Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Terms modified by Sedimentation

  • sedimentation analysis
  • sedimentation coefficient
  • sedimentation pattern
  • sedimentation rate
  • sedimentation value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sedimentation as a tool for crystallization from protein mixtures

    I. Dimitrov
    Abstract Crystals from apoferritin which is an iron-free form of protein ferritin were obtained from protein mixtures lysozyme/apoferritin using sedimentation under high gravity. Solution containing apoferritin at concentration as high as 5mg/ml in the presence of 25mg/ml lysozyme and overlaid on 5%(w/v) CdSO4 in 0,2M/L NaAC, pH=5 still favors apoferritin crystal formation under normal gravity conditions, but at apoferritin concentrations <0,5mg/ml (,1,14µM/L) in 25mg/ml (,1,71mM/L) lysozyme only the sedimentation in a centrifuge appears to be useful for separating the apoferritin molecules from the mixture followed by apoferritin crystallization in the same system. The very high molecule number ratio (,1:103) of two proteins is used to stress on the observed effect. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Actin-like protein 1 (ALP1) is a component of dynamic, high molecular weight complexes in Toxoplasma gondii,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2010
    Jennifer L. Gordon
    Abstract Apicomplexan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet conventional actin does not appear to be required for cell division in these parasites. Apicomplexans also contain a variety of actin-related proteins (Arps); however, most of these not directly orthologous to Arps in well-studied systems. We recently identified an apicomplexan-specific member of this family called Actin-Like Protein 1, (ALP1), which plays a role in the assembly of vesicular components recruited to the inner membrane complex (IMC) of daughter cells during cell division. In addition to its enrichment at daughter cell membranes, ALP1 is localized throughout the cytoplasm both diffusely distributed and concentrated in clusters that are detected by fluorescence microscopy, suggesting it forms complexes. Using quantitative optical imaging methods, including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP), we demonstrated that ALP1 is a component of a large complex, and that it readily exchanges between diffusible and complex-bound forms. Sedimentation and density gradient analyses revealed that ALP1 is found in a freely soluble state as well as high molecular weight complexes. During cell division, ALP1 was dynamically associated with the IMC, suggesting it rapidly cycles between freely diffusible and complex forms during daughter cell assembly. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lower Carboniferous peritidal carbonates and associated evaporites adjacent to the Leinster Massif, southeast Irish Midlands

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2005
    Zsolt R. Nagy
    Abstract Analysis of a 275,m-thick section in the Milford Borehole, GSI-91-25, from County Carlow, Ireland, has revealed an unusual sequence of shallow subtidal, peritidal and sabkha facies in rocks of mid?-late Chadian to late Holkerian (Viséan, Lower Carboniferous) age. Sedimentation occurred on an inner ramp setting, adjacent to the Leinster Massif. The lower part of the sequence (late Chadian age) above the basal subtidal bioclastic unit is dominated by oolite sand facies associations. These include a lower regressive dolomitized, oolitic peloidal mobile shoal, and an upper, probably transgressive, backshoal oolite sand. A 68,m-thick, well-developed peritidal sequence is present between the oolitic intervals. These rocks consist of alternating stromatolitic fenestral mudstone, dolomite and organic shale, with evaporite pseudomorphs and subaerial exposure horizons containing pedogenic features. In the succeeding Arundian,Holkerian strata, transgressive,regressive carbonate units are recognized. These comprise high-energy, backshoal subtidal cycles of argillaceous skeletal packstones, bioclastic grainstones with minor oolites and algal wackestones to grainstones and infrequent algal stromatolite horizons. The study recognizes for the first time the peritidal and sabkha deposits in Chadian rocks adjacent to the Leinster Massif in the eastern Irish Midlands. These strata appear to be coeval with similar evaporite-bearing rocks in County Wexford that are developed on the southern margin of this landmass, and similar depositional facies exist further to the east in the South Wales Platform, south of St. George's Land, and in Belgium, south of the Brabant Massif. The presence of evaporites in the peritidal facies suggests that dense brines may have formed adjacent to the Leinster Massif. These fluids may have been involved in regional dolomitization of Chadian and possibly underlying Courceyan strata. They may also have been a source of high salinity fluids associated with nearby base-metal sulphide deposits. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sedimentation and tectonics: the marine Silurian,basal Lower Old Red Sandstone transition in southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Robert D. Hillier
    Abstract Both regional and localized tectonic events controlled deposition within the Wenlock and early Ludlow of SW Wales. Estuarine deposits within north,south-tending incised valleys dominate the youngest (Homerian) Gray Sandstone Group, valley incision being probably related to changing base-levels associated with Avalonia/Laurentian collision. Available accommodation space was outpaced by sediment supply, with the Red Cliff Formation (Late Ludfordian) defining a conformable transition from marine to Old Red Sandstone (ORS) deposition within the Marloes Peninsula. Sedimentation was dominated by fine-grained pedified siliciclastics, with subordinate fine-grained ephemeral sheet-flood sandstones. Local palaeocurrents indicate sediment transport from the south and west, though long-distance transport from a distant Laurentian provenance is assumed. A probable tectonically generated sequence boundary marks the base of petrographically distinctive, multi-storey pebbly sandstones of the Albion Sands Formation, deposited within the hangingwall valley of the active east,west-trending Wenall Fault. Sediment accommodation space was controlled by proximity to the tip-point of this important growth fault within the Lower ORS. Debris-flow-dominated fans, shed from both the hangingwall and footwall of the Wenall Fault, deposited the Lindsway Bay Formation, an exotic-clast conglomerate unit sourced predominantly from the south and west. It is uncertain as to whether movement along the Wenall Fault was caused by collision-related transtension, or rifting associated with the southern margin of Avalonia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Diversity, extinction risk and conservation of Malaysian fishes

