Autosomal Recessive Disorder (autosomal + recessive_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Autosomal Recessive Disorder

  • rare autosomal recessive disorder

  • Selected Abstracts

    Type 3 hemochromatosis and , -thalassemia trait

    Alessia Riva
    Abstract: Type 3 hemochromatosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations of the TFR2 gene. We describe clinical, biochemical and histopathologic findings of a patient with type 3 hemochromatosis at presentation and during a follow-up of more than 20 yr and we evaluate the effect of an associated , -thalassemia trait on phenotypic expression. At the age of 33 yr the patient showed a marked iron overload and severe iron-related complications. After removal of 26 g of iron by subcutaneous deferoxamine infusion a marked clinical improvement was observed. Liver biopsies, performed at the age of 34 and 49 yr, indicate that in type 3 hemochromatosis there is a progressive hepatocellular iron accumulation from Rappaport's zone 1,3 and that iron loading in sinusoidal and portal macrophages occurs only in the more advanced stage. As observed in HFE hemochromatosis, the , -thalassemia trait seems to aggravate the clinical picture of patients lacking TFR2, favoring higher rates of iron accumulation probably by activation of the erythroid iron regulator. [source]

    Distribution and frequency of , -thalassemia mutations in northwestern and central Greece

    I. Georgiou
    Abstract: Objectives : , -Thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive disorder resulting from over 200 different mutations of the , -globin genes. The spectrum of , -thalassemia mutations in Greece has been previously described in the population of the capital city of Athens, or in , -thalassemia patients having transfusion therapy. The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution of the most common , -thalassemia mutations in the population of northwestern and central Greece. Methods : The data for this study were derived from a total of 1130 unrelated subjects including 46 , -thalassemia major, three , -thalassemia intermedia and 1081 carriers identified in our antenatal screening program. , -Thalassemia mutations were identified by ARMS, DGGE and Reverse Dot Blot. Results : The most common mutation, IVS-I-110, is followed, in order of frequency, by the mutations Cd-39, IVS-I-1, IVS-II-1, Cd-6, IVS-I-6, IVS-I-5, IVS-II-745, Cd-5 and 44 bp del. IVS-I-110 and Cd-39 frequencies are similar with those found in other Balkan countries. Significant differences in regional distribution were observed. The results showed a clear drift of the distribution of the most frequent IVS-I-110 mutation in the south,north (29.4, 40.0, 44.6 and 61.7%) and the east,west axis (31.8 and 44.6%). Conclusions : Population screening and prenatal diagnosis are significantly facilitated by these data. Furthermore, the detailed distribution tables of , -thalassemia mutations are essential for counseling and extraction of genetic diversity estimates for population genetic studies in other inherited disorders. [source]

    ,-Globin gene cluster haplotypes and HbF levels are not the only modulators of sickle cell disease in Lebanon

    A. Inati
    Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the , -globin chain. Despite the fact that all subjects with SCD have the same single base pair mutation, the severity of the clinical and hematological manifestations is extremely variable. This study examined for the first time in Lebanon the correlation between the clinical manifestation of SCD and the , -globin gene haplotypes. The haplotypes of 50 patients diagnosed with SCD were determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification of fragments containing nine polymorphic restriction sites around and within the ,,G,,A,,,,,,,, -globin gene complex. Most reported haplotypes were found in our population with the Benin haplotype as the most prevalent one. When the patients were divided according to their HbF levels into three groups (Group A: HbF < 5%, Group B: HbF between 5 and 15%, and Group C: HbF > 15%), surprisingly, the highest levels of HbF were associated with the most severe clinical cases. Our findings suggest that fetal hemoglobin levels are important but not the only parameters that affect the severity of the disease. In addition, the high levels of HbF in patients with CAR haplotypes did not seem to ameliorate the severity of symptoms, suggesting that genetic factors other than haplotypes are the major determinants of increased HbF levels in Lebanon. [source]

