School Achievement (school + achievement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families

Suet-ling Pong
We investigate the gap in math and science achievement of third- and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries. The United States and New Zealand rank last among the countries we compare in terms of the equality of achievement between children from single-parent families and those from two-parent homes. Following a multilevel analysis, we find single parenthood to be less detrimental when family policies equalize resources between single- and two-parent families. In addition, the single- and two-parent achievement gap is greater in countries where single-parent families are more prevalent. We conclude that national family policies can offset the negative academic outcomes of single parenthood. [source]

Childhood social disadvantage and smoking in adulthood: results of a 25-year longitudinal study

ADDICTION, Issue 3 2007
David M. Fergusson
ABSTRACT Aim To examine the associations between exposure to socio-economic disadvantage in childhood and smoking in adulthood. Design A 25-year longitudinal study of the health, development and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Assessments of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, smoking in adulthood and potential mediating pathways, including: parental education, family socio-economic status, family living standards and family income; smoking frequency and nicotine dependence at age 25 years; child IQ, educational achievement by age 18 years, conduct problems ages 14,16 years, parental smoking 0,16 years and peer smoking at 16 years. Findings Smoking at age 25 was correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing childhood socio-economic disadvantage. Further, indicators of childhood socio-economic disadvantage were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with the intervening variables of childhood intelligence, school achievement, conduct problems and exposure to parental and peer smoking; which in turn were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with measures of smoking at age 25. Structural equation modelling suggested that the linkages between the latent factor of childhood disadvantage and later smoking were explained largely by a series of pathways involving cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behavioural adjustment and exposure to parental and peer smoking. Conclusions The current study suggested that smoking in adulthood is influenced by childhood socio-economic disadvantage via the mediating pathways of cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behaviour and parental and peer smoking. [source]

Sex differences in school achievement: what are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?

Ricarda Steinmayr
Abstract It is consistently reported that despite equal cognitive ability, girls outperform boys in school. In several methodological steps, the present study examined sex differences in school achievement and some of the most important personality and motivational constructs in a sample of 204 females and 138 adolescent males (mean age M,=,16.94 years; SD,=,0.71). Grades in Math and German as well as grade point average (GPA) served as achievement criteria. Intelligence, the Big Five of personality and motivational variables (achievement motives, goal orientation, task values and ability self-concepts) served as predictors. After controlling for intelligence, girls' grades were significantly better than boys'. Mean sex differences were found for most variables. There were no gender-specific associations between predictors and grades. Agreeableness, work avoidance, ability self-concepts and values ascribed to German mediated the association between sex and grades in German. Controlling for ability self-concepts and values ascribed to Math enhanced the association between sex and math grades. We concluded that personality and motivation play important roles in explaining sex differences in school attainment. Results are discussed against the background of practical and methodological implications. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Children with behaviour problems: the influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school

Lisbeth Henricsson
Abstract The aims of the present study were to investigate the role for problematic children of the child's social competence, teacher relations and behaviour with peers for later problem persistence, school performance and peer acceptance, in terms of moderating (protective and exacerbating) and independent effects. Groups of children with externalizing (n=26) and internalizing (n=25) problems and a non-problematic group (n=44) were followed from grade 1,6. Teachers rated behaviour problems and social competence in the first, third and sixth grades, the teacher,child relationship in third grade, and school achievement in sixth grade. Behaviour with peers was assessed in observations in later elementary school. Peer acceptance was assessed through peer nominations in sixth grade. Both problem groups had lower social competence, school achievement and peer acceptance in sixth grade than the non-problematic group. There were moderating and independent effects of social competence, teacher and peer relations on outcomes, but these applied mainly to children with internalizing problems. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Working memory functioning in children with learning disabilities: does intelligence make a difference?