    V. C. Chong
    A total of 1951 species of freshwater and marine fishes belonging to 704 genera and 186 families are recorded in Malaysia. Almost half (48%) are currently threatened to some degree, while nearly one third (27%) mostly from the marine and coral habitats require urgent scientific studies to evaluate their status. Freshwater habitats encompass the highest percentage of threatened fish species (87%) followed by estuarine habitats (66%). Of the 32 species of highly threatened (HT) species, 16 are freshwater and 16 are largely marine,euryhaline species. Fish extinctions in Malaysia are confined to two freshwater species, but both freshwater and marine species are being increasingly threatened by largely habitat loss or modification (76%), overfishing (27%) and by-catch (23%). The most important threat to freshwater fishes is habitat modification and overfishing, while 35 species are threatened due to their endemism. Brackish-water, euryhaline and marine fishes are threatened mainly by overfishing, by-catch and habitat modification. Sedimentation (pollution) additionally threatens coral-reef fishes. The study provides recommendations to governments, fish managers, scientists and stakeholders to address the increasing and unabated extinction risks faced by the Malaysian fish fauna. [source]

    Sedimentation of Soils from Three Physiographic Regions of Alabama at Different Salinities

    Gulnihal Ozbay
    This study evaluated the rate of sedimentation from water under various salinities, over a time period of 72 h. The particles come from soils that are commonly found in shrimp growing areas of Alabama: Black Belt Prairie, Piedmont Plateau, and Upper Coastal Plain. Different salinity treatments and settling times resulted in significant differences (P, 0.05) in the reduction of turbidity and TSS for each soil type. Solutions containing 2 ppt salinity had a similar rate of turbidity reduction as the solutions with 5, 10, or greater ppt treatments. Concentrations of turbidity and TSS decreased rapidly between 1 and 12 h of sedimentation; very little decline was observed during the time intervals 12,72 h. Higher salinity treatments yielded settling patterns similar to the 2 ppt salinity treatment. After 1 h, turbidity was removed by 65% in the control compared with 85% salinity treated samples. Variations in turbidity and TSS among the three sediments suggest that finer particles, the Piedmont Plateau soils, settled at a slower rate than larger particles. This difference occurs because the percentage of turbidity and TSS removed was significantly higher in mineralized waters compared to freshwater. Therefore, a small amount of salt, 2 ppt, can be used in pond aquaculture treatments to reduce the turbidity and TSS concentrations in shrimp ponds. [source]

    Internal loading: A new solution to an old problem in aquatic sciences

    Lars Håkanson
    Abstract Internal loading has long been regarded as an ,Achilles heel' in aquatic science and management. Internal loading is of fundamental importance in large and shallow lakes, where even low wind velocities can cause a considerable resuspension of matter deposited on the lake bed. The resuspended matter, and the chemical substances bound to the resuspended matter, will influence almost all processes in the aquatic ecosystem, such as water clarity and depth of the photic zone, and hence, primary and secondary production. If the sediments are contaminated, it will increase the concentrations of harmful substances in water and sediments and the potential ecosystem effects related to such concentrations. This paper presents an overview of the processes regulating bottom dynamic conditions in lakes (erosion, transport, accumulation), provides examples on the role of internal loading within the context of limnology and water management, and presents a new, general approach to quantify internal loading from sediments in lakes. The new approach has been critically tested, being a key factor behind the increase in predictive power of a new generation of lake models meant to be used for practical water management. Internal loading of any water pollutant depends on sedimentation. Sedimentation in this approach is presented as a function of two substance-specific variables, including the fall velocity of the carrier-particles and the particulate fraction (which, by definition, is the only fraction of a water pollutant that can settle out on the lake bed), and three generic variables, including mean depth, suspended particulate matter and ET-areas (areas of erosion and transport). On ET-areas there is, by definition, a discontinuous sedimentation of materials that settles according to Stokes' law. Basically, internal loading is the sum of advective (resuspension) and diffusive transport from the sediments. Resuspension from ET-areas is given as a function of the lake form (a new algorithm based on the volume development) and the age of ET-sediments. [source]

    Influence of the mechanical behaviour of brittle,ductile fold,thrust belts on the development of foreland basins

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Guy D. H. Simpson
    ABSTRACT A two-dimensional mathematical model considering coupling between a deforming elasto-visco-plastic fold,thrust belt, flexural subsidence and diffusional surface processes is solved using the Finite Element Method to investigate how the mechanical behaviour of brittle,ductile wedges influences the development of foreland basins. Results show that, depending mainly on the strength of the basal décollement, two end-member types of foreland basin are possible. When the basal detachment is relatively strong, the foreland basin system is characterised by: (1) Highly asymmetrical orogen formed by thrusts concentrated in the incoming pro-wedge. (2) Sedimentation on retro-side takes place in one major foredeep basin which grows throughout orogen evolution. (3) Deposition on the pro-side occurs initially in the foredeep, and continues in the wedge-top before isolated basins are advected towards the orogen core where they become uplifted and exhumed. (4) Most pro-wedge basins show an upward progression from low altitude, foredeep deposits at the base to high altitude, wedge-top deposits near the surface. In contrast, when the basal detachment behaves weakly due to the presence of low viscosity material such as salt, the foreland basin system is characterised by (1) Broad, low relief orogen showing little preferential vergence and predominance of folding relative to faulting. (2) Deposition mainly in wedge-top basins showing growth strata. (3) Many basins are initiated contemporaneously but form discontinuously due to the locus of active deformation jumping back and forth between different structures. Model results successfully reproduce first order observations of deforming brittle,ductile wedges and foreland basins. Moreover, the results support and provide a framework for understanding the existence of two main end-member foreland basin types, simple and complex, associated with fold,thrust belts whose detachments are relatively strong and weak, respectively. [source]

