Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Scarring

  • acne scarring
  • facial scarring
  • hypertrophic scarring
  • myocardial scarring
  • renal scarring

  • Terms modified by Scarring

  • scarring alopecia

  • Selected Abstracts


    A. R. Martin
    Abstract Measurements and quantitative descriptions of a large sample of live adult botos (Inia geoffrensis) were obtained from the Mamirauá Reserve in the central Amazon. Males were on average 16% longer and weighed 55% more than females, demonstrating that this species is one of the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans for size. Males were also pinker than females, more heavily scarred by intraspecific tooth rakes, and had more life-threatening injuries. Some larger males had areas of modified skin that may simply be scar tissue, but may also be a heritable characteristic used as a shield or weapon. As in sperm whales, sexual size dimorphism and male-male aggression appear to be linked in botos, suggesting fierce competition for a resource,probably mating opportunities. The boto is unique among river dolphins in that males are larger than females. This distinction implies long evolutionary separation and fundamental differences in social behavior. [source]

    Patient Satisfaction and Reported Long-Term Therapeutic Efficacy Associated with 1,320 nm Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Acne Scarring and Photoaging

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Nonablative laser treatments have become increasingly used for the treatment of acne scarring and photoaging. While nonablative laser treatments are more convenient and relatively safer than ablative laser resurfacing, efficacy and patient satisfaction with the level of improvement of textural abnormalities in acne scarring and rhytids associated with photoaging needs further study. DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Structured interviews were performed with 34 patients from a referral-based academic practice who each previously received a series of 6 monthly treatments with a 1,320 nm neodymium:yttrium,aluminum,garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for treatment of acne scarring or photoaging. Topical anesthesia was applied 1 hour before each treatment. Patients were interviewed at least 3 months after cessation of treatment (range 3,12 months). RESULTS Patients tolerated the treatments well. Combined results for acne scarring and photoaging patients were as follows: (a) patient satisfaction with treatment was rated at 62%, and (b) textural improvement was reported at 31% at the end of the six treatments, and 30% at the date of interview. When results were stratified by diagnosis, patient satisfaction was slightly higher for treatment of acne scarring than for photoaging. Overall degree of improvement on a 1,10 scale was 5.4 for acne scarring and 3.8 for wrinkling. CONCLUSION Nonablative treatment with the 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser induced significant patient-reported improvement in both acne scarring and photoaging. The majority of patients reported satisfaction with the degree of improvement. [source]

    Cryosurgery in the Treatment of Earlobe Keloids: Report of Seven Cases

    Tomas Fikrle MD
    Background. Keloids are benign cutaneous lesions that result from excessive collagen synthesis and deposition. Earlobe keloids in particular are seen as a complication of plastic surgery or piercing. Many different treatment modalities have been used, often with unsatisfactory results. Methods. We have made a retrospective analysis of seven young patients (ages 9 to 22 years) with earlobe keloids. Scarring followed plastic surgery in six cases and piercing in one case. All patients were treated with cryosurgery as the monotherapy. The freeze time and the number of sessions varied depending on the clinical findings, the effect of the treatment, and the patients' tolerance. Cryotherapy was started 6 to 24 months after keloid development. Results. Scar volume was reduced in all cases. Complete flattening in five patients and a pronounced reduction to a maximum of 25% of the previous thickness in one other patient were achieved. One patient discontinued the therapy because of soreness after only partial improvement. The procedure was painful for all patients; no further side effects were noticed. No recurrence was observed within 1 to 4.5 years of follow-up. Conclusion. We present an excellent effect of cryosurgery as the monotherapy for the treatment of earlobe keloid scars of young patients. TOMAS FIKRLE, MD, AND KAREL PIZINGER, MD, PHD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Hypertrophic Scarring is the Usual Outcome of Non-Membranous Aplasia Cutis of the Scalp

    In all the patients the congenital skin defect healed with irregular hypertrophic scar formation. [source]

    Scarring Resulting from Chickenpox

    Alexander K. C. Leung M.B.B.S., F.R.C.P. (UK & Irel), F.R.C.P.C., F.R.C.P.C.H.
    Nine hundred and eighty-six children (519 boys, 467 girls) who had chickenpox at least 1 year previously were examined for the presence of scars resulting from this disease. Ninety-six (18.5%) boys and 88 (18.8%) girls had chickenpox scars, giving rise to an overall prevalence of 18.7%. The scars were found on the face in 75 (40.8%), neck 2 (1.1%), shoulders 8 (4.3%), upper limbs 15 (8.2%), anterior thorax 50 (27.2%), abdomen 106 (57.6%), back 65 (35.3%), buttocks 9 (4.9%), and lower limbs 12 (6.5%) affected children. The mean number of scars in the 184 children was 2.8 (standard deviation 1.9). The scars were hyperpigmented in 32, hypopigmented in 160, depressed in 38, and hypertrophic in 32 children. Keloids were noted in two children. [source]

