Sandstones

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Sandstones

  • gas sandstone
  • old red sandstone
  • red sandstone
  • tight gas sandstone

  • Terms modified by Sandstones

  • sandstone body
  • sandstone formation
  • sandstone reservoir

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON HABITAT OF THE SARIR SANDSTONE, SE SIRT BASIN, LIBYA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    G. Ambrose
    The Jurassic , Lower Cretaceous Sarir Sandstone Cformerly known as the Nubian Sandstone) in the SE Sirt Basin is composed of four members which can be correlated regionally using a lithostratigraphic framework. These synrift sandstones unconformably overlie a little known pre-rift succession, and are in turn unconformably overlain by post-rift marine shales of Late Cretaceous age. Within the Sarir Sandstone are two sandstone-dominated members, each reflecting a rapid drop in base level, which are important oil reservoirs in the study area. Between these sandstones are thick shales of continental origin which define the architecture of the reservoir units. This four-fold lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Sarir Sandstone contrasts with previous schemes which generally only recognised three members. The sandstones below the top-Sarir unconformity host in excess of 20 billion barrels of oil in-place. The dominant traps are structural (e.g. Sarir C field), stratigraphic (e.g. Messla field), hanging-wall fault plays (e.g. UU1,65 field) and horst-block plays (e.g. Calanscio field). Three Sarir petroleum systems are recognised in the SE Sirt Basin. The most significant relies on post-rift (Upper Cretaceous) shales, which act as both source and seal. The Variegated Shale Member of the Sarir Sandstone may also provide source and seal; while a third, conceptual petroleum system requires generation of non-marine oils from pre-rift (?Triassic) source rocks in the axis of the Sarir Trough. The intrabasinal Messla High forms a relatively rigid block at the intersection of two rift trends, around which stress vectors were deflected during deposition of the syn-rift Sarir Sandstone. Adjacent troughs accommodated thick, post-rift shale successions which comprise excellent source rocks. Palaeogene subsidence facilitated oil generation, and the Messla High was a focus for oil migration. Wrenching on master faults with associated shale smear has facilitated fault seal and the retention of hydrocarbons. In the Calanscio area, transpressional faulting has resulted in structural inversion with oil entrapment in "pop-up" horst blocks. Elsewhere, transtensional faulting has resulted in numerous fault-dependent traps which, in combination with stratigraphic and truncation plays, will provide the focus for future exploration. [source]


    AN INTEGRATED STUDY OF DIAGENESIS AND DEPOSITIONAL FACIES IN TIDAL SANDSTONES: HAWAZ FORMATION (MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN), MURZUQ BASIN, LIBYA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    A. Abouessa
    Studies of the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality in tidal sandstones can be of great importance in successful hydrocarbon exploration. The study reported here shows that diagenetic alterations and bioturbation have induced considerable deterioration and heterogeneity in the reservoir quality of the sand-dominated tidal deposits of the Middle Ordovician Hawaz Formation in the Muruq Basin, Libya. Comparison is made between the diagenetic evolution of samples from the subsurface (present-day depth 1500 m) and from surface outcrops in order to study the impact of burial and uplift on the spatial and temporal distribution of reservoir quality in the Hawaz Formation sandstones. Eogenetic alterations, which were mediated by meteoric water circulation, included kaolinitization and dissolution of framework silicates and mechanical compaction. Mesogenetic alterations (T > 70C; depth > 2 km) included pressure dissolution of quartz grains and concomitant quartz cementation, conversion of kaolinite into dickite, illitization of kaolinite and of grain-coating clays, and the precipitation of Mg-rich siderite cement. Reduction of intergranular porosity was due more to compaction than to cementation, yet quartz overgrowths are up to 16% in some of the sandstones. Bioturbation has resulted in a greater reduction in sandstone permeability in the lower part of the formation than the upper part. A higher ratio of dickite to kaolinite in subsurface samples than in outcrop samples is attributed to the longer residence time of the former sandstones under mesogenetic conditions. Telodiagenesis has not resulted in enhancement of reservoir quality of the Hawaz Formation Sandstones but in pseudomorphic calcitization of siderite and oxidation of pyrite to goethite. This study shows that the reservoir-quality evolution of tidal sandstones can best be elucidated when linked to depositional facies and distribution of diagenetic alterations. [source]


    OBTAINING FRACTURE INFORMATION FOR LOW-PERMEABILITY (TIGHT) GAS SANDSTONES FROM SIDEWALL CORES

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    S. E. Laubach
    We illustrate a fracture characterization technique applicable to all tight gas sandstones. The technique uses microfractures and cements in the rock mass identified using SEM-based cathodoluminescence imaging to provide information on unsampled large fractures, including strike and cross-cutting relationships, intensity, and likelihood of preserved open fractures. We applied the technique in two tight gas sandstone wells in the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, USA. In one well, data was obtained entirely from drilled 1,inch diameter sidewall cores that were oriented using image logs and features visible in cores. We predicted fracture porosity preservation in large fractures using late cements in the rock mass as a proxy for fracture observation. Results from the technique are consistent with what is known of large fractures in this area. Where we predicted open, high intensity fractures, substantial gas flares were observed during drilling. By combining microstructural and diagenetic observations, it is possible to overcome the inadequate fracture sampling that plagues evaluation of natural fractures and that relies solely on observations of macroscopically visible fractures. [source]


    THE LACUSTRINE LIANGJIALOU FAN IN THE DONGYING DEPRESSION, EASTERN CHINA: DEEP-WATER RESERVOIR SANDSTONES IN A NON-MARINE RIFT BASIN

