Safety Guidelines (safety + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Improved integration of LOPA with HAZOP analyses,

Dick Baum
Abstract Integrating Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) with Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) has many advantages over performing these studies separately. The merits include: fewer actions from the combined effort compared to performing only a HAZOP; team continuity resulting from the combined effort as opposed to two separate teams having possibly differing points of view; and, ultimately, a time and cost savings realized by the combination. This integration defines the risk associated with a given scenario, enabling better decisions that impact business assurance. By using the Center for Chemical Process Safety guidelines to define the independent protection layers upfront, the gray areas can often be reduced or eliminated; thereby enabling a more thorough LOPA. Examples include taking credit if a unit has two independent operators (outside and inside) responding to critical alarms, or taking credit for centralized control rooms that may allow immediate operator interaction and response. This article shows how the guidelines have been used successfully in joint HAZOP/LOPA studies, and describes an initial preparation protocol that can ensure high-quality results. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2009 [source]

Effect of Storage Temperature and Duration on the Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Packaged Fresh-Cut Salad Containing Romaine and Iceberg Lettuce

Yaguang Luo
Abstract:, This study investigated the impact of storage temperature and duration on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on commercially packaged lettuce salads, and on product quality. Fresh-cut Romaine and Iceberg lettuce salads of different commercial brands were obtained from both retail and wholesale stores. The packages were cut open at one end, the lettuce salad inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 via a fine mist spray, and resealed with or without an initial N2 flush to match the original package atmospheric levels. The products were stored at 5 and 12 °C until their labeled "Best If Used By" dates, and the microbial counts and product quality were monitored periodically. The results indicate that storage at 5 °C allowed E. coli O157:H7 to survive, but limited its growth, whereas storage at 12 °C facilitated the proliferation of E. coli O157:H7. There was more than 2.0 log CFU/g increase in E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce when held at 12 °C for 3 d, followed by additional growth during the remainder of the storage period. Although there was eventually a significant decline in visual quality of lettuce held at 12 °C, the quality of this lettuce was still fully acceptable when E. coli O157:H7 growth reached a statistically significant level. Therefore, maintaining fresh-cut products at 5 °C or below is critical for reducing the food safety risks as E. coli O157:H7 grows at a rapid, temperature-dependent rate prior to significant quality deterioration. Practical Application:, Specific information regarding the effect of temperature on pathogen growth on leafy greens is needed to develop science-based food safety guidelines and practices by the regulatory agencies and produce industry. Temperature control is commonly thought to promote quality of leafy greens, not safety, based at least partially on a theory that product quality deterioration precedes pathogen growth at elevated temperatures. This prevalent attitude results in temperature abuse incidents being frequently overlooked in the supply chain. This study demonstrates that human pathogens, such as E. coli O157:H7, can grow significantly on commercially packaged lettuce salads while the product's visual quality is fully acceptable. Packaged fresh-cut salads are marketed as "ready-to-eat" while lacking an effective pathogen kill step during their preparation. Thus, maintaining storage temperature at 5 °C or below is critical to prevent pathogen proliferation and mitigate food safety risks should pathogen contamination inadvertently occur during crop growth or postharvest fresh-cut processing. [source]

Neurostimulation systems for deep brain stimulation: In vitro evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging,related heating at 1.5 tesla

Ali R. Rezai MD
Abstract Purpose To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-related heating for a neurostimulation system (Activaź Tremor Control System, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) used for chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Materials and Methods Different configurations were evaluated for bilateral neurostimulators (Soletraź Model 7426), extensions, and leads to assess worst-case and clinically relevant positioning scenarios. In vitro testing was performed using a 1.5-T/64-MHz MR system and a gel-filled phantom designed to approximate the head and upper torso of a human subject. MRI was conducted using the transmit/receive body and transmit/receive head radio frequency (RF) coils. Various levels of RF energy were applied with the transmit/receive body (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR); range, 0.98,3.90 W/kg) and transmit/receive head (whole-body averaged SAR; range, 0.07,0.24 W/kg) coils. A fluoroptic thermometry system was used to record temperatures at multiple locations before (1 minute) and during (15 minutes) MRI. Results Using the body RF coil, the highest temperature changes ranged from 2.5°,25.3° C. Using the head RF coil, the highest temperature changes ranged from 2.3°,7.1° C.Thus, these findings indicated that substantial heating occurs under certain conditions, while others produce relatively minor, physiologically inconsequential temperature increases. Conclusion The temperature increases were dependent on the type of RF coil, level of SAR used, and how the lead wires were positioned. Notably, the use of clinically relevant positioning techniques for the neurostimulation system and low SARs commonly used for imaging the brain generated little heating. Based on this information, MR safety guidelines are provided. These observations are restricted to the tested neurostimulation system. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2002;15:241,250. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Static Magnetic Fields Affect Capillary Flow of Red Blood Cells in Striated Skin Muscle

Gunnar Brix
ABSTRACT Blood flowing in microvessels is one possible site of action of static magnetic fields (SMFs). We evaluated SMF effects on capillary flow of red blood cells (RBCs) in unanesthetized hamsters, using a skinfold chamber technique for intravital fluorescence microscopy. By this approach, capillary RBC velocities (vRBC), capillary diameters (D), arteriolar diameters (Dart), and functional vessel densities (FVD) were measured in striated skin muscle at different magnetic flux densities. Exposure above a threshold level of about 500 mT resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of vRBC in capillaries as compared to the baseline value. At the maximum field strength of 587 mT, vRBC was reduced by more than 40%. Flow reduction was reversible when the field strength was decreased below the threshold level. In contrast, mean values determined at different exposure levels for the parameters D, Dart, and FVD did not vary by more than 5%. Blood flow through capillary networks is affected by strong SMFs directed perpendicular to the vessels. Since the influence of SMFs on blood flow in microvessels directed parallel to the field as well as on collateral blood supply could not be studied, our findings should be carefully interpreted with respect to the setting of safety guidelines. [source]

Radiation exposure to anaesthetists during interventional radiology,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2010
S. Ismail
Summary This prospective study determined the level of radiation exposure of anaesthetists during interventional radiological procedures performed in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suite and cardiac catheterisation laboratory and compared it with the current safety guidelines. Anaesthetists wore area-specific lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeter badges at standardised positions. A total of 1344 procedures were performed over a 6-month period. Anaesthetists were involved in 39/645 (6.0%) procedures associated with ionisation radiation in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography suite and 86/699 (12.3%) in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory. The mean (SD) duration of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was 54.8 (29.1) min compared with 67.9 (42.8) min for cardiac catheterisation suite procedures (p = 0.058). The mean (SD) fluoroscopy time per procedure for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was 5.5 (4.1) min compared with 12 (10.9) min in the cardiac catheterisation suite (p < 0.001). The combined net radiation exposure over 6 months was 0.28 mSv for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures and 2.32 mSv in the cardiac catheterisation suite. The combined exposure was less than the maximum recommended exposure of 20 mSv per year. [source]