    Injection of Embryonic Stem Cells Into Scarred Rabbit Vocal Folds Enhances Healing and Improves Viscoelasticity: Short-Term Results,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2007
    Jessica Cedervall MSc
    Abstract Objectives: Scarring caused by trauma, postcancer treatment, or inflammation in the vocal folds is associated with stiffness of the lamina propria and results in severe voice problems. Currently there is no effective treatment. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been recognized as providing a potential resource for cell transplantations, but in the undifferentiated state, they are generally not considered for therapeutic use due to risk of inadvertent development. This study assesses the functional potential of hESC to prevent or diminish scarring and improve viscoelasticity following grafting into scarred rabbit vocal folds. Study Design: hESC were injected into 22 scarred vocal folds of New Zealand rabbits. After 1 month, the vocal folds were dissected and analyzed for persistence of hESC by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human specific probe, and for differentiation by evaluation in hematoxylin-eosin-stained tissues. Parallel-plate rheometry was used to evaluate the functional effects, i.e., viscoelastic properties, after treatment with hESC. Results: The results revealed significantly improved viscoelasticity in the hESC-treated vs. non-treated vocal folds. An average of 5.1% engraftment of human cells was found 1 month after hESC injection. In the hESC-injected folds, development compatible with cartilage, muscle and epithelia in close proximity or inter-mixed with the appropriate native rabbit tissue was detected in combination with less scarring and improved viscoelasticity. Conclusions: The histology and location of the surviving hESC-derived cells strongly indicate that the functional improvement was caused by the injected cells, which were regenerating scarred tissue. The findings point toward a strong impact from the host microenvironment, resulting in a regional specific in vivo hESC differentiation and regeneration of three types of tissue in scarred vocal folds of adult rabbits. [source]

    Cluster Analysis of Lesions in Nonselected Kidney Transplant Biopsies: Microcirculation Changes, Tubulointerstitial Inflammation and Scarring

    B. Sis
    Banff classification empirically established scoring of histologic lesions, but the relationships of lesions to each other and to underlying biologic processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that class discovery tools would reveal new relationships between individual lesions, and relate lesions to C4d staining, anti-HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA) and time posttransplant. We studied 234 nonselected renal allograft biopsies for clinical indications from 173 patients. Silhouette plotting and principal component analysis revealed three groups of lesions: microcirculation changes, including inflammation (glomerulitis, capillaritis) and deterioration (double contours, mesangial expansion); scarring/hyalinosis; and tubulointerstitial inflammation. DSA and C4d grouped with microcirculation inflammation, whereas time posttransplant grouped with scarring/hyalinosis lesions. Intimal arteritis clustered with DSA, C4d and microcirculation inflammation, but also showed correlations with tubulitis. Fibrous intimal thickening in arteries clustered with scarring/hyalinosis. Capillary basement membrane multilayering showed intermediary relationships between microcirculation deterioration and time-dependent scarring. Correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering confirmed the lesion relationships. Thus, we propose that the pathologic lesions in biopsies are not independent but are members of groups that represent distinct pathogenic forces: microcirculation changes, reflecting the stress of DSA; scarring, hyalinosis and arterial fibrosis, reflecting the cumulative burden of injury over time; and tubulointerstitial inflammation. Interpretation of lesions should reflect these associations. [source]

    Molecular Correlates of Scarring in Kidney Transplants: The Emergence of Mast Cell Transcripts

    M. Mengel
    In the Banff consensus, infiltrates in areas of scarring are ignored. This study aimed to characterize the molecular correlates and clinical significance of scarring and inflammation in scarred areas. We assessed the extent of interstitial infiltrates, tubulitis and scarring in 129 clinically indicated renal allograft biopsies, and correlated the results with microarray expression data and allograft survival. Findings were validated in 50 additional biopsies. Transplants with scarring had a worse prognosis if the scarred area showed infiltrates. Infiltration in unscarred and scarred areas was associated with reduced death censored graft survival. In microarray analysis, infiltration in unscarred areas strongly (>r ± 0.4) correlated with 484 transcripts associated with cytotoxic T cells, interferon-gamma, macrophages and injury. Scarring correlated with a distinct set of 172 transcripts associated with B cells, plasma cells, and others of unknown significance. The strongest correlation was with four mast cell transcripts. In biopsies with scarring, high expression of mast cell transcripts was associated with reduced graft survival and poor functional recovery. In renal allograft biopsies, infiltrates in scarred areas have implications for poor outcomes. Scarring is associated with a distinct pattern of inflammatory molecules, including B cell/immunoglobulin but particularly mast cell-associated transcripts, which correlated with poor outcomes. [source]

    Treatment of Superficial Infantile Hemangiomas of the Eyelid Using the 595-nm Pulsed Dye Laser

    BACKGROUND Despite the proven effectiveness of the 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) in treating superficial infantile hemangiomas, many physicians are reluctant to treat such lesions involving the eyelid. OBJECTIVE To examine the safety and efficacy of the 595-nm PDL for the treatment of superficial infantile hemangiomas of the eyelid. MATERIALS & METHODS Records were reviewed for patients with superficial infantile hemangiomas of the eyelid treated with 595-nm PDL. Pre- and post-treatment photographs were compared. Reviewers rated the degree of improvement of the hemangioma as excellent (76,100%), good (51,75%), moderate (26,50%), or poor (0,25%) and indicated whether the hemangioma was 100% clear. Side effects of scarring, atrophy, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation were assessed. RESULTS Twenty-two patients met the study criteria. Eight (36.4%) demonstrated complete clearance of their hemangioma, 17 (77.3%) received an improvement rating of excellent, and five (22.7%) received a rating of good. No scarring, atrophy, or hypopigmentation was noted. Two patients (9.1%) were noted to have hyperpigmentation in the treated area. CONCLUSION Early treatment with the 595-nm PDL can safely and effectively diminish proliferative growth and hasten resolution of superficial infantile hemangiomas of the eyelid. Roy G. Geronemus, MD, is on the Medical Advisory Board for Candela Laser Corp. [source]