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Jin Qiang
    A lacustrine fan covering an area of about 175sq. km has been identified in the Liangjialou area in the SW of the Dongying Depression, a Tertiary non-marine rift basin in eastern China. Fluvial and deltaic sandstones are established reservoir rocks in the basin, and the deep-water sandstones of the fan succession, which are assigned to Member 3 of the lower Tertiary Shahejie Formation, are also thought to have important reservoir potential. Available data for this study included some 800m of core from 16 wells, well-log data from 426 wells, and 220 sq.km of 3D surveys together with well-test and other production data. From geomorphological reconstructions of the fan, we distinguish first-order (major) fan channels from second-order branched and more distal tip channels. Crevasse splays and overbank shales occur between channels, and sandstone lobes were deposited at channel mouths. Conglomeratic sandstones deposited in major channels are probably the most promising reservoir facies (average porosity c. 20%; average permeability > 1D). Fan construction took place during a single complete cycle of lake level variation which was composed of several sub-cycles. During initial highstand conditions, the fan was dominated by small-scale branched and tip channels and intervening sandy lobes. Fan size increased rapidly during the following lowstand, and then decreased during the ensuing highstand. [source]


    MIDDLE MIOCENE DASHAVA FORMATION SANDSTONES, CARPATHIAN FOREDEEP, UKRAINE

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    I. Kurovets
    Middle Miocene (Sarmatian) sandstones in the Ukrainian Carpathian Foredeep are important exploration targets for natural gas. In this paper, we report on petrophysical studies on core samples of these sandstones with which we integrate wireline log data from 42 boreholes. Sarmation siltstones and sandstones in the study area are assigned to the lower part of the Dashava Formation. Seventeen units (LD 17 to LD 1:0.05 to 5m thick) are recognized in this formation on the basis of lithostratigraphy and log response. Sandstone content is highest within three lithostratigraphic complexes corresponding to units LD17-LD14, LD9-LD8 and LD5-LD3. During the Sarmatian, the Carpathian Foredeep was characterized by two depositional systems: a basinal turbidite system, and a second, more mixed system. Important controls on sedimentation included basin configuration and water depth, the occurrence of turbidity and other currents, and the location of provenance areas. Clastic material was delivered to the basin by rivers and ephemeral streams mostly from the Carpathian foldbelt. The content of sandy material within the Sarmatian succession increases from NW to SE, and from the central portion of the Krukenychy depression to the margins of the basin. [source]


    Earliest fossil record of bacterial,cyanobacterial mat consortia: the early Silurian Passage Creek biota (440 Ma, Virginia, USA)

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    A. M. F. TOMESCU
    ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats are frequently associated with heterotrophic bacteria, and such associations are most often metabolically interactive. Functionally, the members of such bacterial,cyanobacterial consortia benefit from diverse metabolic capabilities of their associates, thus exceeding the sum of their parts. Such associations may have been just as ubiquitous in the past, but the fossil record has not produced any direct evidence for such associations to date. In this paper, we document fossil bacteria associated with a macrophytic cyanobacterial mat in the early Silurian (Llandovery) Massanutten Sandstone of Virginia, USA. Both the bacterial and the cyanobacterial cells are preserved by mineral replacement (pyrite subsequently replaced by iron oxyhydroxides) within an amorphous carbonaceous matrix which represents the common exopolysaccharide investment of the cyanobacterial colony. The bacteria are rod-shaped, over 370 nm long and 100 nm in diameter, and occur both as isolated cells and as short filaments. This occurrence represents the oldest fossil evidence for bacterial,cyanobacterial associations, documenting that such consortia were present 440 Ma ago, and revealing the potential for them to be recognized deeper in the fossil record. [source]


    An exhumed palaeo-hydrocarbon migration fairway in a faulted carrier system, Entrada Sandstone of SE Utah, USA

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2001
    I. R. Garden
    Abstract The Moab Anticline, east-central Utah, is an exhumed hydrocarbon palaeo-reservoir which was supplied by hydrocarbons that migrated from the Moab Fault up-dip towards the crest of the structure beneath the regional seal of the Tidwell mudstone. Iron oxide reduction in porous, high permeability aeolian sandstones records the secondary migration of hydrocarbons, filling of traps against small sealing faults and spill pathways through the Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone. Hydrocarbons entered the Entrada Sandstone carrier system from bends and other leak points on the Moab Fault producing discrete zones of reduction that extend for up to 400 m from these leak points. They then migrated in focused stringers, 2,5 m in height, to produce accumulations on the crest of the anticline. Normal faults on the anticline were transient permeability barriers to hydrocarbon migration producing a series of small compartmentalized accumulations. Exsolution of CO2 as local fault seals were breached resulted in calcite cementation on the up-dip side of faults. Field observations on the distribution of iron oxide reduction and calcite cements within the anticline indicate that the advancing reduction fronts were affected neither by individual slip bands in damage zones around faults nor by small faults with sand: sand juxtapositions. Faults with larger throws produced either sand: mudstone juxtapositions or sand: sand contacts and fault zones with shale smears. Shale-smeared fault zones provided seals to the reducing fluid which filled the structural traps to spill points. [source]


    Sedimentary and faunal events revealed by a revised correlation of post-glacial Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) strata in the Welsh Basin, UK