    Ceramide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    Joachim Riethmüller
    Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common autosomal recessive disorder, at least in western countries, is caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembranous conductance regulator (CFTR) molecule and affects approximately 80,000 patients in Europe and the USA. Most, if not all, CF patients develop a chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At present it is unknown why CF patients are highly sensitive to P.,aeruginosa infections, and most importantly, no curative treatment for CF is available. P.,aeruginosa infection results in an activation of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase which catalyzes the release of ceramide from sphingomyelin in the cell membrane. Ceramide forms large ceramide-enriched membrane domains that are required for internalization of bacteria, induction of cell death in infected cells and a controlled release of cytokines from infected cells. Ceramide-enriched membrane platforms seem to serve the reorganization of receptors and intracellular signaling molecules involved in the infection of mammalian cells with P.,aeruginosa. The significance of the acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide for the infection of mammalian cells with P.,aeruginosa was demonstrated on mice genetically deficient for the acid sphingomyelinase. Further studies with N.,gonorrhoeae, S.,aureus and rhinoviruses indicate that ceramide-enriched membrane domains are also important for the infection of mammalian cells with other bacterial and viral pathogens, suggesting a general role of these membrane domains in infectious biology. [source]

    Carrier frequency of SMA by quantitative analysis of the SMN1 deletion in the Iranian population

    M. Hasanzad
    Background and purpose:, Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder. Carrier frequency studies of SMA have been reported for various populations. Although no large-scale population-based studies of SMA have been performed in Iran, previous estimates have indicated that the incidence of autosomal recessive disorder partly because of the high prevalence of consanguineous marriage is much higher in the Iranian population than in other populations. Methods:, In this study, we used a reliable and highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR assay with SYBR green I dye to detect the copy number of the SMN1 gene to determine the carrier frequency of SMA in 200 healthy unrelated, non-consanguineous couples from different part of Iran. Results:, To validate the method in our samples, we determined the relative quantification (RQ) of patients with homozygous deletion (0.00) and hemyzygous carriers (0.29,0.55). The RQ in 10 of 200 normal individuals were within the carrier range of 0.31,0.57, estimating a carrier frequency of 5% in the Iranian population. Conclusions:, Our data show that the SMA carrier frequency in Iran is higher than in the European population and that further programs of population carrier detection and prenatal testing should be implemented. [source]

    Effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients with ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    S. Gabsi
    Ataxia with vitamin E (Vit E) defciency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the , tocopherol transfer protein gene. The Friedreich ataxia phenotype is the most frequent clinical presentation. In AVED patients, serum Vit E levels are very low in the absence of intestinal malabsorption. As Vit E is a major antioxidant agent, Vit E deficiency is supposed to be responsible for the pathological process. Twenty-four AVED patients were fully investigated (electromyography, nerve conduction velocity (NVC) studies, somatosensory evoked potentials, cerebral computed tomography scan, sural nerve biopsy, genetic studies) and supplemented with Vit E (800 mg daily) during a 1-year period. Clinical evaluation was mainly based on the Ataxia Rating Scale (ARS) for cerebellar ataxia assessment and serum Vit E levels were monitored. Serum Vit E levels normalized and ARS scores decreased moderately but significantly suggesting clinical improvement. Better results were noted with mean disease duration , 15 years. Reflexes remained abolished and posterior column disturbances unchanged. Vitamin E supplementation in AVED patients stabilizes the neurological signs and can lead to mild improvement of cerebellar ataxia, especially in early stages of the disease. [source]

    Novel brain 14-3-3 interacting proteins involved in neurodegenerative disease

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2005
    Shaun Mackie
    We isolated two novel 14-3-3 binding proteins using 14-3-3 , as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library. One of these encoded the C-terminus of a neural specific armadillo-repeat protein, ,-catenin (neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein or neurojungin). ,-Catenin from brain lysates was retained on a 14-3-3 affinity column. Mutation of serine 1072 in the human protein and serine 1094 in the equivalent site in the mouse homologue (in a consensus binding motif for 14-3-3) abolished 14-3-3 binding to ,-catenin in vitro and in transfected cells. ,-catenin binds to presenilin-1, encoded by the gene most commonly mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease. The other clone was identified as the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate protein of 53 kDa (IRSp53). Human IRSp53 interacts with the gene product implicated in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with glutamine repeat expansion of atrophin-1. [source]

    Disruption of transport activity in a D93H mutant thiamine transporter 1, from a Rogers Syndrome family