    Utility of Intralesional Sclerotherapy with 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate in Cutaneous Vascular Malformations

    BACKGROUND Vascular malformations have devastating cosmetic effects in addition to being associated with pain and bleeding. Sclerotherapy has been successfully used in treating complicated hemangiomas and vascular malformations. OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) in venous and lymphatic malformations. MATERIALS AND METHOD We performed sclerotherapy with 3% STS in 13 patients with venous malformations and microcystic lymphatic malformation, all low-flow malformations and with extent predominantly to the subcutis, confirmed using Doppler ultrasound. Lesions were located on the face, lower lip, flanks, buttocks, and extremities. Patients presented for cosmetic reasons, pain, or bleeding. Sclerotherapy was undertaken as an office procedure without any radiological guidance and therapy repeated every 3 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed subjectively clinically and photographically. RESULTS The lesions regressed by 90% to 100% in 11 cases after a mean of four injections, with no improvement in two cases (one each of venous malformation and lymphatic malformation). Complications included cutaneous blister formation, erosions, and crusting at injection site in seven cases and atrophic scarring in four patients. CONCLUSIONS Sclerotherapy with 3% STS is a simple, safe, and effective modality for venous malformations and can be undertaken as an office procedure in lesions limited to the subcutis. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Outcomes of Childhood Hemangiomas Treated with the Pulsed-Dye Laser with Dynamic Cooling: A Retrospective Chart Analysis

    BACKGROUND Laser treatment of childhood hemangiomas remains controversial. Previous studies have used outdated technology, resulting in a potential overrepresentation of adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes of hemangiomas treated with the most current laser technology. METHODS A retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients with a median age of 3.0 months and a total of 105 hemangiomas were enrolled over a 2.5-year period. All were treated with the 595-nm long-pulse pulsed-dye laser (LP-PDL) with dynamic epidermal cooling at 2- to 8-week intervals depending on the stage of growth. Exclusion criteria were previous laser, surgical, or corticosteroid treatment. Three reviewers assessed outcomes. RESULTS Near-complete or complete clearance in color were achieved for 85 (81%) and in thickness for 67 (64%) hemangiomas. There was no scarring or atrophy. Ulceration occurred in one case and resolved during treatment. Hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation occurred in 4% and 14% of hemangiomas, respectively. CONCLUSION Early treatment of childhood hemangiomas with the 595-nm LP-PDL with dynamic cooling may reduce the proliferative phase and result in excellent rates of clearing and few adverse events. [source]

    Review of Fractional Photothermolysis: Treatment Indications and Efficacy

    BACKGROUND Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is one of the most significant milestones in laser technology and resurfacing. METHODS Review of the Medline English literature and recent international conferences regarding FP technology, applications, and indications. RESULTS Successful conditions treated with nonablative FP reported in the literature include acne scarring; dyschromia and fine wrinkling of photoaging on the face, chest, neck, and hands; melasma; poikiloderma of Civatte; nevus of Ota; scars; minocycline hyperpigmentation; telangiectatic matting; residual hemangioma; granuloma annulare; colloid milium; and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. An advance in 2007 was the introduction of ablative FP (AFP), which results in significantly greater improvement in skin laxity and textural abnormalities. Most recently, AFP has demonstrated significantly greater improvement than nonablative FP in reducing acne scarring and skin redundancy and laxity associated with photoaging. CONCLUSIONS Through the induction of microthermal zones of injury, FP technology stimulates a robust and rapid wound healing response resulting in improvement in a diversity of aesthetic, inflammatory, and preneoplastic skin disorders. Further investigation into the technology and diverse array of cutaneous conditions that can benefit from FP is highly needed. [source]

    Eyelid Tightening and Improved Eyelid Aperture through Nonablative Fractional Resurfacing

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The effects of fractional resurfacing on eyelid tightening and aperture are unknown. Our purpose was to retrospectively examine the potential for eyelid tightening and eye-aperture opening in patients treated with nonablative fractional resurfacing for facial photorejuvenation. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Fractional laser treatments using a 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser system on the upper and lower eyelids were given at a pulse energy of 17 to 20 mJ at 125 micro-thermal zones (MTZ)/cm2 to a final density of 500 to 750 MTZ/cm2. Each patient had 3 to 7 treatments. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken at each visit. Physicians who graded 31 preselected patient photographs using a 4-point scale evaluated eyelid tightening. Increase in eyelid aperture was also evaluated. RESULTS All patients had some degree of eyelid tightening; 19% achieved 1% to 25% tightening, 26% achieved 25% to 50%, 26% achieved 50% to 75%, and 29% achieved 75% to 100%. Increase in eyelid aperture was seen in 55.9% of patients. Postoperative wounding, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, persistent erythema, and scarring were not observed. All patients experienced mild or no edema for a few days after treatment. CONCLUSION Fractional resurfacing tightens and increases eyelid aperture without wounding, downtime, or long-term complications. [source]