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Jeremy R. Davies
    Abstract The discovery of a previously unrecognized unconformity and of new faunas in the type Llandovery area underpins a revised correlation of Hirnantian strata in mid Wales. This has revealed the sedimentary and faunal events which affected the Lower Palaeozoic Welsh Basin during the global rise in sea level that followed the end-Ordovician glacial maximum and has allowed their interpretation in the context of local and global influences. In peri-basinal shelfal settings the onset of post-glacial deepening is recorded by an unfossiliferous, transgressive shoreface sequence (Cwm Clyd Sandstone and Garth House formations) which rests unconformably on Rawtheyan rocks, deformed during an episode of pre-Hirnantian tectonism. In the deep water facies of the basin centre, this same sequence boundary is now recognized as the contact between fine-grained, re-sedimented mudstones and an underlying regressive sequence of turbidite sandstones and conglomerates; it is at a level lower than previously cited and calls into question the established lithostratigraphy. In younger Hirnantian strata, graptolites associated with the newly recognized Ystradwalter Member (Chwefri Formation) demonstrate that this distal shelf unit correlates with the persculptus graptolite-bearing Mottled Mudstone Member of the basinal succession. Together these members record an important macrofaunal recolonization of the Welsh Basin and mark a key event in the post-glacial transgression. Further deepening saw the establishment of a stratified water column and the imposition of anoxic bottom water conditions across the basin floor. These post-glacial Hirnantian events are consistent with the re-establishment of connections between a silled Welsh Basin and the open Iapetus Ocean. However, a comparison with other areas suggests that each event records a separate deepening episode within a pulsed glacio-eustatic transgression, while also reflecting changes in post-glacial climate and patterns of oceanic circulation and associated biotic flux. British Geological Survey NERC 2009. All rights reserved. [source]


    Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    N. DS.
    Abstract The Blue Nile Basin, situated in the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, contains ,1400,m thick Mesozoic sedimentary section underlain by Neoproterozoic basement rocks and overlain by Early,Late Oligocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks. This study outlines the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin based on field and remote sensing studies along the Gorge of the Nile. The Blue Nile Basin has evolved in three main phases: (1) pre-sedimentation phase, include pre-rift peneplanation of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks, possibly during Palaeozoic time; (2) sedimentation phase from Triassic to Early Cretaceous, including: (a) Triassic,Early Jurassic fluvial sedimentation (Lower Sandstone, ,300,m thick); (b) Early Jurassic marine transgression (glauconitic sandy mudstone, ,30,m thick); (c) Early,Middle Jurassic deepening of the basin (Lower Limestone, ,450,m thick); (d) desiccation of the basin and deposition of Early,Middle Jurassic gypsum; (e) Middle,Late Jurassic marine transgression (Upper Limestone, ,400,m thick); (f) Late Jurassic,Early Cretaceous basin-uplift and marine regression (alluvial/fluvial Upper Sandstone, ,280,m thick); (3) the post-sedimentation phase, including Early,Late Oligocene eruption of 500,2000,m thick Lower volcanic rocks, related to the Afar Mantle Plume and emplacement of ,300,m thick Quaternary Upper volcanic rocks. The Mesozoic to Cenozoic units were deposited during extension attributed to Triassic,Cretaceous NE,SW-directed extension related to the Mesozoic rifting of Gondwana. The Blue Nile Basin was formed as a NW-trending rift, within which much of the Mesozoic clastic and marine sediments were deposited. This was followed by Late Miocene NW,SE-directed extension related to the Main Ethiopian Rift that formed NE-trending faults, affecting Lower volcanic rocks and the upper part of the Mesozoic section. The region was subsequently affected by Quaternary E,W and NNE,SSW-directed extensions related to oblique opening of the Main Ethiopian Rift and development of E-trending transverse faults, as well as NE,SW-directed extension in southern Afar (related to northeastward separation of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate) and E,W-directed extensions in western Afar (related to the stepping of the Red Sea axis into Afar). These Quaternary stress regimes resulted in the development of N-, ESE- and NW-trending extensional structures within the Blue Nile Basin. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Enigma variations: the stratigraphy, provenance, palaeoseismicity and depositional history of the Lower Old Red Sandstone Cosheston Group, south Pembrokeshire, Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2006
    Richard G. Thomas
    Abstract The Lower Devonian (Lochkovian-Emsian) Cosheston Group of south Pembrokeshire is one of the most enigmatic units of the Old Red Sandstone of Wales. It consists of a predominantly green, exceptionally thick succession (up to 1.8,km) within the red c. 3,km-thick fill of the Anglo-Welsh Basin, but occupies a very small area (27,km2). Four formations,Llanstadwell (LLF), Mill Bay (MBF), Lawrenny Cliff (LCF) and New Shipping (NSF),group into lower (LLF,+,MBF) and upper (LCF,+,NSF) units on stratigraphical and sedimentological criteria. Two palynostratigraphic associations (Hobbs Point and Burton Cliff) are recognised in the LLF. Overall, the Cosheston succession comprises a fluvial, coarsening-upward megasequence, mostly arranged in fining-upward rhythms. It is interpreted as the fill of an east-west graben bounded by faults to the north and south of the Benton and Ritec faults, respectively. Both ,lower Cosheston' formations were deposited by east-flowing, axial river systems draining a southern Irish Sea landmass. Drainage reversal, early in the deposition of the LCF, resulted in ,upper Cosheston' lateral, SW-flowing rivers which carried predominantly second- and multi-cycle detritus. The ,lower Cosheston' is characterized by an abundance of soft-sediment deformation structures, probably seismically triggered by movements along the graben's northern bounding fault. A minimum average (, mesoseismic) earthquake recurrence interval of c. 4000,yr is estimated for the MBF. This and the correlative Senni Formation of south-central Wales form a regionally extensive green-bed development that represents a pluvial climatic interval. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Sedimentation and tectonics: the marine Silurian,basal Lower Old Red Sandstone transition in southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Robert D. Hillier
    Abstract Both regional and localized tectonic events controlled deposition within the Wenlock and early Ludlow of SW Wales. Estuarine deposits within north,south-tending incised valleys dominate the youngest (Homerian) Gray Sandstone Group, valley incision being probably related to changing base-levels associated with Avalonia/Laurentian collision. Available accommodation space was outpaced by sediment supply, with the Red Cliff Formation (Late Ludfordian) defining a conformable transition from marine to Old Red Sandstone (ORS) deposition within the Marloes Peninsula. Sedimentation was dominated by fine-grained pedified siliciclastics, with subordinate fine-grained ephemeral sheet-flood sandstones. Local palaeocurrents indicate sediment transport from the south and west, though long-distance transport from a distant Laurentian provenance is assumed. A probable tectonically generated sequence boundary marks the base of petrographically distinctive, multi-storey pebbly sandstones of the Albion Sands Formation, deposited within the hangingwall valley of the active east,west-trending Wenall Fault. Sediment accommodation space was controlled by proximity to the tip-point of this important growth fault within the Lower ORS. Debris-flow-dominated fans, shed from both the hangingwall and footwall of the Wenall Fault, deposited the Lindsway Bay Formation, an exotic-clast conglomerate unit sourced predominantly from the south and west. It is uncertain as to whether movement along the Wenall Fault was caused by collision-related transtension, or rifting associated with the southern margin of Avalonia. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Variable alluvial sandstone architecture within the Lower Old Red Sandstone, southwest Wales