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 22 2003
    Dana Baron
    Rogers syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness. The gene associated with this disease encodes for thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1), a member of the SLC19 solute carrier family including THTR2 and the reduced folate carrier (RFC). Using transient transfections into NIH3T3 cells of a D93H mutant THTR1derived from a Rogers syndrome family, we determined the expression, post-translational modification, plasma membrane targeting and thiamine transport activity. We also explored the impact on methotrexate (MTX) transport activity of a homologous missense D88H mutation in the human RFC, a close homologue of THTR1. Western blot analysis revealed that the D93H mutant THTR1 was normally expressed and underwent a complete N -glycosylation. However, while this mutant THTR1 was targeted to the plasma membrane, it was completely devoid of thiamine transport activity. Consistently, introduction into MTX transport null cells of a homologous D88H mutation in the hRFC did not result in restoration of MTX transport activity, thereby suggesting that D88 is an essential residue for MTX transport activity. These results suggest that the D93H mutation does not interfere with transporter expression, glycosylation and plasma membrane targeting. However, the substitution of this negatively charged amino acid (Asp93) by a positively charged residue (His) in an extremely conserved region (the border of transmembrane domain 2/intracellular loop 2) in the SLC19 family, presumably inflicts deleterious structural alterations that abolish thiamine binding and/or translocation. Hence, this functional characterization of the D93H mutation provides a molecular basis for Rogers syndrome. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Laboratory science: Molecular analysis in two Tunisian families with combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2010
    Summary., Combined factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency (F5F8D) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in LMAN1 or MCFD2 genes which encode proteins that form a complex involved in the transport of FV and FVIII from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus. We report two novel mutations in MCFD2 gene and one recurrent mutation in LMAN1 gene that caused combined FV and FVIII deficiency in two unrelated Tunisian Muslim families. For the first family two patients were homozygous for a new missense mutation Asp81His in exon 3 of MCFD2 and heterozygous for a second new missense mutation Val100Asp in the same exon. Replacement respectively of the hydrophilic Asp residue with hydrophobic positively charged His and of the hydrophobic neutral Val residue with the Asp residue most likely disrupts the MCFD2,LMAN1 interaction, thus leading to the disease phenotype. For the second family a reported Arg202X mutation in exon 5 in the LMAN1 gene was identified in the homozygous state. [source]

    Using a minigene approach to characterize a novel splice site mutation in human F7 gene causing inherited factor VII deficiency in a Chinese pedigree

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2009
    T. YU
    Summary., Factor VII deficiency which transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder is a rare haemorrhagic condition. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic defect and determine its functional consequences in a Chinese pedigree with FVII deficiency. The proband was diagnosed as inherited coagulation FVII deficiency by reduced plasma levels of FVII activity (4.4%) and antigen (38.5%). All nine exons and their flanking sequence of F7 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the proband and the PCR products were directly sequenced. The compound heterozygous mutations of F7 (NM_000131.3) c.572-1G>A and F7 (NM_000131.3) c.1165T>G; p.Cys389Gly were identified in the proband's F7 gene. To investigate the splicing patterns associated with F7 c.572-1G>A, ectopic transcripts in leucocytes of the proband were analyzed. F7 minigenes, spanning from intron 4 to intron 7 and carrying either an A or a G at position -1 of intron 5, were constructed and transiently transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, followed by RT-PCR analysis. The aberrant transcripts from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele were not detected by ectopic transcription study. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products from the mutant transfectant demonstrated the production of an erroneously spliced mRNA with exon 6 skipping, whereas a normal splicing occurred in the wide type transfectant. The aberrant mRNA produced from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele is responsible for the factor VII deficiency in this pedigree. [source]

    Pendred's syndrome with goiter and enlarged vestibular aqueducts diagnosed by PDS gene mutation,