    Histological and Clinical Findings in Different Surgical Strategies for Focal Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    INTRODUCTION Although a variety of different surgical strategies for focal axillary hyperhidrosis (FAH) have proven effective, little is known of intraoperative and postoperative histologies of different surgical methods. OBJECTIVE The objective was to use pre-, intra-, and postoperative histologic findings to evaluate different surgical procedures for FAH in establishing a possible correlation between the interventions and clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 patients underwent surgery with 15 undergoing liposuction-curettage (LC), 14 radical skin excision (RSE) with Y-plasty closure, and 11 a skin-sparing technique (SST). Before surgery, density and ratio of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands were evaluated with routine histology. Further biopsies were taken directly after surgery in the RSE and SST groups and 1 year postoperatively in all patients. Additionally, gravimetry was performed, side effects were documented, and patients were asked to evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the surgical method by using an analogue scale. RESULTS Preoperatively, the mean density of eccrine glands was 11.1/cm2 compared to 16.9/cm2 apocrine glands (apocrine/eccrine ratio, 1.6). Biopsy specimen directly after surgery showed remaining sweat glands in 7/15 (46.7%) LC patients and in 4/11 (36.4%) of the SST patients. One year after surgery, sweat gland density was significantly reduced in the LC (79.1%) and the SST (74.9%) groups. In the RSE group, only scar formation was present. Gravimetry showed significantly reduced sweat rates 12 months after surgery in all groups (LC, 66.4%; SST, 62.9%; RSE, 65.3% [p<.05]). Most frequent side effects were hematoma (LC, n=3; SST, n=2; RSE, n=3), subcutaneous fibrotic bridles (LC, n=8; SST, n=3; RSE, n=0), skin erosion (LC, n=3; SST, n=4; RSE, n=0), focal hair loss (LC, n=9; SST, n=11; RSE, n=14), and paresthesia (LC, n=4; SST, n=3; RSE, n=5). CONCLUSION Histologic distribution and density of sweat glands were comparable to previous studies. All three surgical procedures evaluated are effective in the treatment of FAH. RSE and SST techniques are associated with a higher risk of side effects and cause more extensive scarring. However, one LC patient (n=1; 6.7%) did not respond to treatment. [source]

    Minimally Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser Resurfacing of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars in Asian Skin: A Pilot Study

    BACKGROUND Atrophic scars are dermal depressions caused by collagen damage most commonly occurring after inflammatory acne vulgaris. There are little published data regarding the effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive lasers in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in darker skin types. OBJECTIVE The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-fluence 2,940-nm erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in Asian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine patients aged 19 to 45 years with mild to moderate atrophic facial scars and Skin Types IV and V were treated with topical anesthesia and one to two passes with an erbium:YAG laser two times at 1-month intervals. Treatment parameters were 6-mm spot size, fluence of 400 mJ, pulse duration of 300 ,s, and repetition rate of 2 Hz. RESULTS At 2 months after the last treatment, mild to moderate clinical improvement was noted in all patients compared to baseline. Treatment was well tolerated. Side effects consisted of posttreatment erythema, peeling, and crusting, which resolved within 1 to 2 weeks. There was no postinflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, blistering, or hypertrophic scarring. CONCLUSION Low-fluence erbium:YAG facial resurfacing was effective and safe in patients with mild to moderately severe atrophic acne scarring. [source]

    Fractional Photothermolysis for Photoaging of Hands

    BACKGROUND Laser treatment for photoaging of the hands should ideally address pigmentary alteration as well as associated skin roughness and wrinkling. Fractional resurfacing has been previously shown to effectively treat facial rhytids and dyschromia. OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of fractional resurfacing for photoaging of the hands. METHODS AND MATERIALS Ten patients (skin phototypes II to IV) with hand photodamage were randomized to receive five treatments with a 1,550-nm diode-pumped erbium fiber laser (Fraxel SR, Reliant Technologies) laser on either the right or left hand. Treatments were performed at settings of 8 to 9 mJ/microscopic treatment zone and density of 2,500 microscopic treatment zones/cm2. Subjective assessments by the patients and investigator were performed for skin roughness, wrinkling, and pigmentation using a 5-point scale. Skin biopsies were taken at baseline and at 1 and 3 months. RESULTS Patient subjective assessment and physician clinical assessment at 1 and 3 months revealed a mean 51% to 75% improvement in skin pigmentation and 25% to 50% improvement in skin roughness and wrinkling. Biopsies of the skin showed increased density of dermal collagen. Patients experienced transient erythema and edema and none had scarring or other adverse effects. LIMITATIONS This was a small study. CONCLUSION Fractional resurfacing appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for correcting both the pigmentary and the textural aspects of photoaging of the hand. [source]

    Histologic Study of Depressed Acne Scars Treated with Serial High-Concentration (95%) Trichloroacetic Acid