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2004
    Brian P. J. Williams
    Abstract Sandstone bodies within the Lower Old Red Sandstone (ORS) in southern Pembrokeshire exhibit variability in architecture, sediment grade and composition both spatially and temporally. Four architectural styles are observed, namely decimetre- to metre-thick sheets, metre-thick multi-storey amalgamations, inclined-heterolithic units and ribbon geometries. Sandstone bodies in the Freshwater East Formation are sheet-like, heterolithic units several metres thick. An association with lingulids and wave ripples alludes to a marine influence, possibly estuarine tidal flats or storm washovers. Within the Moor Cliffs Formation, the most common sandstone bodies are centimetre- to metre-thick sheets with high width-to-depth ratios. Fine-grained sandstones represent sheet-flood deposition on unconfined, planar surfaces, whereas coarser-grained sandstones constitute distinctive amalgamations of discrete flood events, reflecting either a change in provenance or tectonic influence. Clear incision of coarse-grained, multi-storey units within the Inter-Tuff Moor Cliffs Formation reflects a change in relative sea-level, possibly tectonically induced. The base of the Conigar Pit Sandstone Member (CPSM) is marked by a distinctive, exotic-clast conglomerate defining the base to heterolithic, lateral-accretion bedsets and sandstone sheets. This association defines a significant influx of coarse-grained sediment post-Chapel Point Calcrete formation, an interval of presumed topographic stability across the Anglo-Welsh Basin. This influx must reflect rejuvenation of source regions, with changes in base-level reflecting either eustatic or tectonic influences. Commonly observed in the CPSM are fine-grained, inclined-heterolithic bedsets recording deposition by highly sinuous rivers with flashy discharge. Up-sequence within the CPSM are metre-thick, multi-storey amalgamations of predominatly trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstone. It is likely that these units are genetically related to contemporaneous decimetre-thick sandstone sheets, the latter being ,splay' events marginal to the main channel axis. The interbedding of multi-storey sandstones and fine-grained laterally accreted units reflects changes in provenance, slope and/or climate. Thickness variations within the Lower ORS detail significant thickening of all units northward into the Benton Fault. It seems likely that this thickening reflects variable accommodation space development associated with active growth along this and other WNW,ESE-trending faults, and migration of channel belts toward the footwall. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    3D imaging of a reservoir analogue in point bar deposits in the Ferron Sandstone, Utah, using ground-penetrating radar

    GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 3 2004
    Xiaoxian Zeng
    ABSTRACT Most existing reservoir models are based on 2D outcrop studies; 3D aspects are inferred from correlation between wells, and so are inadequately constrained for reservoir simulations. To overcome these deficiencies, we have initiated a multidimensional characterization of reservoir analogues in the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in Utah. Detailed sedimentary facies maps of cliff faces define the geometry and distribution of reservoir flow units, barriers and baffles at the outcrop. High-resolution 2D and 3D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) images extend these reservoir characteristics into 3D to allow the development of realistic 3D reservoir models. Models use geometric information from mapping and the GPR data, combined with petrophysical data from surface and cliff-face outcrops, and laboratory analyses of outcrop and core samples. The site of the field work is Corbula Gulch, on the western flank of the San Rafael Swell, in east-central Utah. The outcrop consists of an 8,17 m thick sandstone body which contains various sedimentary structures, such as cross-bedding, inclined stratification and erosional surfaces, which range in scale from less than a metre to hundreds of metres. 3D depth migration of the common-offset GPR data produces data volumes within which the inclined surfaces and erosional surfaces are visible. Correlation between fluid permeability, clay content, instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude of the GPR data provides estimates of the 3D distribution of fluid permeability and clay content. [source]


    Strontium Isotopic Identification of Water-Rock Interaction and Ground Water Mixing

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2004
    Carol D. Frost
    87Sr/86Sr ratios of ground waters in the Bighorn and Laramie basins' carbonate and carbonate-cemented aquifer systems, Wyoming, United States, reflect the distinctive strontium isotope signatures of the minerals in their respective aquifers. Well water samples from the Madison Aquifer (Bighorn Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that match their carbonate host rocks. Casper Aquifer ground waters (Laramie Basin) have strontium isotopic ratios that differ from the bulk host rock; however, stepwise leaching of Casper Sandstone indicates that most of the strontium in Casper Aquifer ground waters is acquired from preferential dissolution of carbonate cement. Strontium isotope data from both Bighorn and Laramie basins, along with dye tracing experiments in the Bighorn Basin and tritium data from the Laramie Basin, suggest that waters in carbonate or carbonate-cemented aquifers acquire their strontium isotope composition very quickly,on the order of decades. Strontium isotopes were also used successfully to verify previously identified mixed Redbeds-Casper ground waters in the Laramie Basin. The strontium isotopic compositions of ground waters near Precambrian outcrops also suggest previously unrecognized mixing between Casper and Precambrian aquifers. These results demonstrate the utility of strontium isotopic ratio data in identifying ground water sources and aquifer interactions. [source]