    Hajime Ishinaga MD
    Abstract Background Pendred's syndrome (PS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by goiter and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Recent advances in molecular biology revealed the gene responsible for PS (PDS) and provided an important aid for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods A case of PS with huge goiter and congenital hearing impairment was diagnosed by mutational analysis of the PDS gene. Results Physical examination and computer tomography CT revealed a diffuse swelling of the thyroid gland. Thyroid function tests were normal, and the perchlorate discharge test was negative. Audiologic examination confirmed sensorineural hearing loss, and temporal bone CT revealed bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueducts. The mutational analysis revealed that the patient was homozygous for His 723 Arg (2168A,G) in exon 19, a missense mutation. Conclusions The results of thyroid function tests in PS patients are usually normal, and the positive perchlorate discharge test has been used for the diagnosis. However, this is a nonspecific test and is not sensitive enough for PS. In our case, despite a negative perchlorate test, the patient was diagnosed by mutational analysis and received total thyroidectomy to relieve respiratory distress caused by thyroid enlargement. This is the first report of a mutation detected in the thyroid tissue and clearly shows that the mutation caused histopathologic change in that gland. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Functional analysis of mutations in the ATP loop of the Wilson disease copper transporter, ATP7B,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2010
    Leiah M. Luoma
    Abstract Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutation of ATP7B. Transport of copper by ATP7B from the trans -Golgi of hepatocytes into apical membrane-trafficked vesicles for excretion in the bile is the major means of copper elimination from the body. Although copper is an essential nutrient, homeostasis must be carefully maintained. If homeostasis is disrupted, copper can accumulate within the liver, kidney, cornea, and/or brain. The range of organs affected leads to clinical heterogeneity and difficulty in WND diagnosis. Sequencing of ATP7B is an important adjunct for diagnosis but has led to the discovery of many novel missense variants. Although prediction programs are available, functional characterization is essential for determining the consequence of novel variants. We have tested 12 missense variants localized to the ATP loop of ATP7B and compared three predictive programs (SIFT, PolyPhen, and Align-GVGD). We found p.L1043P, p.G1000R, p.G1101R, p.I1102T, p.V1239G, and p.D1267V deleterious; p.G1176E and p.G1287S intermediate; p.E1173G temperature sensitive; p.T991M and p.I1148T mild; and p.R1228T functioning as wild type. We found that SIFT most often agreed with functional data (92%), compared with PolyPhen (83%) and Align-GVGD (67%). We conclude that variants found to negatively affect function likely contribute to the WND phenotype in patients. Hum Mutat 31:569,577, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    OBSL1 mutations in 3-M syndrome are associated with a modulation of IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 expression levels,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2010
    Celine Huber
    Abstract 3-M syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation and minor skeletal changes. We have previously identified CUL7 as a disease-causing gene but we have also provided evidence of genetic heterogeneity in the 3-M syndrome. By homozygosity mapping in two inbred families, we found a second disease locus on chromosome 2q35,36.1 in a 5.2-Mb interval that encompasses 60 genes. To select candidate genes, we performed microarray analysis of cultured skin fibroblast RNA from one patient, looking for genes with altered expression; we found decreased expression of IGFBP2 and increased expression of IGFBP5. However, direct sequencing of these two genes failed to detect any anomaly. We then considered other candidate genes by their function/location and found nine distinct mutations in the OBSL1 gene in 13 families including eight nonsense and one missense mutations. To further understand the links between OBSL1, CUL7, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), we performed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis for OBSL1, CUL7, IGFBP2, and IGFBP5, using cultured fibroblast RNAs from two patients with distinct OBSL1 mutations (p.F697G; p.H814RfsX15). We found normal CUL7 mRNA levels but abnormal IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 mRNA levels in the two patients, suggesting that OBSL1 modulates the expression of IGFBP proteins. Hum Mutat 30:1,7, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gaucher disease: mutation and polymorphism spectrum in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA),,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2008
    Kathleen S. Hruska
    Abstract Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase, a lysosomal enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of the glycolipid glucocerebroside to ceramide and glucose. Lysosomal storage of the substrate in cells of the reticuloendothelial system leads to multisystemic manifestations, including involvement of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and nervous system. Patients with GD have highly variable presentations and symptoms that, in many cases, do not correlate well with specific genotypes. Almost 300 unique mutations have been reported in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA), with a distribution that spans the gene. These include 203 missense mutations, 18 nonsense mutations, 36 small insertions or deletions that lead to either frameshifts or in-frame alterations, 14 splice junction mutations, and 13 complex alleles carrying two or more mutations in cis. Recombination events with a highly homologous pseudogene downstream of the GBA locus also have been identified, resulting from gene conversion, fusion, or duplication. In this review we discuss the spectrum of GBA mutations and their distribution in the patient population, evolutionary conservation, clinical presentations, and how they may affect the structure and function of glucocerebrosidase. Hum Mutat 29(5), 567,583, 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutations in the holocarboxylase synthetase gene HLCS,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2005
    Yoichi Suzuki
    Abstract Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. HLCS is an enzyme that catalyzes biotin incorporation into carboxylases and histones. Since the first report of the cDNA sequence, 30 mutations in the HLCS gene have been reported. Mutations occur throughout the entire coding region except exons 6 and 10. The types of mutations are one single amino acid deletion, five single nucleotide insertions/deletions, 22 missense mutations, and two nonsense mutations. The only intronic mutation identified thus far is c.1519+5G>A (also designated IVS10+5G>A), which causes a splice error. Several lines of evidence suggest that c.1519+5G>A is a founder mutation in Scandinavian patients. Prevalence of this mutation is about 10 times higher in the Faroe Islands than in the rest of the world. The mutations p.L237P and c.780delG are predominant only in Japanese patients. These are probably founder mutations in this population. Mutations p.R508W and p.V550M are identified in several ethic groups and accompanied with various haplotypes, suggesting that these are recurrent mutations. There is a good relationship between clinical biotin responsiveness and the residual activity of HLCS. A combination of a null mutation and a point mutation that shows less than a few percent of the normal activity results in neonatal onset. Patients who have mutant HLCS with higher residual activity develop symptom after the neonatal period and show a good clinical response to biotin therapy. Hum Mutat 26(4), 285,290, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: Diversity of mutations and polymorphisms in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH3A2),