    Sedimentation and Coalescence Profiles in Liquid-Liquid Batch Settling Experiments

    G.-Z. Yu
    Abstract A simple mathematical method for predicting the phase separation profiles of a batch liquid-liquid dispersion is developed based on the empirical description of drops resting at a liquid-liquid plane interface. The inflexion time, at which the sedimentation zone vanishes, can be obtained by analysis of the coalescence profile. Therefore, the sedimentation profile can be predicted and the size of drop and interfacial area can be estimated. The experiments were carried out with an O/W-type dispersion of kerosene-water system in a 154 mm I.D. mixing vessel. The experimental results agree well with the model prediction. Other experimental data in the literature were also adopted for testing the model. [source]

    SWAT2000: current capabilities and research opportunities in applied watershed modelling

    J. G. Arnold
    Abstract SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) is a conceptual, continuous time model that was developed in the early 1990s to assist water resource managers in assessing the impact of management and climate on water supplies and non-point source pollution in watersheds and large river basins. SWAT is the continuation of over 30 years of model development within the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and was developed to ,scale up' past field-scale models to large river basins. Model components include weather, hydrology, erosion/sedimentation, plant growth, nutrients, pesticides, agricultural management, stream routing and pond/reservoir routing. The latest version, SWAT2000, has several significant enhancements that include: bacteria transport routines; urban routines; Green and Ampt infiltration equation; improved weather generator; ability to read in daily solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and potential ET; Muskingum channel routing; and modified dormancy calculations for tropical areas. A complete set of model documentation for equations and algorithms, a user manual describing model inputs and outputs, and an ArcView interface manual are now complete for SWAT2000. The model has been recoded into Fortran 90 with a complete data dictionary, dynamic allocation of arrays and modular subroutines. Current research is focusing on bacteria, riparian zones, pothole topography, forest growth, channel downcutting and widening, and input uncertainty analysis. The model SWAT is meanwhile used in many countries all over the world. Recent developments in European Environmental Policy, such as the adoption of the European Water Framework directive in December 2000, demand tools for integrative river basin management. The model SWAT is applicable for this purpose. It is a flexible model that can be used under a wide range of different environmental conditions, as this special issue will show. The papers compiled here are the result of the first International SWAT Conference held in August 2001 in Rauischholzhausen, Germany. More than 50 participants from 14 countries discussed their modelling experiences with the model development team from the USA. Nineteen selected papers with issues reaching from the newest developments, the evaluation of river basin management, interdisciplinary approaches for river basin management, the impact of land use change, methodical aspects and models derived from SWAT are published in this special issue. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxon-specific variation in the stable isotopic signatures (,13C and ,15N) of lake phytoplankton

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Summary 1. The variability in the stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen (,13C and ,15N) in different phytoplankton taxa was studied in one mesotrophic and three eutrophic lakes in south-west Finland. The lakes were sampled on nine to 16 occasions over 2,4 years and most of the time were dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms. A total of 151 taxon-specific subsamples covering 18 different phytoplankton taxa could be isolated by filtration through a series of sieves and by flotation/sedimentation, followed by microscopical identification and screening for purity. 2. Substantial and systematic differences between phytoplankton taxa, seasons and lakes were observed for both ,13C and ,15N. The values of ,13C ranged from ,34.4, to ,5.9, and were lowest in chrysophytes (,34.4, to ,31.3,) and diatoms (,30.6, to ,26.6,). Cyanobacteria were most variable (,32.4, to ,5.9,), including particularly high values in the nostocalean cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata (,14.4, to ,5.9,). For ,13C, the taxon-specific amplitude of temporal changes within a lake was usually <1,8, (<1,4, for microalgae alone and <1,8, for cyanobacteria alone), whereas the amplitude among taxa within a water sample was up to 31,. 3. The values of ,15N ranged from ,2.1, to 12.8, and were high in chrysophytes, dinophytes and diatoms, but low in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., Aphanizomenon spp. and G. echinulata (,2.1, to 1.6,). Chroococcalean cyanobacteria ranged from ,1.4, to 8.9,. For ,15N, the taxon-specific amplitude of temporal changes within a lake was 2,6,, (2,6, for microalgae alone and 2,4, for cyanobacteria alone) and the amplitude among taxa within a water sample was up to 11,. 4. The isotopic signatures of phytoplankton changed systematically with their physical and chemical environment, most notably with the concentrations of nutrients, but correlations were non-systematic and site-specific. 5. The substantial variability in the isotopic signatures of phytoplankton among taxa, seasons and lakes complicates the interpretation of isotopic signatures in lacustrine food webs. However, taxon-specific values and seasonal patterns showed some consistency among years and may eventually be predictable. [source]