    GEOLOGICAL MODEL EVALUATION THROUGH WELL TEST SIMULATION: A CASE STUDY FROM THE WYTCH FARM OILFIELD, SOUTHERN ENGLAND

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    S.Y. Zheng
    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of reservoir models using transient pressure data. Braided fluvial sandstones exposed in cliffs in SW England were studied as the surface equivalent of the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone, a reservoir unit at the nearby Wytch Farm oilfield. Three reservoir models were built; each used a different modelling approach ranging in complexity from stochastic pixel-based modelling using commercially available software, to a spreadsheet random number generator. In order to test these models, numerical well test simulations were conducted using sector models extracted from the geological models constructed. The simulation results were then evaluated against the actual well test data in order to find the model which best represented the field geology. Two wells at Wytch Farm field were studied. The results suggested that for one of the sampled wells, the model built using the spreadsheet random number generator gave the best match to the well test data. In the well, the permeability from the test interpretation matched the geometric average permeability. This average is the "correct" upscaled permeability for a random system, and this was consistent with the random nature of the geological model. For the second well investigated, a more complex "channel object" model appeared to fit the dynamic data better. All the models were built with stationary properties. However, the well test data suggested that some parts of the field have different statistical properties and hence show non-stationarity. These differences would have to be built into the model representing the local geology. This study presents a workflow that is not yet considered standard in the oil industry, and the use of dynamic data to evaluate geological models requires further development. The study highlights the fact that the comparison or matching of results from reservoir models and well-test analyses is not always straightforward in that different models may match different wells. The study emphasises the need for integrated analyses of geological and engineering data. The methods and procedures presented are intended to form a feedback loop which can be used to evaluate the representivity of a geological model. [source]


    THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON HABITAT OF THE SARIR SANDSTONE, SE SIRT BASIN, LIBYA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    G. Ambrose
    The Jurassic , Lower Cretaceous Sarir Sandstone Cformerly known as the Nubian Sandstone) in the SE Sirt Basin is composed of four members which can be correlated regionally using a lithostratigraphic framework. These synrift sandstones unconformably overlie a little known pre-rift succession, and are in turn unconformably overlain by post-rift marine shales of Late Cretaceous age. Within the Sarir Sandstone are two sandstone-dominated members, each reflecting a rapid drop in base level, which are important oil reservoirs in the study area. Between these sandstones are thick shales of continental origin which define the architecture of the reservoir units. This four-fold lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Sarir Sandstone contrasts with previous schemes which generally only recognised three members. The sandstones below the top-Sarir unconformity host in excess of 20 billion barrels of oil in-place. The dominant traps are structural (e.g. Sarir C field), stratigraphic (e.g. Messla field), hanging-wall fault plays (e.g. UU1,65 field) and horst-block plays (e.g. Calanscio field). Three Sarir petroleum systems are recognised in the SE Sirt Basin. The most significant relies on post-rift (Upper Cretaceous) shales, which act as both source and seal. The Variegated Shale Member of the Sarir Sandstone may also provide source and seal; while a third, conceptual petroleum system requires generation of non-marine oils from pre-rift (?Triassic) source rocks in the axis of the Sarir Trough. The intrabasinal Messla High forms a relatively rigid block at the intersection of two rift trends, around which stress vectors were deflected during deposition of the syn-rift Sarir Sandstone. Adjacent troughs accommodated thick, post-rift shale successions which comprise excellent source rocks. Palaeogene subsidence facilitated oil generation, and the Messla High was a focus for oil migration. Wrenching on master faults with associated shale smear has facilitated fault seal and the retention of hydrocarbons. In the Calanscio area, transpressional faulting has resulted in structural inversion with oil entrapment in "pop-up" horst blocks. Elsewhere, transtensional faulting has resulted in numerous fault-dependent traps which, in combination with stratigraphic and truncation plays, will provide the focus for future exploration. [source]


    A trace fossil assemblage from fluvial Old Red deposits (Wood Bay Formation; Lower to Middle Devonian) of NW-Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    LETHAIA, Issue 2 2004
    MAX WISSHAK
    From the fluvial Old Red Sandstone (ORS) of the Lower to Middle Devonian Wood Bay Formation (NW-Spitsbergen), a diverse trace fossil assemblage, including two new ichnotaxa, is described: Svalbardichnus trilobus igen. n., isp. n. is interpreted as the three-lobed resting trace of an early phyllocarid crustacean (Rhinocarididae). Cruziana polaris isp. n. yields morphological details that point towards a trilobite origin. This occurence of presumably marine trace makers in a fluvial red bed sequence raises the question of whether we are dealing with marine ingressions that are not sedimentologically expressed, with homeomorphy, or with an adaptation of marine groups to non-marine environments. [source]


    Ecospace utilization in early Phanerozoic deep-marine environments: deep bioturbation in the Blakely Sandstone (Middle Ordovician), Arkansas, USA

    LETHAIA, Issue 2 2003
    PATRICK J. ORR
    Ichnofabric analysis of alternating light and dark-coloured mudstone layers in the Blakely Sandstone (Middle Ordovician) at Crystal Springs Landing, Lake Ouachita (west of Hot Springs, western Arkansas, USA) reveals two equilibrium palaeoichnocoenoses. The first was emplaced under variable, but low, oxygen levels during deposition of the dark-coloured layers; small diameter transition layer burrows overprint a mixed layer ichnofabric. The transition layer infauna was tiered with abundant Chondrites representing the deeper of two shallow tiers. Light-coloured layers accumulated during prolonged intervals in which the sediments were oxygenated to a greater extent and depth. Preservation of a mixed layer ichnofabric within them is the result of limited, but deep (up to at least 400 mm), reworking subsequently in the transition layer by an equilibrium community. These transition layer trace fossils are not tiered. If representative of oxygenated sediment columns in Ordovician deep-marine environments, an extensive volume of infaunal ecospace was colonized (in this case by deposit feeders); its more efficient use subsequently, including vertical partitioning of the infaunal community into specific environmental niches (tiering), could have accommodated increases in diversity and community complexity. Changes over time in the maximum depth to which sediments were bioturbated, alone, would therefore be a poor measure of the extent of ecospace utilization. [source]