    BACKGROUND Acne scarring is a common manifestation that remains a therapeutic challenge to dermatologists, dermatologic surgeons, and plastic surgeons. Although multiple therapeutic modalities exist, treatment often remains inadequate. The use of high-concentration (95%) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied focally to atrophic acne scars has been described. OBJECTIVE The current study confirms the utility of focal application of 95% TCA to acne scars in addition to a histologic examination of this technique. METHODS Acne scars in three patients were treated with focal 95% TCA by serial application. Wooden applicators were used to apply TCA focally and repeated at 6-week intervals for a total of six treatments. Punch biopsies were performed at baseline and at 1 year postoperatively. Histologic examination was performed with routine hematoxylin/eosin, Masson trichrome, and Verhoeff-van Gieson staining. RESULTS Clinical examination revealed apparent cosmetic improvement in both depth and appearance of acne scars. Patient satisfaction was high. Histologic examination demonstrated a decrease in the depth of acne scars. In addition, increased collagen fibers and fragmentation of elastic fibers were noted. There were no complications from the procedure. CONCLUSION Focal application of high-concentration TCA to atrophic and "ice-pick" acne scars appears to produce clinical improvement. Histologic changes of this technique are described. [source]

    Nonablative Acne Scar Reduction after a Series of Treatments with a Short-Pulsed 1,064-nm Neodymium:YAG Laser

    BACKGROUND Effective treatment of facial acne scarring presents a major challenge. Nonablative lasers and radiofrequency devices work by thermally stimulating dermal collagen remodeling, thereby softening acne scars in a minimally invasive fashion. One such laser, a 1,064-nm short-pulsed Nd:YAG, uses rapidly scanned low-energy infrared pulses to heat the dermis selectively through the normal dermal microvasculature. OBJECTIVE In this pilot study, the safety and efficacy of a novel short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser were investigated for the treatment of moderate to severe facial acne scarring. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine of 10 enrolled patients with moderate to severe facial acne scarring received eight sequential 1,064-nm Nd:YAG treatments (laser parameters 14 J/cm2, 0.3 milliseconds, 5-mm spot size, 7-Hz pulse rate, 2,000 pulses per side of face). Patients were graded for the presence and severity of three scar morphologies: superficial (rolling), medium-depth (boxcar), and deep (ice pick). Outcome measures included blinded evaluation of before and after photographs by three physician observers (scar severity score) and patient self-assessment. RESULTS Acne scarring improved in 100% of the nine patients completing the study. Scar severity scores improved by a mean of 29.36% (95% confidence interval, 16.93%,41.79%; p=.006); 89% of patients noted greater than 10% scar improvement. No treatment-related adverse events were seen. CONCLUSION Our findings support the use of a short-pulsed, low-fluence 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser as a safe, effective treatment for facial acne scarring. Scar improvement was noted in all treated subjects with minimal discomfort and no downtime. This protocol appears to be most effective at reducing scar depth and softening scar contours. [source]

    Patient Satisfaction and Reported Long-Term Therapeutic Efficacy Associated with 1,320 nm Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Acne Scarring and Photoaging

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Nonablative laser treatments have become increasingly used for the treatment of acne scarring and photoaging. While nonablative laser treatments are more convenient and relatively safer than ablative laser resurfacing, efficacy and patient satisfaction with the level of improvement of textural abnormalities in acne scarring and rhytids associated with photoaging needs further study. DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Structured interviews were performed with 34 patients from a referral-based academic practice who each previously received a series of 6 monthly treatments with a 1,320 nm neodymium:yttrium,aluminum,garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for treatment of acne scarring or photoaging. Topical anesthesia was applied 1 hour before each treatment. Patients were interviewed at least 3 months after cessation of treatment (range 3,12 months). RESULTS Patients tolerated the treatments well. Combined results for acne scarring and photoaging patients were as follows: (a) patient satisfaction with treatment was rated at 62%, and (b) textural improvement was reported at 31% at the end of the six treatments, and 30% at the date of interview. When results were stratified by diagnosis, patient satisfaction was slightly higher for treatment of acne scarring than for photoaging. Overall degree of improvement on a 1,10 scale was 5.4 for acne scarring and 3.8 for wrinkling. CONCLUSION Nonablative treatment with the 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser induced significant patient-reported improvement in both acne scarring and photoaging. The majority of patients reported satisfaction with the degree of improvement. [source]

    Intraoral Extraction of Cheek Skin Cyst

    Richard Bennett MD
    Background. When a physician encounters a benign subcutaneous cyst in the cheek, his or her decision whether to excise and how to excise the cyst takes into account the potential risk of postsurgical scarring. Objective. To describe and show an intraoral buccal mucosal approach to excising a cyst in the inferior-anterior cheek so that skin scarring is avoided. Method. An incision was made intraorally in the buccal mucosa, and dissection was carried through the buccinator muscle until the cyst wall was seen. Careful separation of tissue around the cyst was done by blunt dissection, and the unruptured cyst was removed through the buccal mucosal incision. Result. The entire intact cyst was removed without creating any excision marks in the cheek skin. No complications were encountered, and buccal mucosal healing was excellent. Conclusion. A buccal mucosal intraoral approach is an alternative to a percutaneous excision to remove a cyst in the lower cheek region. The intraoral approach avoids a visible scar on the cheek skin. RICHARD BENNETT, MD, MUBA TAHER, MD, AND JUSTINE YUN, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Clear Cell Acanthoma Successfully Treated with a Carbon Dioxide Laser