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2005
    William B. Rizzo
    Abstract Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic diplegia or tetraplegia. The disease is caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene (also known as FALDH and ALDH10) on chromosome 17p11.2 that encodes fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aldehydes derived from lipid metabolism. In SLS patients, 72 mutations have been identified, with a distribution that is scattered throughout the ALDH3A2 gene. Most mutations are private but several common mutations have been detected, which probably reflect founder effects or recurrent mutational events. Missense mutations comprise the most abundant class (38%) and expression studies indicate that most of these result in a profound reduction in enzyme activity. Deletions account for about 25% of the mutations and range from single nucleotides to entire exons. Twelve splice-site mutations have been demonstrated to cause aberrant splicing in cultured fibroblasts. To date, more than a dozen intragenic ALDH3A2 polymorphisms consisting of SNPs and one microsatellite marker have been characterized, although none of them alter the FALDH protein sequence. The striking mutational diversity in SLS offers a challenge for DNA-based diagnosis, but promises to provide a wealth of information about enzyme structure,function correlations. Hum Mutat 26(1), 1,10, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Knobloch syndrome: Novel mutations in COL18A1, evidence for genetic heterogeneity, and a functionally impaired polymorphism in endostatin,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2004
    Olivier Menzel
    Abstract Knobloch syndrome (KNO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration with retinal detachment, and congenital encephalocele. Pathogenic mutations in the COL18A1 gene on 21q22.3 were recently identified in KNO families. Analysis of two unrelated KNO families from Hungary and New Zealand allowed us to confirm the involvement of COL18A1 in the pathogenesis of KNO and to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity. Two COL18A1 mutations were identified in the Hungarian family: a 1-bp insertion causing a frameshift and a premature in-frame stop codon and an amino acid substitution. This missense variant is located in a conserved amino acid of endostatin, a cleavage product of the carboxy-terminal domain of collagen alpha 1 XVIII. D1437N (D104N in endostatin) likely represents a pathogenic mutation, as we show that the endostatin N104 mutant is impaired in its affinity towards laminin. Linkage to the COL18A1 locus was excluded in the New Zealand family, providing evidence for the existence of a second KNO locus. We named the second unmapped locus for Knobloch syndrome KNO2. Mutation analysis excluded COL15A1, a member of the multiplexin collagen subfamily similar to COL18A1, as being responsible for KNO2. Hum Mutat 23:77,84, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular pathology of NEU1 gene in sialidosis,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2003
    Volkan Seyrantepe
    Abstract Lysosomal sialidase (EC has a dual physiological function; it participates in intralysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates and is involved in cellular immune response. Mutations in the sialidase gene NEU1, located on chromosome 6p21.3, result in autosomal recessive disorder, sialidosis, which is characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialylated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. Sialidosis type I is a milder, late-onset, normosomatic form of the disorder. Type I patients develop visual defects, myoclonus syndrome, cherry-red macular spots, ataxia, hyperreflexia, and seizures. The severe early-onset form, sialidosis type II, is also associated with dysostosis multiplex, Hurler-like phenotype, mental retardation, and hepatosplenomegaly. We summarize information on the 34 unique mutations determined so far in the sialidase gene, including four novel missense and one novel nonsense mutations found in two Czech and