    The Construction Process of the Angkor Monuments Elucidated by the Magnetic Susceptibility of Sandstone,

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2003
    E. Uchida
    The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are mainly constructed of grey to yellowish-brown sandstones. No differences in the constituent minerals and in the chemical composition of the sandstones have been confirmed among the monuments. However, we have found their magnetic susceptibility a useful parameter by which to distinguish them. The principal monuments of Angkor Wat, Ta Prohm, Preah Khan, Banteay Kdei and Bayon, constructed from the Angkor Wat period to the Bayon period (from the beginning of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th century ad), were investigated in detail using a portable magnetic susceptibility meter. We succeeded in dividing the periods of construction into stages. This elucidated the enlargement process of the monuments and correlated their construction stages. [source]


    Species richness,environment relationships within coastal sclerophyll and mesophyll vegetation in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales, Australia

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Andrew F. Le Brocque
    Abstract Patterns in species richness from a wide range of plant communities in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, New South Wales, Australia, were examined in relation to a number of environmental variables, including soil physical and chemical characteristics. Total species richness and richness of three growth-form types (trees, shrubs and ground cover) were determined in duplicate 500-m2 quadrats from 50 sites on two geological substrata: Hawkesbury Sandstone and Narrabeen shales and sandstones. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to determine the amount of variation in species richness that could be significantly explained by the measured environmental variables. Seventy-three per cent of the variation in total species richness was explained by a combination of soil physical and chemical variables and site attributes. The environmental variables explained 24% of the variation in tree species richness, 67% of the variation in shrub species richness and 62% of the variation in ground cover species richness. These results generally support the hypothesis of an environmental influence on patterns in total species richness and richness of shrubs and ground cover species. However, tree species richness was not adequately predicted by any of the measured environmental variables; the present environment exerts little influence on the richness of this growth-form type. Historical factors, such as fire or climatic/environmental conditions at time of germination or seedling establishment, may be important in determining patterns in tree species richness at the local scale. [source]


    Edge-roundness of boulders of Torridonian Sandstone (northwest Scotland): applications for relative dating and implications for warm and cold climate weathering rates

    BOREAS, Issue 2 2010
    MARTIN P. KIRKBRIDE
    Kirkbride, M.P. & Bell, C.M. 2009: Edge-roundness of boulders of Torridonian Sandstone (northwest Scotland): applications for relative dating and implications for warm and cold climate weathering rates. Boreas, 10.1111/j. 1502-3885.2009.00131.x. ISSN 0300-9483. The relative ages of late Quaternary morainic and rock avalanche deposits on Late Precambrian Torridonian Sandstone are determined from the characteristic edge-roundness of constituent boulders. Because weathering of sandstone is manifest as edge-rounding by granular disintegration, a relative chronology can be derived by measuring the effective radii of curvature of a sample of boulder edges. Thirteen samples totalling 597 individual boulder edges fall into two statistically distinct groups. Moraines of inferred Younger Dryas age (12.9,11.5 kyr BP) are distinguished from moraines of the Wester Ross Re-advance (,14.0 kyr BP). One moraine previously assumed to be of Younger Dryas age is reassigned to the older group. The method allows spatial extrapolation of deposit ages from dated sites where lithological and sampling criteria are met. Calculated rates of edge-rounding imply that granular disintegration was several times more rapid during cold stadial climates than during the Holocene. Used as a proxy for boulder ,erosion rate', this indicates that surface loss of grains in glacial climates exceeds that during interglacials by a factor of 2,5, with implications for the calculation of exposure ages from cosmogenic nuclides. [source]


    Permeability Heterogeneity in a Fractured Sandstone,Mudstone Rock Mass in Xiaolangdi Dam Site, Central China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2009
    Xiaowei JIANG
    Abstract: Heterogeneity of permeability in fractured media is a hot research topic in hydrogeology. Numerous approaches have been proposed to characterize heterogeneity in the last several decades. However, little attention has been paid to correlate permeability heterogeneity with geological information. In the present study, several causes of permeability heterogeneity, that is, lithology, tectonism, and depth, are identified. The unit absorption values (denoted as ,), which are results obtained from the packer test, are employed to represent permeability. The variability of permeability in sandstone,mudstone is so significant that the value of unit absorptions span 3,4 orders of magnitude at any depth with several test sections. By declustering, it has been found that under a similar tectonic history, the means of permeability differ greatly at different formations as a result of different mudrock contents. It has also been found that in the same formation, permeability can be significantly increased as a result of faulting. The well-known phenomenon, the decrease in permeability with depth, is found to be caused by the fractures in the rock mass, and the relationship between permeability and depth can be established in the form of log,,logd. After subtracting the trend of , with absolute depth, the mean of the residual value at each relative depth can be well correlated with the distribution of mudstone. The methods proposed in this paper can be utilized to research in similar study areas. [source]


    Deformation Field around the Stress Induced Crack Area in Sandstone by the Digital Speckle Correlation Method

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2009
    Yonghong ZHAO
    Abstract: The deformation field around sub-cracks was calculated using the digital speckle correlation method. First, the uni-axial compression tests on sandstone samples containing a pre-fabricated fracture were made. Photomicrographs showing the characteristics of the sub-crack development were taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these photomicrographs, the real-time images showing the initiation, growth and coalescence of sub-cracks and micro-cracks in the sandstone specimens were obtained and the effects of loading level as well as grain boundaries on the development of cracks were analyzed. Second, the intensity images of the sandstone specimen surface were captured from the observations of the SEM corresponding to different loading levels. Then correlation computation was carried out for the sequential pairs of intensity images to evaluate the displacement components, as well as the strain field. The results show that the deformation varies in different areas separated by sub-cracks during rock damage processes. [source]


    The Ridgeway Conglomerate Formation of SW Wales, and its implications.