    Ching-Chi Chi MD
    Background. The treatment of choice for clear cell acanthoma (CCA) is excision. Resolution after cryotherapy has also been reported but requires three to four courses of treatment. Objective. To demonstrate three CCA lesions in two patients successfully treated with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Methods. Under local anesthesia, these lesions were vaporized by using a CO2 laser in the Silktouch mode with a spot size of 5 mm and a fluence of 20 J/cm2. Two to six passes, as needed, were delivered until the tumor was completely removed. Results. Pain was minimal or nonexistent during and after the operation. No postoperative edema was noted. The wounds healed satisfactorily without scarring. No sign of recurrence was found following operation. Conclusion. The CO2 laser has the advantages of requiring only one course, precise tumor removal, a relatively bloodless surgical field, a short operation time, and less or no postoperative pain and edema. Postoperative wound care is convenient and easy with hydrocolloid and alginate dressings. The patient's quality of life is less adversely affected. The CO2 laser may be appropriate for multiple CCAs, giant CCA, CCA overlying or near joints, CCA refractory to cryotherapy, patients on anticoagulants, and those who cannot tolerate pain from cryotherapy, especially children and the elderly. [source]

    Short-Term Side Effects of Fractional Photothermolysis

    Galen H. Fisher MD
    Objective:. To ascertain the immediate and short-term side effects of fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of a variety of skin disorders involving the face, neck, chest, and hands. Methods. Physician-administered questionnaires were given during 60 follow-up visits for fractional photothermolysis treatment for a variety of facial skin disorders in patients with skin types ranging from I to IV. The questionnaire addressed 14 possible side effects, pain, and limitation of social activities. In addition, all patients were asked about any additional side effects not mentioned in the survey. An analysis of the data was performed once 60 surveys had been collected. Results. All patients (100%) undergoing fractional photothermolysis had transient post-treatment erythema. Other frequently reported post-treatment side effects were transient and included facial edema (82%), dry skin (86.6%), flaking (60%), a few (one to three) small, superficial scratches (46.6%), pruritis (37%), and bronzing (26.6%). Other more rarely reported effects included transient increased sensitivity (10%) and acneiform eruption (10%). Most patients reported that the pain level was easily tolerated, with an average pain score of 4.6 on a scale of 10. Most patients (72%) reported limiting social engagements for an average of 2 days after treatment. There were no long-lasting adverse events noted in our survey. Conclusion. Fractional photothermolysis to treat dermatologic conditions on the face, neck, chest, and hands is a well-tolerated and safe procedure with several immediate, and slightly delayed, post-treatment side effects. In our experience, these side effects were transient and limited to erythema, edema, dry skin, flaking skin, superficial scratches, pruritis, increased sensitivity, and acneiform eruption. Importantly, we did not see the development of post-treatment scarring, herpetic activation, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, persistent erythema, persistent edema, or infection. [source]

    Minocycline-Induced Hyperpigmentation Treated with a 755-nm Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser

    Tina S. Alster MD
    Background. Cutaneous pigmentation associated with minocycline therapy is an unusual adverse effect for which few successful treatments have been described. The pigment changes may persist for years, despite cessation of therapy, and is often cosmetically disfiguring, causing significant embarrassment and psychological depression in those affected. Few safe and effective treatments have been described in the past; however, recent pigment-specific laser technology has shown promise in the treatment of this condition. Objective. The objective was to describe a series of patients with minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation who were successfully treated with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser. Methods. Six patients with minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation on the face or legs were treated with a Q-switched alexandrite laser on a bimonthly basis until pigmentation was eradicated. Results. Cutaneous pigmentation resolved completely in all patients in an average of four laser sessions. Side effects were limited to transient purpura and mild desquamation without scarring or dyspigmentation. Conclusion. Minocycline-induced cutaneous pigmentation can be effectively cleared without risk of adverse sequelae by Q-switched alexandrite (755-nm) laser irradiation. [source]

    Improvement of Dermatochalasis and Periorbital Rhytides With a High-Energy Pulsed CO2 Laser: A Retrospective Study

    Tina S. Alster MD
    Background. Upper eyelid dermatochalasis is typically treated with excisional blepharoplasty. The role of the CO2 laser previously had been confined to that of a vaporizing, incisional, or hemostatic tool. Over the past several years, however, ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing has been popularized as an adjunctive treatment to blepharoplasty to minimize periorbital rhytides through its vaporizing as well as skin-tightening action. Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-energy pulsed CO2 laser as a stand-alone treatment for dermatochalasis and periorbital rhytides. Methods. Sixty-seven patients (skin phototypes I,IV) with mild-to-severe upper eyelid dermatochalasis and periorbital rhytides received periocular CO2 laser skin treatment. Global assessment scores of dermatochalasis and rhytides were determined by a side-by-side comparison of periocular photographs preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, caliper measurements of upper eyelids before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment were obtained. Results. Both dermatochalasis and periorbital rhytides were significantly improved after periocular CO2 laser skin resurfacing. Patients with more severe dermatochalasis and rhytides showed greater improvement after CO2 laser treatment than did those with mild or moderate involvement. Side effects were limited to erythema and transient hyperpigmentation. No scarring, hypopigmentation, or ectropion were observed. Conclusions. Periocular skin resurfacing with a CO2 laser can safely and effectively improve upper eyelid dermatochalasis and periorbital rhytides. [source]

