeated slashing. Thus, S. elaeagnifolium monitoring in the EPPO region is vital in order to contain established populations and prevent invasion. [source]