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    The end of the Lower Old Red Sandstone?
    Abstract The Devonian Old Red Sandstone Ridgeway Conglomerate Formation crops out in Pembrokeshire, SW Wales. It was deposited as part of a dryland alluvial fan, axial fluvial valley deposystem. It conformably overlies the mid Lochkovian Freshwater West Formation and probably predates deposition of the Lower Cosheston Group Mill Bay Formation indicating an Early Devonian (latest Lochkovian to earliest Pragian) age, rather than a Middle Devonian age as suggested by previous workers. It therefore represents the youngest preserved formation of the Milford Haven Group south of the Ritec Fault. The Formation thickens drastically into the Ritec Fault, indicating its control on sedimentation. The half-graben topography initiated deposition of a hangingwall alluvial fan that was sourced from a southerly Lower Palaeozoic/Precambrian provenance within the present-day Bristol Channel. The Formation is heterolithic in nature, with deposits on the fan reflecting a mixture of processes. Conglomerates were deposited primarily by laterally extensive sheetfloods, and as bars in low-relief, laterally accreted channels. Sandstones were also predominantly deposited by sheetfloods. Gritty mudrocks in comparison demonstrate deposition by cohesive debris flows. The fan prograded northward and interfingered with a low-gradient, high-sinuosity fluvial channel system dominated by inclined and non-inclined heterolithic stratification. Thinly laminated mudstone and sandstone interbeds were deposited in ephemeral fan-toe and axial valley lakes that may have developed during sub-humid climatic episodes. The lacustrine heterolithic association has associated matgrounds and possible ,algal roll-up' structures. Calcretized peetee structures and root traces comprise a lake margin calcrete association. Fan gravels prograded into the axial fluvial valley during periods of increased sediment flux that may represent semi-arid conditions and/or episodes of tectonic activity. Calcretes of varying development were established in both the fan and axial valley zones. Calcretes with lower stages of development are more proximal to the Ritec Fault reflecting decreased soil residence times and high deposition rates within the axial valley. More strongly developed soil profiles on the fan may indicate sequence boundaries associated with low sediment flux, or increased soil residence time due to active fan-channel migration (the pedofacies concept). Groundwater calcretes have sharp-based and layer-bound calcrete profiles. Gully-bed cements are locally developed within the fan gravels. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    AN INTEGRATED STUDY OF DIAGENESIS AND DEPOSITIONAL FACIES IN TIDAL SANDSTONES: HAWAZ FORMATION (MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN), MURZUQ BASIN, LIBYA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    A. Abouessa
    Studies of the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality in tidal sandstones can be of great importance in successful hydrocarbon exploration. The study reported here shows that diagenetic alterations and bioturbation have induced considerable deterioration and heterogeneity in the reservoir quality of the sand-dominated tidal deposits of the Middle Ordovician Hawaz Formation in the Muruq Basin, Libya. Comparison is made between the diagenetic evolution of samples from the subsurface (present-day depth 1500 m) and from surface outcrops in order to study the impact of burial and uplift on the spatial and temporal distribution of reservoir quality in the Hawaz Formation sandstones. Eogenetic alterations, which were mediated by meteoric water circulation, included kaolinitization and dissolution of framework silicates and mechanical compaction. Mesogenetic alterations (T > 70C; depth > 2 km) included pressure dissolution of quartz grains and concomitant quartz cementation, conversion of kaolinite into dickite, illitization of kaolinite and of grain-coating clays, and the precipitation of Mg-rich siderite cement. Reduction of intergranular porosity was due more to compaction than to cementation, yet quartz overgrowths are up to 16% in some of the sandstones. Bioturbation has resulted in a greater reduction in sandstone permeability in the lower part of the formation than the upper part. A higher ratio of dickite to kaolinite in subsurface samples than in outcrop samples is attributed to the longer residence time of the former sandstones under mesogenetic conditions. Telodiagenesis has not resulted in enhancement of reservoir quality of the Hawaz Formation Sandstones but in pseudomorphic calcitization of siderite and oxidation of pyrite to goethite. This study shows that the reservoir-quality evolution of tidal sandstones can best be elucidated when linked to depositional facies and distribution of diagenetic alterations. [source]


    Tectonic Fractures in Tight Gas Sandstones of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the Western Sichuan Basin, China

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2010
    ZENG Lianbo
    Abstract: The western Sichuan Basin, which is located at the front of the Longmen Mountains in the west of Sichuan Province, China, is a foreland basin formed in the Late Triassic. The Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation is a tight gas sandstone reservoir with low porosity and ultra-low permeability, whose gas accumulation and production are controlled by well-developed fracture zones. There are mainly three types of fractures developed in the Upper Triassic tight gas sandstones, namely tectonic fractures, diagenetic fractures and overpressure-related fractures, of which high-angle tectonic fractures are the most important. The tectonic fractures can be classified into four sets, i.e., N-S-, NE-, E-W- and NW-striking fractures. In addition, there are a number of approximately horizontal shear fractures in some of the medium-grained sandstones and grit stones nearby the thrusts or slip layers. Tectonic fractures were mainly formed at the end of the Triassic, the end of the Cretaceous and the end of the Neogene-Early Pleistocene. The development degree of tectonic fractures was controlled by lithology, thickness, structure, stress and fluid pressure. Overpressure makes not only the rock shear strength decrease, but also the stress state change from compression to tension. Thus, tensional fractures can be formed in fold-thrust belts. Tectonic fractures are mainly developed along the NE- and N-S-striking structural belts, and are the important storage space and the principal flow channels in the tight gas sandstone. The porosity of fractures here is 28.4% of the gross reservoir porosity, and the permeability of fractures being two or three grades higher than that of the matrix pores. Four sets of high-angle tectonic fractures and horizontal shear fractures formed a good network system and controlled the distribution and production of gas in the tight sandstones. [source]