    CO2 Laser Treatment of Epidermal Nevi: Long-Term Success

    Sarah Boyce MD
    background. Epidermal nevi have been notoriously difficult to treat due to their large size and often conspicuous location. Variable results have been obtained with different laser treatments, and scarring and/or incomplete removal is typical after excisional or other destructive modalities. objective. To outline the successful use of a short-pulsed CO2 laser in the long-term eradication of epidermal nevi in three patients. methods. Three females (ages 15,19) presented with extensive grouped verrucous papules and plaques on the face, trunk, and extremities. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to vaporize the lesions using a 500 mJ pulse energy, 3 mm spotsize, and 7 watts of power. results. All lesions healed without incident. No lesional recurrence was observed 10 to 13 months after treatment except in one small area on the ankle in one patient. conclusions. Carbon dioxide laser vaporization of epidermal nevi provides good clinical effect and offers unique advantages for the treatment of these lesions, including effective intraoperative hemostasis with excellent lesional visualization. It is also possible to treat widespread areas in one laser treatment session. While the results of this series clearly show the benefit of CO2 laser treatment, epidermal nevi may not always respond so favorably, due in part to the variability in their depths of involvement. [source]

    Treatment of Port-Wine Stain Birthmarks Using the 1.5-msec Pulsed Dye Laser at High Fluences in Conjunction with Cryogen Spray Cooling

    Kristen M. Kelly MD
    Background. The majority of port-wine stain (PWS) patients treated with the pulsed dye laser (PDL) do not achieve complete blanching. Safe administration of higher fluences has been proposed as a means of improving treatment efficacy. Objective. To determine the safety and efficacy of PWS treatment with the 1.5-msec PDL at high fluences in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. Methods. Twenty PWS patients were treated with the PDL in combination with cryogen spray cooling utilizing a 7 or 10 mm spot size and fluences ranging from 6 to 15 J/cm2. Before and after treatment photographs were compared on a blinded basis. Results. No scarring or skin textural changes occurred. Blanching scores were as follows: 20% of patients achieved 75% or greater blanching after an average of 3.3 treatments, 30% achieved 50,74% blanching, 20% achieved 25,49% blanching, and 30% achieved less than 25% blanching. Conclusion. In conjunction with cryogen spray cooling, the PDL can be safely used at high fluences. At this time it is not clear that the use of higher fluences improves treatment efficacy; however, as other aspects of PWS laser treatment are optimized, safe administration of higher fluences is likely to be advantageous. [source]

    3D In-Vivo Optical Skin Imaging for Topographical Quantitative Assessment of Non-Ablative Laser Technology

    Paul M. Friedman MD
    background. A new method for treating facial rhytides and acne scars with nonablative laser and light source techniques has recently been introduced. Given the inherent limitations of photographic and clinical evaluation to assess subtle changes in rhytides and surface topography, a new noninvasive objective assessment is required to accurately assess the outcomes of these procedures. objective. The purpose of this study was to measure and objectively quantify facial skin using a novel, noninvasive, In-vivo method for assessing three-dimensional topography. This device was used to quantify the efficacy of five treatment sessions with the 1064 nm QS Nd:YAG laser for rhytides and acne scarring, for up to six months following laser treatment. methods. Two subjects undergoing facial rejuvenation procedures were analyzed before and after therapy using a 30-mm, three-dimensional microtopography imaging system (PRIMOS, GFM, Teltow, Germany). The imaging system projects light on to a specific surface of the skin using a Digital Micromirror Device (DMDÔ Texas Instruments, Irving, TX) and records the image with a CCD camera. Skin Surface microtopography is reconstructed using temporal phase shift algorithms to generate three-dimensional images. Measurements were taken at baseline, at various times during the treatment protocol, and then at three and six-month follow-up visits. Silicone skin replicas (FLEXICO, Herts, England) were also made before and after the laser treatment protocol for comparison to In-vivo acquisition. results. Skin roughness decreased by 11% from baseline after three treatment sessions in the wrinkles subject, while a 26% improvement of skin roughness was recorded by 3D In-vivo assessment six months following the fifth treatment session. The subject with acne scarring demonstrated a 33% decrease in roughness analysis after three treatment sessions by 3D In-vivo assessment. A 61% improvement in surface topography was recorded 3-months following the fifth treatment session, which was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. conclusion. Three-dimensional In-vivo optical skin imaging provided a rapid and quantitative assessment of surface topography and facial fine lines following multiple treatment sessions with a 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser, correlating with clinical and subjective responses. This imaging technique provided objective verification and technical understanding of nonablative laser technology. Wrinkle depth and skin roughness decreased at the three and six-month follow-up evaluations by 3D In-vivo assessment, indicating ongoing dermal collagen remodeling after the laser treatment protocol. Future applications may include comparison of nonablative laser technology, optimization of treatment regimens, and objective evaluation of other aesthetic procedures performed by dermatologists. [source]