C. Maehler
Abstract Background Children with learning disabilities are identified by their severe learning problems and their deficient school achievement. On the other hand, children with sub-average school achievement and sub-average intellectual development are thought to suffer from a general intellectual delay rather than from specific learning disabilities. The open question is whether these two groups are characterised by differences in their cognitive functioning. The present study explored several functions of working memory. Method A working memory battery with tasks for the phonological loop, the visual,spatial sketchpad and central executive skills was presented in individual sessions to 27 children with learning disabilities and normal IQ (ICD-10: mixed disorders of scholastic skills), 27 children with learning disabilities and low IQ (intellectual disabilities), and a control group of 27 typically developing children with regular school achievement levels and normal IQ. Results The results reveal an overall deficit in working memory of the two groups with learning disabilities compared with the control group. However, unexpectedly, there were no differences between the two groups of children with disabilities (normal vs. low IQ). Conclusions These findings do not support the notion of different cognitive functioning because of differences in intelligence of these two groups. In the ongoing discussion about the role of intelligence (especially as to the postulated discrepancy between intelligence and school achievement in diagnosis and special education), our findings might lead to rethinking the current practice of treating these two groups as fundamentally different. [source]

How American Children Spend Their Time

Sandra L. Hofferth
The purpose of this article is to examine how American children under age 13 spend their time, sources of variation in time use, and associations with achievement and behavior. Data come from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The results suggest that parents' characteristics and decisions regarding marriage, family size, and employment affect the time children spend in educational, structured, and family activities, which may affect their school achievement. Learning activities such as reading for pleasure are associated with higher achievement, as is structured time spent playing sports and in social activities. Family time spent at meals and time spent sleeping are linked to fewer behavior problems, as measured by the child's score on the Behavior Problems Index. The results support common language and myth about the optimal use of time for child development. [source]

The Influence of Ethnic Discrimination and Ethnic Identification on African American adolescents' School and Socioemotional Adjustment

Carol A. Wong
Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors. [source]

A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

Paula B. Repetto
The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young adulthood. We also examined gender differences in these behaviors over time. The results indicated that depressive symptoms predicted later marijuana use only for males. Marijuana use did not predict later depressive symptoms for females or males. These findings are consistent with a unidirectional hypothesis indicating that marijuana use may play a role as mood regulator among young males, but not among females. Research findings also indicate that females with lower depressive symptoms use more marijuana than females who report high depressive symptoms. These findings did not change even after controlling for the effects of using other substances at previous stages, school achievement, and demographics factors. These results suggest that depressive symptoms may be an antecedent of marijuana use among African American males. [source]

Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence

Flavia Giannotti
Summary The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between circadian preferences, regularity of sleep patterns, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness and daytime behaviour. As a part of an epidemiological survey on sleep in a representative sample of Italian high-school students, a total of 6631 adolescents, aged 14.1,18.6 years, completed the School Sleep Habits Survey, a comprehensive questionnaire including items regarding sleep, sleepiness, substance use, anxiety and depressed mood, use of sleeping pills, school attendance and a morningness/eveningness scale. The sample consisted of 742 evening-types (315 males and 427 females; mean age 17.1 years) and 1005 morning-types (451 males and 554 females; mean age 16.8 years). No significant sex differences were found for morningness/eveningness score. Eveningness was associated with later bedtime and wake-up time, especially on weekends, shorter time in bed during the week, longer weekend time in bed, irregular sleep,wake schedule, subjective poor sleep. Moreover, evening types used to nap more frequently during school days, complained of daytime sleepiness, referred more attention problems, poor school achievement, more injuries and were more emotionally upset than the other chronotype. They referred also greater caffeine-containing beverages and substances to promote sleep consumption. Our results suggest that circadian preference might be related not only to sleep pattern, but also to other adolescent behaviours. [source]

Integration Factors Related to the Academic Success and Intent to Persist of College Students with Learning Disabilities

Lisa M. W. DaDeppoArticle first published online: 3 AUG 200
Despite increased enrollment, outcomes such as grade point average (GPA), persistence, and graduation rates for college students with learning disabilities (LD) continue to lag behind those of their nondisabled peers. Reasons for the differences vary but may include academic and social integration, factors identified as important to the success of college students in general. This research investigated the relative influence of background characteristics, precollege achievement, and college integration variables on the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with LD. While academic and social integration were not unique predictors of college GPA, both integration variables were unique predictors of intent to persist. The findings suggest that beyond high school achievement and background characteristics, college experiences as captured by academic and social integration are promising constructs to help explain the persistence of college students with LD. Implications for future research and practices for high school and college personnel are discussed. [source]