    Sedimentation as a tool for crystallization from protein mixtures

    I. Dimitrov
    Abstract Crystals from apoferritin which is an iron-free form of protein ferritin were obtained from protein mixtures lysozyme/apoferritin using sedimentation under high gravity. Solution containing apoferritin at concentration as high as 5mg/ml in the presence of 25mg/ml lysozyme and overlaid on 5%(w/v) CdSO4 in 0,2M/L NaAC, pH=5 still favors apoferritin crystal formation under normal gravity conditions, but at apoferritin concentrations <0,5mg/ml (,1,14µM/L) in 25mg/ml (,1,71mM/L) lysozyme only the sedimentation in a centrifuge appears to be useful for separating the apoferritin molecules from the mixture followed by apoferritin crystallization in the same system. The very high molecule number ratio (,1:103) of two proteins is used to stress on the observed effect. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Comparison of cell block preparation methods for nongynecologic ThinPrep specimens

    Kelly Nigro M.D.
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare four cell block (CB) methods in the setting of nongynecologic ThinPrep (TP) specimens. 48 CBs were prepared from 12 nongynecologic TP specimens using the following CB methods: (1) Inverted filter sedimentation (IFS); (2) Thrombin method; (3) Albumin method; (4) Simple sedimentation. Each CB was assigned a cellularity score: 0 no cells, 1+ hypocellular, 2+ hypocellular with tissue fragments, 3+ cellular. A score of 2+ or 3+ was given for 11/12 of thrombin, 7/12 IFS, 5/12 albumin, and 2/12 simple sedimentation CBs. Thrombin CBs demonstrated a pale background clot with evenly distributed cells. Albumin CBs had a cracked uneven background. IFS CBs had a clear background, but were technically difficult and cells appeared artifactually crowded. In the setting of nongynecologic TP specimens, the thrombin CB was easily prepared and produced the best CB in regards to cellularity, cell distribution, and background quality. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:640,643. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: vertical cliff surfaces

    James J. Bell
    Abstract. The prevalence and distribution of sponges was surveyed on vertical cliff surfaces at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve, Co. Cork, Ireland. The number of sponge species was recorded at 6-metre depth intervals at four sites within Lough Hyne, and at one site on the adjacent Atlantic coastline to examine differences in abundance and zonation patterns. Sites ranged from an exposed turbulent regime to sheltered, sedimented environments. Individual species showed different distributions and prevalence between sites and with increasing depth. Greatest differences were observed between the most- and least-disturbed sites. Distinct sponge zonation patterns were evident at all sites sampled. Twenty-five species were considered dominant at all five sites with the remaining 48 species considered rare. Only four of the 25 most-dominant species occurred at the site experiencing the most turbulent flow conditions, whereas 12 species were found at the site of unidirectional fast flow. At sites of moderate to slight water movement and high sedimentation, between 18 and 24 of the most dominant species were present. Encrusting forms constituted high proportions of sponge communities at all five sites sampled (although consisting of different species). At sites of turbulent and unidirectional fast flow massive forms also dominated whereas at the least turbulent sites, where sedimentation was high, arborescent sponges were abundant. Few species showed exclusive distribution to a single depth and site, but there was some degree of correlation between species distributions and abiotic factors such as sedimentation rate and flow regimes. Sponge distributions and densities are discussed with respect to the suitability of species' morphologies to particular environments, intra-specific and inter-specific competition and physiological adaptations that enable them to survive in different habitats. [source]

    The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: inclined cliff surfaces

    James J. Bell
    Abstract. Sponge communities on inclined cliff surfaces (40°) at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve, Co. Cork, Ireland were sampled at five sites (four inside the lough and one on the adjacent Atlantic coast). Each site varied in sedimentation rate and flow regime. Sites ranged from turbulent (with negligible sedimentation) to very low flow (< 3 cm,1) and highly sedimented regimes. Sponge species showed variation between sites and depth. The greatest difference in sponge communities was observed between the most turbulent and most sedimented sites. The distinct zonation patterns, present at all sites, were most pronounced at the highly sedimented sites. Encrusting forms constituted a high proportion of the sponges at all sites. However encrusting species found at the turbulent site were different to those at the sedimented sites. Arborescent species were common, mainly at the sedimented sites within Lough Hyne. Distributions of sponge species are considered with respect to morphological adaptation, competition and physiological adaptation. The distributions of sponge species on inclined surfaces are also compared with those on vertical cliff faces. [source]

    Backshore coarsening processes triggered by wave-induced sand transport: the critical role of storm events,

    Keiko Udo
    Abstract Spatial backshore processes were investigated through field observations of topography and median sand grain size at a sandy beach facing the Pacific Ocean in Japan. A comparison of the backshore profile and cross-shore distribution of the median sand grain size in 1999 and 2004 revealed an unusual sedimentary process in which sand was coarsened in a depositional area in the 5-year period, although sediment is generally coarsened in erosional areas. In support of these observations, monthly spatial field analyses carried out in 2004 demonstrated a remarkable backshore coarsening process triggered by sedimentation in the seaward part of the backshore during a storm event. In order to elucidate mechanisms involved in the backshore coarsening process, thresholds of movable sand grain size under wave and wind actions (a uniform parameter for both these cases) in the onshore and offshore directions were estimated using wave, tide, and wind data. The cross-shore distributions of the estimated thresholds provided reasonable values and demonstrated a coarsening mechanism involving the intermediate zone around the shoreline under alternating wave and wind actions as a result of which coarse sand was transported toward the seaward part of the backshore by large waves during storms and then toward the landward part by strong onshore winds. The 5-year backshore coarsening is most certainly explained by repetition of short-term coarsening mechanisms caused by wave-induced sand transport occurring from the nearshore to the intermediate zone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]