    Laser Hair Removal: Long-Term Results with a 755 nm Alexandrite Laser

    Sorin Eremia MD
    Background. Hypertrichosis is a common problem for which laser hair removal is becoming the treatment of choice. Optimal wavelength, pulse duration, spot size, fluence, and skin cooling parameters for various skin types have not yet been firmly established. Objective. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a 3-msec 755 nm alexandrite laser equipped with a cryogen cooling device for patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I,V. Methods. Eighty-nine untanned patients with skin types I,V underwent a total of 492 treatments of laser hair removal over a 15-month period. Each patient in the study underwent a minimum of three treatment sessions spaced 4,6 weeks apart (mean treatments 5.6). Retrospective chart review and patient interviews were used to establish hair reduction results. Treatment sites included the axillae, bikini, extremities, face, and trunk. A 3-msec pulse width, 755 nm alexandrite laser equipped with a cryogen spray cooling device was used in this study. Spot sizes of 10,15 mm were used. A spot size of 10 mm was used for fluences greater than 40 J/cm2, a spot size of 12 mm was used for fluences of 35,40 J/cm2, and spot sizes of 12 and 15 mm were used for fluences less than 30 J/cm2. Fluences ranging from 20 to 50 J/cm2 (mean fluence 36 J/cm2) were used. Results. The patients had a mean 74% hair reduction. Skin type I patients had an average of 78.5% hair reduction using a mean fluence of 40 J/cm2 (35,50 J/cm2) and a 10,12 mm spot size (12 mm in more than 95% of treatments). Skin type II patients had a mean 74.3% hair reduction using a mean fluence of 38 J/cm2 (30,40 J/cm2) and a 12,15 mm spot size. Skin type III patients had a mean 73.4% hair reduction using a mean fluence of 37 J/cm2 (25,40 J/cm2) and a 12,15 mm spot size. Skin type IV patients had a mean 71.0% hair reduction using a mean fluence of 31 J/cm2 (25,35 J/cm2) and a 12,15 mm spot size. A patient with skin type V had a 60% hair reduction using a mean fluence of 23 J/cm2 (20,25 J/cm2) and a 12,15 mm spot size. The efficiency of hair removal directly correlates significantly with the fluence used. Rare side effects included transient postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (n = 9; 10%), burn with blisters (n = 1; 1%), and postinflammatory hypopigmentation (n = 2; 2%). All complications resolved without permanent scarring. Conclusion. The 3-msec cryogen cooling-equipped alexandrite laser can safely and effectively achieve long-term hair removal in patients with skin types I,V. The best results are achieved in untanned patients with skin types I,IV. [source]

    Hair Removal Using a Long-Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser: Comparison at Fluences of 50, 80, and 100 J/cm2

    David J. Goldberg MD
    Background. Unwanted hair is a widespread cosmetic problem. Many temporary methods of hair removal have proved unsatisfactory. A variety of laser systems with varying wavelengths, pulse durations, and energy fluences are currently utilized for hair removal. Optimal laser parameters continue to require further investigation. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse millisecond Nd:YAG hair removal laser utilizing fluences of either 50, 80, or 100 J/cm2. Methods. Fifteen subjects were treated with a contact cooled 50 msec Nd:YAG laser at fluences 30, 50, or 100 J/cm2. Reduction in hair regrowth was measured at 3 months after treatment by comparing the terminal hair count to the baseline values. Potential complications were also evaluated. Results. Average hair reduction at 3 months after treatment was 29%, 29%, and 27% in areas treated with a 50-msec Nd:YAG laser at fluences of 50, 80, and 100 J/cm2, respectively. Although short-term blistering was noted in two subjects, no hyperpimentation, hypopigmentation, or scarring was observed at 3 months after treatment. Conclusion. Long-pulse millisecond Nd:YAG laser hair removal with fluences of either 50, 80, or 100 J/cm2 leads to similar efficacy with no significant adverse effects. [source]

    Resurfacing of Pitted Facial Acne Scars with a Long-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser

    Jeung-Tae Jeong MD
    Background. Conventional short-pulsed Er:YAG lasers show less effective hemostasis and weak photothermal damage on papillary dermis. Recently, newer long-pulsed Er:YAG laser systems has been developed. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of long-pulsed Er:YAG laser resurfacing for pitted facial acne scars. Methods. Thirty-five patients with pitted facial acne scars were treated with a long-pulsed Er:YAG laser. All patients had Fitzpatrick skin phototypes III,V. A pulsed Er:YAG laser with a 5 mm handpiece at a setting of 7.0,7.5 J/cm2 with a 10-msec pulse duration was used. The laser was fired at 5 Hz, with four to five passes. In 28 patients, the results of laser treatment were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement, duration of erythema, pigmentary change, and any adverse events at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months. In seven patients, skin biopsy specimens were obtained at the following intervals: immediately, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic examination. Results. The results of long-pulsed Er:YAG laser resurfacing for pitted facial acne scars were excellent in 10 patients (36%), good in 16 patients (57%), and fair in 2 patients (7%). Erythema occurred in all patients after laser treatment and lasted longer than 3 months in 15 patients (54%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in 8 patients (29%). But the pigmentation faded or disappeared within 3 months. One patient (4%) experienced mild hypopigmentation. Pruritic symptoms that required medical intervention occurred in 16 patients (57%). Mild to moderate postoperative acne flare-up occurred in 8 patients (29%). No other adverse effects such as scarring, bacterial infection, or contact dermatitis were observed. Conclusion. In conclusion, resurfacing with a long-pulsed Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for pitted facial acne scars. [source]