Dopamine Receptor D2 Polymorphism Moderates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents' School Performance

Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
ABSTRACT, High parental socioeconomic status is known to have a positive effect on students' academic achievement. We examined whether variation in the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 polymorphism, rs 1800497) modifies the association between parental educational level and school performance in adolescence. The participants were a randomly selected subsample of individuals participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (921 girls and 742 boys) aged 12,15 years at the time school performance was assessed. The genotyping was performed using TaqMan 5,'-nuclease assay. A significant interaction was found between childhood parental educational level and students' DRD2 polymorphism on academic achievement after adjustment for age, gender, household income, parental occupation, maternal nurturance, hyperactivity, and sociability. Parental educational level was significantly positively associated with school achievement in the A2/A2 (n = 1,061) and the A1/A2 (n = 529) genotype groups, but was negative and statistically insignificant in participants carrying the A1/A1 (n = 73) genotype. It is concluded that the extent to which parental education status affects an individual's academic achievement may be dependent on the individual's genetic constitution. The findings may increase an acceptance of genetic influence in education, and, consequently, may increase accurateness of educational interventions. [source]

Short but catching up: Statural growth among native Amazonian Bolivian children

Ricardo Godoy
The ubiquity and consequences of childhood growth stunting (<,2 SD in height-for-age Z score, HAZ) in rural areas of low-income nations has galvanized research into the reversibility of stunting, but the shortage of panel data has hindered progress. Using panel data from a native Amazonian society of foragers-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we estimate rates of catch-up growth for stunted children. One hundred forty-six girls and 158 boys 2 , age , 7 were measured annually during 2002,2006. Annual , height in cm and in HAZ were regressed separately against baseline stunting and control variables related to attributes of the child, mother, household, and village. Children stunted at baseline had catch-up growth rates 0.11 SD/year higher than their nonstunted age and sex peers, with a higher rate among children farther from towns. The rate of catch up did not differ by the child's sex. A 10% rise in household income and an additional younger sibling lowered by 0.16 SD/year and 0.53 SD/year the rate of growth. Results were weaker when measuring , height in cm rather than in HAZ. Possible reasons for catch-up growth include (a) omitted variable bias, (b) parental reallocation of resources to redress growth faltering, particularly if parents perceive the benefits of redressing growth faltering for child school achievement, and (c) developmental plasticity during this period when growth rates are most rapid and linear growth trajectories have not yet canalized. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Correlates of peer victimization and achievement: An exploratory model

Tanya Beran
This study investigates peer victimization and achievement. Adolescents aged 12,15 years were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada. Teachers', children's, and parents' reports were combined in a latent variable path analysis, ,2(51) = 348.54, p < .000. The model converged in six iterations resulting in a Comparative Fit Index = .90, and a standardized residual mean error of .05. The model shows that adolescents who are victimized by their peers are at risk of experiencing poor school achievement if they exhibit disruptive behaviors, receive little support from their teachers, and experience non-nurturing, rejecting behaviors from their parents. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Relations of middle school students' perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement

Gregory J. Marchant
The purposes of this study were to examine the relations of both family and school contexts on students' academic achievement and to explore the mediating effects of students' perceptions of their motivations and academic self-competence between the family and school contexts and achievement. Participants were 230 fifth- and sixth-grade students. Students' perceptions of parenting style (demandingness and responsiveness), parental involvement (parental values and involvement in school functions), teaching style (teacher control and responsiveness), and school atmosphere (school responsiveness and supportive social environment) significantly predicted their school achievement; however, students' motivations and self-competence mediated the relations between students' contexts and their academic achievement. Furthermore, parental values, teacher responsiveness, school responsiveness, and supportive social environment predicted students' motivations and academic competence above and beyond parenting style, parental involvement, and teacher control. The importance of students' supportive relationships and the internalization of the messages conveyed to them underscore the need for a contextual view by school psychologists when consulting with parents and education staff regarding achievement concerns. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Prevalence of habitual refractive errors and anisometropia among Dutch schoolchildren and hospital employees