    Rainfall thresholds for shallow landsliding derived from pressure-head monitoring: cases with permeable and impermeable bedrocks in Boso Peninsula, Japan

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 9 2007
    Yuki Matsushi
    Abstract Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide initiation were determined for hillslopes with two types of bedrock, permeable sandstone and impermeable mudstone, in the Boso Peninsula, Japan. The pressure-head response to rainfall was monitored above a slip scarp due to earlier landslides. Multiple regression analysis estimated the rainfall thresholds for landsliding from the relation between the magnitude of the rainfall event and slope instability caused by the increased pressure heads. The thresholds were expressed as critical combinations of rainfall intensity and duration, incorporating the geotechnical properties of the hillslope materials and also the slope hydrological processes. The permeable sandstone hillslope has a greater critical rainfall and hence a longer recurrence interval than the impermeable mudstone hillslope. This implies a lower potential for landsliding in sandstone hillslopes, corresponding to lower landslide activity. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Soil production in heath and forest, Blue Mountains, Australia: influence of lithology and palaeoclimate

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 8 2005
    Marshall T. Wilkinson
    Abstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms 25(13) 2005, 1683,1686. Recent determinations of soil production from in situ cosmogenic nuclides indicate that production decreases exponentially with soil depth. This contrasts with a long-held assumption that maximum soil production occurs under a soil cover of finite depth. Sites in the Blue Mountains, Australia, show a sharp decrease of soil depth where vegetation changes from forested plateau surfaces to heath-covered spurs, and bands of bare rock in the heath suggest that soil production depends on presence of a finite depth of soil. The substrate varies from hard ferruginized sandstone to soft saprolite. In situ 10Be determinations indicate that apparent rates of erosion and soil production are greater under the relatively thin heath soil than under the thicker forest soil but, in contrast to other studies, these sites do not show significant depth-dependence of apparent soil production. The pattern reflects both hardness variation in the rock substrate and the effect of Late Quaternary climatic change. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating indicates that soil ,30 cm depth is of Holocene age whereas the deeper soil is substantially older. The age-break coincides with a stone line interpreted as a former surface lag deposit. Assuming that pre-Holocene soil depths were 30 cm less than today, recalculated soil production tends to decrease with increasing depth. Soil production at this site requires soil cover but bare rock patches and vegetation comprise a shifting mosaic. In the long term, average rates of erosion and soil production decrease with increasing soil depth. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Geological controls on the formation of alluvial meanders and floodplain wetlands: the example of the Klip River, eastern Free State, South Africa

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 8 2002
    S. Tooth
    Abstract Floodplain wetlands are common features of rivers in southern Africa, but they have been little studied from a geological or geomorphological perspective. Study of the upper Klip River, eastern Free State, South Africa, indicates strong geological controls on the formation of alluvial meanders and associated floodplain wetlands. Along this river, pronounced and abrupt changes in valley width are strongly linked to lithological variations. Where weakly cemented sandstone crops out, the Klip has laterally eroded bedrock and carved valleys up to 1500 m wide. In these valleys, the river meanders (sinuosity up to ,175) on moderate gradients (<0001) within extensive floodplains marked by numerous oxbow lakes, backswamps and abandoned channels, many of which host substantial wetlands. In contrast, where highly resistant dolerite crops out, lateral erosion of bedrock is restricted, with the Klip tending instead to erode vertically along joints or fractures. Here, valleys are narrower (<200 m), channel-bed gradients are steeper (>0003), the river follows a much straighter course (sinuosity ,110,134), and floodplains are restricted in width. Long-term landscape development in the Klip and numerous similar catchments depends on the interaction between fluvial processes in the sandstone and dolerite valleys. In the sandstone valleys, vertical erosion rates are controlled by erosion rates of the more resistant dolerites downstream. Hence, in the short- to medium-term (decades to tens of thousands of years), lateral erosion dominates over vertical erosion, with the river concomitantly planing sandstone in the channel floor and reworking floodplain sediments. The thickness of alluvial fill in the sandstone valleys is limited (<4 m), but the resultant meanders are naturally dynamic, with processes such as point bar deposition, cutoff formation and channel avulsion resulting in an assemblage of fluvial landforms. In the longer term (greater than tens of thousands of years), however, vertical erosion will occur in the sandstone valleys as the downstream dolerites are lowered by erosion, resulting in channel incision, floodplain abandonment, and desiccation of the wetlands. Identification of the geological controls on meander and wetland formation provides information vital for the design of effective management guidelines for these ecologically rich habitats, and also contributes to a better understanding of rivers that are intermediate between fully alluvial and fully bedrock. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Experimental frost weathering of sandstone by various combinations of salts

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 8 2001
    R. B. G. Williams
    Abstract Weathering experiments are reported combining frost and a range of salts that occur naturally on rock faces in western and central Europe. Potassium and ammonium alums enhanced frost weathering quite considerably, both singly and in combination, though they were less potent than halite, the destructiveness of which, at sub-zero temperatures, was again confirmed. By contrast, alunogen and gypsum had little or no effect on rates of frost weathering either singly or in combination. Combining halite and gypsum produced breakdown that was intermediate between that of the two salts individually, as did the combination of gypsum and potassium alum. Breakdown in solutions of ammonium alum and gypsum, and in a combination of potassium and ammonium alum with gypsum, caused greater breakdown over 25 cycles of freeze,thaw than was recorded with the salts singly. The results extend the range of salts known to enhance frost weathering, and show that it is difficult to predict the aggressiveness of combinations of salts by experimenting with each salt separately. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]