    Channel sedimentation and erosion of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River during the last 44 years

    Wang Jian
    Abstract River channel sedimentation in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can be affected by both changes in sea level and changes in solid discharge from the upper river. To evaluate dynamic changes of sedimentation and erosion in the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River (about 330 km in length) from 1959 to 2003, databases were designed and constructed using a digital elevation model (DEM) of channel topography based on the Jiangsu River Relief Map for 1959, 1970, 1985, 1992, and 2003. The results indicated that the main course of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province had experienced an obvious switch from sedimentation to erosion status around 1985 because of the decreasing amount of solid load from the upper parts of the river channel after that year. The sedimentation process in the main course of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River demonstrated the propulsive process of ,downstream-ward aggradations.' Between 1985 and 2003, the erosion rate of the lower segment was greater than those of the middle and upper segments; this is probably because both channel flow and tide current had influenced the lower segment. When channel flow combines with tide current in the same direction, channel erosion can be intensified, especially if there is a solid load shortage in the channel. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The spatial and temporal patterns of aggradation in a temperate, upland, gravel-bed river

    Emma K. Raven
    Abstract Intensive field monitoring of a reach of upland gravel-bed river illustrates the temporal and spatial variability of in-channel sedimentation. Over the six-year monitoring period, the mean bed level in the channel has risen by 0·17 m with a maximum bed level rise of 0·5 m noted at one location over a five month winter period. These rapid levels of aggradation have a profound impact on the number and duration of overbank flows with flood frequency increasing on average 2·6 times and overbank flow time increasing by 12·8 hours. This work raises the profile of coarse sediment transfer in the design and operation of river management, specifically engineering schemes. It emphasizes the need for the implementation of strategic monitoring programmes before engineering work occurs to identify zones where aggradation is likely to be problematic. Exploration of the sediment supply and transfer system can explain patterns of channel sedimentation. The complex spatial, seasonal and annual variability in sediment supply and transfer raise uncertainties into the system's response to potential changes in climate and land-use. Thus, there is a demand for schemes that monitor coarse sediment transfer and channel response. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Historic and contemporary sediment transfer in an upland Pennine catchment, UK

    V. J. Holliday
    Abstract A sediment budget for an upland catchment,reservoir system at Burnhope Reservoir, North Pennines, UK has been developed. This provides a framework for quantifying historic and contemporary sediment yields and drainage basin response to disturbance from climate change and human activities in the recent past. Bathymetric survey, core sampling, 137Cs dating and aerial photographs have been used to assess sediment accumulation in the reservoir. The average reservoir sedimentation rate is 1·24 cm yr,1 (annual sediment yield 33·3 t km,2 yr,1 ± 10%, trap efficiency 92%). Mean annual reservoir sedimentation over the 67 year period has been estimated at 592 t ± 10%. Inputs of suspended sediment from direct catchwater streams account for 54% of sediment supply to the budget (best estimate yield of 318 t yr,1 ± 129%), while those from actively eroding reservoir shorelines contribute 328 t yr,1 ± 92%. Sediment yield estimates from stream monitoring and reservoir sedimentation are an order of magnitude lower than those reported from South Pennine reservoirs of comparable drainage basin area. Analysis of historical rainfall series for the catchment shows fluctuations in winter and summer rainfall patterns over the past 62 years. From 1976 to 1998 there has been a diverging trend between winter and summer rainfall, with a large increase in winter and a gradual decrease in summer totals. Periods of maximum variation occur during the summer drought events of the late 1970s, early 1980s and mid-1990s. Analysis of the particle size of core sediments highlights abrupt increases in sand-sized particles in the top 20 cm of the core. Based on the 137Cs chronology, these layers were deposited from the late 1970s onwards and relate to these diverging rainfall records and rapidly fluctuating reservoir levels. This provides evidence of potential sediment reworking within the reservoir by rapid water-level rise after drought. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The use of multivariate statistics to elucidate patterns of floodplain sedimentation at different spatial scales

    Martin C. Thoms
    Abstract Floodplains are depositional features of riverine landscapes that display complex sedimentation patterns that are amenable to multi-scale approaches. We examined sedimentation in the Lower Balonne floodplain, Queensland, Australia, at three different spatial scales: the channel (103 km), floodplain process zone (10 km) and geomorphic unit (102 m) scales, and compared scale-related patterns evident from stratigraphy with those evident from quantitative multivariate analysis. Three stratigraphic sequences were found in the Lower Balonne floodplain: generally fining upward, episodic fining upward, and mud-dominated. Stratigraphical analysis revealed the detailed character of sedimentary sequences embedded within the scale patterns derived from multivariate analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses of a range of textural and geochemical data revealed different patterns of floodplain sedimentation at each scale. At the channel scale, sediment texture and geochemistry were more heterogeneous in the Culgoa River than in Briarie Creek. At the floodplain process zone scale clear patterns of sediment texture and geochemistry were observed along the upper, mid and lower floodplain process zones of Briarie Creek, but not along the Culgoa River. At the geomorphic unit scale, clear patterns of sediment texture and geochemistry were observed among the bank, buried channel and flat floodplain units of the Culgoa River, but were not as clear in Briarie Creek. Recognition of rivers as hierarchically organized systems is an emerging paradigm in river science. Our study supports this paradigm by demonstrating that different sedimentation patterns occur at different scales to reveal a hierarchically organized floodplain environment. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The use of short-lived radionuclides to quantify transitional bed material transport in a regulated river