Theo J.W. Hendricks
Abstract. Purpose:, Refractive error (RE) is suggested to cause not only visual impairment, but also functional problems such as aspecific health complaints and lower levels of school achievement. During the last few decades the prevalence of myopia has increased worldwide, especially in Asia. We investigated the prevalence of habitual RE and anisometropia in a Dutch population of children and employees. Methods:, In a cross-sectional study, RE in both eyes of 520 children (aged 11,13 years) and 444 hospital employees (aged 17,60 years) were measured using an autorefractometer. The measurements were performed without using a cycloplegium. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to analyse correlations between the right and left eyes. Chi-square tests were used to test the differences between subgroups according to gender and age. Results:, In schoolchildren 28% of right eyes were myopic (> 0.50 D) and 8% hyperopic (> 0.50 D). Pearson's r between right and left eyes for spherical equivalent power (SEP) was 0.93. The mean cylinder deviation in right eyes was 0.26 D (range 0.00,4.50 D). Anisometropia > 1.00 D was present in 4.6% of children; 22% of children were not optimally (> 0.50 D) corrected. In hospital employees, 30% of right eyes were myopic (> 0.50 D) and 10% hyperopic (> 0.50 D). Pearson's r between right and left eyes for SEP was 0.53. The mean cylinder deviation in right eyes was 0.35 D (range 0.00,5.75 D). Anisometropia > 1.00 D was present in 25% of employees. Anisometropia was more frequently present in employees aged 40,60 years, than in those aged 17,39 years (30% versus 18%; p = 0.02, Cramer's V = 0.15). Conclusions:, Refractive errors are common in children aged 11,13 years and in working adults aged 17,60 years. Distributions of sphere and cylinder deviations are similar for Dutch schoolchildren and hospital employees. Surprisingly, anisometropia proved to be more prevalent with age. In children many eyes are not optimally corrected. Increased attention should be paid to uncorrected and miscorrected REs. [source]

Follow-up of adolescents born extremely preterm: cognitive function and health at 18 years of age

Anne-Li Hallin
Abstract Aim:, To compare cognitive ability, school achievement and self-perceived health aspects in adolescents born extremely preterm and term born controls. Method:, Fifty-two, out of 61, extremely preterm born adolescents (mean age 18.4 years) and 54 matched controls (mean age 18.3 years) born at full term were investigated; intelligence quotient was measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; cognitive flexibility, i.e. a measure of visuomotor speed and attention, with the Trail Making Test; school achievement and choice of upper secondary programmes were reported. Health aspects were investigated in a semi structured interview. Result:, The adolescents born prematurely had significantly lower IQ than the controls, mean 93 (SD 15.4) vs 106 (12.5), p < 0.001; showed slower visuomotor speed; had lower grades from compulsory school (192.7 vs 234.8, p < 0.001); and chose to a greater extent practical upper secondary school programmes. There were no differences between the groups in health care consumption, prevalence of chronic disease, allergy or infectious diseases. Conclusion:, Poorer cognitive performance, in extremely preterm born individuals, seems to persist into late adolescence. Fewer prematurely born than control chose theoretical upper secondary school programmes. However, no difference was noted regarding self-perceived health aspects. [source]

Breastfeeding and school achievement in Brazilian adolescents

Abstract Aim: To assess the effect of breastfeeding duration on school achievement in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: In a population-based birth cohort, we analysed the highest grade achieved in school of over 2000 male 18-y-olds relative to breastfeeding information collected in early life. Analyses were adjusted for birthweight, family income, maternal and paternal schooling, household assets, number of siblings, social class, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and ethnicity. Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a highly significant trend in school achievement with increasing breastfeeding duration. Those breastfed for 9 mo or more were ahead by 0.5,0.8 school grades, relative to those breastfed for less than 1 mo. Data from a cross-sectional survey in the same population suggest that such a difference corresponds to a 10,15% difference in adult income levels. The duration of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding was also positively associated with schooling. Conclusion: Unlike studies from developed countries, there was no clear association between breastfeeding duration and either the family's socio-economic level or parental schooling in our sample and therefore residual confounding is improbable. These results suggest that the impact of breastfeeding on intellectual development may lead to sizeable differences in adult education and wage-earning performance. [source]