    Nira L. Salant
    Abstract We investigate the use of the short-lived fallout radionuclide beryllium-7 (7Be; t1/2 = 53·4 days) as a tracer of medium and coarse sand (0·25,2 mm), which transitions between transport in suspension and as bed load, and evaluate the effects of impoundment on seasonal and spatial variations in bed sedimentation. We measure 7Be activities in approximately monthly samples from point bar and streambed sediments in one unregulated and one regulated stream. In the regulated stream our sampling spanned an array of flow and management conditions during the annual transition from flood control in the winter and early spring to run-of-the-river operation from late spring to autumn. Sediment stored behind the dam during the winter quickly became depleted in 7Be activity. This resulted in a pulse of ,dead' sediment released when the dam gates were opened in the spring which could be tracked as it moved downstream. Measured average sediment transport velocities (30,80 metres per day (m d,1)) exceed those typically reported for bulk bed load transport and are remarkably constant across varied flow regimes, possibly due to corresponding changes in bed sand fraction. Results also show that the length scale of the downstream impact of dam management on sediment transport is short (c. 1 km); beyond this distance the sediment trapped by the dam is replaced by new sediment from tributaries and other downstream sources. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investigation of coupling between surface processes and induced flow in the lower continental crust as a cause of intraplate seismicity

    Rob Westaway
    Abstract Many studies have highlighted the role of coupling between surface processes and flow in the lower continental crust in deforming the crust and creating topographic relief over Quaternary timescales. On the basis of the rheological knowledge gained, it is suggested that intraplate seismicity can also be caused by coupling between surface processes and flow in the lower continental crust. This view is shown to be a natural consequence of the modern idea that isostatic equilibrium is maintained by flow in the weak lower crust in response to erosion and sedimentation. It is supported by a general correlation between the vigour of surface processes and rates of intraplate seismicity, and by instances of seasonal seismicity that correlates with seasonal climate. Human interference in the environment can affect surface loading: for instance, deforestation for agriculture or urban development can cause increased erosion rates; global warming is expected to cause increased storminess (and thus increased erosion rates) and/or global sea-level rise. The possibility of increased rates of seismicity resulting from these processes should thus be considered in future hazard assessment. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Overbank deposition along the concave side of the Red River meanders, Manitoba, and its geomorphic significance

    Gregory R. Brooks
    Abstract Slow earth sliding is pervasive along the concave side of Red River meanders that impinge on Lake Agassiz glaciolacustrine deposits. These failures form elongated, low-angled (c. 6 to 10°) landslide zones along the valleysides. Silty overbank deposits that accumulated during the 1999 spring freshet extend continuously along the landslide zones over hundreds of metres and aggraded the lower slopes over a distance 50 to 80 m from the channel margin. The aggradation is not obviously related to meander curvature or location within a meander. Along seven slope profiles surveyed in 1999 near Letellier, Manitoba, the deposits locally are up to 21 cm thick and generally thin with increasing distance from, and height above, the river. Local deposit thickness relates to distance from the channel, duration of inundation of the landslide surface, mesotopography, and variations in vegetation cover. Immediately adjacent to the river, accumulated overbank deposits are up to 4 m thick. The 1999 overbank deposits also were present along the moderately sloped (c. 23 to 27°) concave banks eroding into the floodplain, but the deposits are thinner (locally up to c. 7 cm thick) and cover a narrower area (10 to 30 m wide) than the deposits within the landslide zones. Concave overbank deposition is part of a sediment reworking process that consists of overbank aggradation on the landslide zones, subsequent gradual downslope displacement from earth sliding, and eventually reworking by the river at the toe of the landslide. The presence of the deposits dampens the outward migration of the meanders and contributes to a low rate of contemporary lateral channel migration. Concave overbank sedimentation occurs along most Red River meanders between at least Emerson and St. Adolphe, Manitoba. © Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. [source]

    The micro-topography of the wetlands of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    T. Gumbricht
    Abstract The surface of the 40 000 km2 Okavango alluvial fan is remarkably smooth, and almost everywhere lies within two to three metres of a perfectly smooth theoretical surface. Deviations from this perfect surface give rise to islands in the Okavango wetlands. This micro-topography was mapped by assigning empirical elevations to remotely sensed vegetation community classes, based on the observation that vegetation is very sensitive to small, local differences in elevation. Even though empirical, the method produces fairly accurate results. The technique allows estimation of depths of inundation and therefore will be applicable even when high resolution radar altimetry becomes available. The micro-topography has arisen as a result of clastic sedimentation in distributary channels, which produces local relief of less than two metres, and more importantly as a result of chemical precipitation in island soils, which produces similar local relief. The micro-topography is, therefore, an expression of the non-random sedimentation taking place on the fan. Volume calculations of islands extracted from the micro-topography, combined with estimates of current sediment in,ux, suggest that the land surface of the wetland may only be a few tens of thousands of years old. Constant switching of water distribution, driven by local aggradation, has distributed sediment widely. Mass balance calculations suggest that over a period of c. 150 000 years all of the fan would at one time or other have been inundated, and thus subject to sedimentation. Coalescing of islands over time results in net aggradation of the fan surface. The amount of vertical aggradation on islands and in channels is restricted by the water depth. Restricted vertical relief, in turn, maximizes the distribution of water, limiting its average depth. Aggradation in the permanent swamps occurs predominantly by clastic sedimentation. Rates of aggradation here are very similar to those in the seasonal swamps, maintaining the overall gradient, possibly because of the operation of a feedback loop between the two. The limited amount of local aggradation arising from both clastic and chemical sedimentation, combined with constant changes in water distribution, has resulted in a near-perfect conical surface over the fan. In addition to providing information on sedimentary processes, the micro-topography has several useful hydrological applications. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Channels, wetlands and islands in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, and their relation to hydrological and sedimentological processes

    T. Gumbricht
    Abstract The Okavango wetland in northern Botswana is one of the world's largest inland deltas. The delta is a dynamic environment with shifting channel routes, causing growth and decay of ,anking wetlands, and giving birth to islands. Primary island nuclei are formed by ,uvial processes and bioengineering, and subsequently grow into secondary larger islands of irregular shape by clastic and chemical sedimentation, and later by coalescence. This article presents classi,cations and quantitative estimations of channels, wetlands and islands of the Okavango Delta. Islands were classi,ed dependent on composition, pattern of composition, shape and juxtaposition. 90 per cent of all islands in the entire wetland were identi,ed, with a classi,cation accuracy of 60 to 85 per cent. Smaller islands of the nucleus types dominate the upper parts of the delta, whereas larger secondary islands are more common in the distal part, a re,ection of the age of the islands. Islands in the entry valley of the delta, the Panhandle, are larger in the top end , the primary region of recent clastic sedimentation. The overall size distribution of islands in the delta, however, shows no clumps, indicating that island growth is a uniform process over time and space. The total area ,ooded at least every decade is approximately 14 000 km2, of which 9000 km2 is classi,ed as actual wetland. Channel meandering decreases from the Panhandle to the distal part of the delta, with the abandoned Thaoge channel as an exception. Occurrence of ,uvially formed islands in the distal delta indicates that the water ,ow and area of inundation must once have been much larger. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Origin and palaeo-environments of calcareous sediments in the Moshaweng dry valley, southeast Botswana

    S. Ringrose
    Abstract Quaternary sedimentation in the Moshaweng dry valley of southeastern Botswana is evaluated on the basis of geomorphological evolution and sedimentological analyses. Stratigraphic evidence reveals an upper surface (1095 m) containing abundant sil-calcrete, an intermediate surface (1085 m) in which sil-calcrete underlies nodular calcrete and lower (1075 m) surface in which sil-calcrete and nodular calcrete are interbedded. This subdivision is reflected in the geochemical composition of the sediments which show an overall trend of decreasing SiO2 content (and increasing CaCO3 content) with depth from the highest to the lowest surface levels. The calcretes and sil-calcretes represent modifications of pre-existing detrital Kalahari Group sand and basal Kalahari pebbles which thinned over a Karoo bedrock high. Modification took place during wet periods when abundant Ca++ -rich groundwater flowed along the structurally aligned valley system. With the onset of drier conditions, water table fluctuations led to the precipitation of nodular calcretes in the phreatic layer to a depth of about 20 m. A major geochemical change resulted in the preferential silicification of the nodular calcrete deposits. Conditions for silica mobilization may be related to drying-induced salinity and in situ geochemical differentiation brought about by pebble dissociation towards the top of the sediment pile. As calcretization and valley formation progressed to lower levels, silica release took place on a diminishing scale. Thermoluminescence dating infers a mid-Pleistocene age for sil-calcrete formation suggesting that valley evolution and original calcrete precipitation are much older. Late stage dissolution of CaCO3 from pre-existing surface calcretes or sil-calcretes led to the formation of pedogenic case-hardened deposits during a time of reduced flow through the Moshaweng system possibly during the upper or late Pleistocene. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Controls on englacial sediment deposition during the November 1996 jökulhlaup, Skei,arįrjökull, Iceland

    Matthew J. Roberts
    Abstract This paper presents sedimentary evidence for rapid englacial debris entrainment during jökulhlaups. Previous studies of jökulhlaup sedimentology have focused predominantly on proglacial impact, rather than depositional processes within glaciers. However, observations of supraglacial floodwater outbursts suggest that englacial sediment emplacement is possible during jökulhlaups. The November 1996 jökulhlaup from Skei,arįrjökull, Iceland presented one of the first opportunities to examine englacial flood deposits in relation to former supraglacial outlets. Using observations from Skei,arįrjökull, this paper identifies and explains controls on the deposition of englacial flood sediments and presents a qualitative model for englacial jökulhlaup deposition. Englacial jökulhlaup deposits were contained within complex networks of upglacier-dipping fractures. Simultaneous englacial deposition of fines and boulder-sized sediment demonstrates that englacial fracture discharge had a high transport capacity. Fracture geometry was an important control on the architecture of englacial jökulhlaup deposits. The occurrence of pervasively frozen flood deposits within Skei,arįrjökull is attributed to freeze-on by glaciohydraulic supercooling. Floodwater, flowing subglacially or through upglacier-dipping fractures, would have supercooled as it was raised to the surface faster than its pressure-melting point could increase as glaciostatic pressure decreased. Evidence for floodwater contact with the glacier bed is supported by the ubiquitous occurrence of sheared diamict rip-ups and intra-clasts of basal ice within jökulhlaup fractures, deposited englacially some 200,350 m above the bed of Skei,arįrjökull. Evidence for fluidal supercooled sediment accretion is apparent within stratified sands, deposited englacially at exceptionally high angles of rest in the absence of post-depositional disturbance. Such primary sediment structures cannot be explained unless sediment is progressively accreted to opposing fracture walls. Ice retreat from areas of former supraglacial outbursts revealed distinct ridges characterized by localized upwellings of sediment-rich floodwater. These deposits are an important addition to current models of englacial sedimentation and demonstrate the potential for post-jökulhlaup landform development. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Linking upstream channel instability to downstream degradation: Grenada Lake and the Skuna and Yalobusha River Basins, Mississippi

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Sean J. Bennett
    Abstract Unstable fluvial systems are characterized by actively migrating knickpoints, incising channel beds, failing banks, and recruitment of large woody debris and it would appear that river corridors downstream of these processes would be adversely affected or impaired because of higher fluxes of sediment and other riverine products. In north-central Mississippi, the Yalobusha River is one such system and the characteristics of two downstream locations are examined to explore this geomorphic linkage between upstream instability and downstream degradation. For the large woody debris plug along the Yalobusha River, it is found that (1) the deposit is composed mostly of sand covered with a veneer of silt and clay, (2) agrichemicals and enriched concentrations of elements are prevalent, and (3) excessive sedimentation and wood accumulation have forced river flow entirely out-of-bank. For Grenada Lake, it is found that (1) the impounded sediment is predominantly clay, (2) agrichemicals and elements observed throughout the reservoir show no spatial variation, (3) little difference exists in the amount and quality between the sediments deposited in Skuna and Yalobusha River arms, and (4) only a small fraction of the reservoir's storage capacity has been lost because of sedimentation. While excessive sedimentation and large woody debris recruitment have had a marked affect on stream corridor function in the area of the debris plug, the high sediment loads associated with the unstable portions of the Yalobusha River and their associated products have not been communicated to Grenada Lake. The fish consumption advisories within Grenada Lake and its tributaries due to bioaccumulated trace elements and agrichemicals, appear to be independent of the pervasive river channel instability occurring upstream. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Efficiency of permeable pavement systems for the removal of urban runoff pollutants under varying environmental conditions

    Kiran Tota-Maharaj
    Abstract Urban surface water runoff typically contains a high but variable number of pathogens, nutrients, and sediments that require removal before reuse. Permeable pavements can improve the water quality through interception, filtration, sedimentation, nutrient transformation, and microbial removal. There is currently insufficient scientific information available on the treatment efficiencies of permeable pavements combined with earth energy systems with regards to the removal of storm water pollutants such as nutrients, sediments, and microbial pollutants. This study evaluates the efficiency of 12 tanked combined systems during a medium-term study. The research assessed weekly the removal of the microbial indicators total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal Streptococci, as well as the key nutrients ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, and physical variables such as suspended solids and turbidity. Total coliforms, E. coli, and fecal Streptococci were removed by 98,99%. The ammonia-nitrogen and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus removal efficiencies were 84.6% and 77.5%, respectively. An analysis of variance indicated that the presence or absence of a geotextile did result in a very highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) with respect to the removal of both ammonia-nitrogen and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus. Suspended solids, turbidity, and biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 91%, 82%, and 88%, respectively. These results indicate the potential of the proposed novel system in urban runoff pollutant removal and subsequent reuse of the treated water. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010 [source]

    Factors influencing the partitioning and toxicity of nanotubes in the aquatic environment,,

    Alan J. Kennedy
    Abstract Carbon nanotubes (NTs) may be among the most useful engineered nanomaterials for structural applications but could be difficult to study in ecotoxicological evaluations using existing tools relative to nanomaterials with a lower aspect ratio. Whereas the hydrophobicity and van der Waals interactions of NTs may suggest aggregation and sedimentation in aquatic systems, consideration regarding how engineered surface modifications influence their environmental fate and toxicology is needed. Surface modifications (e.g., functional groups and coatings) are intended to create conditions to make NTs dispersible in aqueous suspension, as required for some applications. In the present study, column stability and settling experiments indicated that raw, multiwalled NTs (MWNTs) settled more rapidly than carbon black and activated carbon particles, suggesting sediment as the ultimate repository. The presence of functional groups, however, slowed the settling of MWNTs (increasing order of stability: hydroxyl > carboxyl > raw), especially in combination with natural organic matter (NOM). Stabilized MWNTs in high concentrations of NOM provided relevance for water transport and toxicity studies. Aqueous exposures to raw MWNTs decreased Ceriodaphnia dubia viability, but such effects were not observed during exposure to functionalized MWNTs (>80 mg/L). Sediment exposures of the amphipods Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca to different sizes of sediment-borne carbon particles at high concentration indicated mortality increased as particle size decreased, although raw MWNTs induced lower mortality (median lethal concentration [LC50], 50 to >264 g/kg) than carbon black (LC50, 18,40 g/kg) and activated carbon (LC50, 12,29 g/kg). Our findings stress that it may be inappropriate to classify all NTs into one category in terms of their environmental regulation. [source]