two French sialidosis patients. The analysis of sialidase mutations in sialidosis revealed considerable molecular heterogeneity, reflecting the diversity of clinical phenotypes that make molecular diagnosis difficult. The majority of sialidosis patients have had missense mutations, many of which have been expressed; their effects on activity, stability, intracellular localization, and supramolecular organization of sialidase were studied. A structural model of sialidase allowed us to localize mutations in the sialidase molecule and to predict their impact on the tertiary structure and biochemical properties of the enzyme. Hum Mutat 22:343,352, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutation spectrum of human SLC39A4 in a panel of patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2003
    Sébastien Küry
    Abstract Acrodermatitis enteropathica is rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe nutritional zinc deficiency. We and others have recently identified the human gene encoding an intestinal zinc transporter of the ZIP family, SLC39A4, as the mutated gene in acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). A first mutation screening in 8 AE families (15 patients out of 36 individuals) revealed the presence of six different mutations described elsewhere. Based on these results, we have evaluated the involvement of SLC39A4 in 14 patients of 12 additional AE pedigees coming either from France, Tunisia, Austria or Lithuania. A total of 7 SLC39A4 mutations were identified (1 deletion, 2 nonsense, 2 missense, and 2 modifications of splice site), of which 4 are novel: a homozygous nonsense mutation in 3 consanguineous Tunisian families [c.143T>G (p.Leu48X)], a heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.1203G>A (p.Trp401X)) in a compound heterozygote from Austria also exhibiting an already known missense mutation, and distinct homozygous mutations in families from France or Tunisia [c.475-2A>G and c.184T>C (p.Cys62Arg)]. Furthermore, two other potential mutations [c.850G>A (p.Glu284Lys) and c.193-113T>C] were also observed at homozygous state in a French family formerly described. This study brings to 21 the number of reported SLC39A4 mutations in AE families. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular characterisation of GSD III subjects and identification of six novel mutations in AGL,,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2002
    S. Lucchiari
    Abstract Deficiency of amylo-1,6-glucosidase, 4-,-glucanotransferase enzyme (AGL or glycogen debranching enzyme) is causative of Glycogen Storage Disease type III, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism. The disease has been demonstrated to show clinical and biochemical heterogeneity, reflecting the genotype-phenotype heterogeneity among different subjects. The aim of this study was the molecular characterisation of eight unrelated patients from an ethnically heterogeneous population (six Italians, one from India and another one from Tunisia). We describe six novel mutations responsible for the disease (C234R, R675W, 2547delG, T38A, W1327X, IVS6 +3 A>G) and the presence in two Italian subjects of a splice variant (IVS21+1 G>A) already described elsewhere. This last one is confirmed to be the most frequent mutation among the Italian patients come to our observation, accounting for 28% of 21 patients. One subject was found to be a compound heterozygous. Our data confirm the substantial genetic heterogeneity of this disease. Consequently, the strategy of mutation finding based on screening of recurrent common mutations is limited, as far as regards Italian GSD III patients, to check for the presence of IVS21+1 G>A. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutations in the human ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 in sitosterolemia

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2002
    Susanne Heimer
    Abstract Phytosterolemia or Sitosterolemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by highly elevated plasma levels of plant sterols and cholesterol as a consequence of hyperabsorption and impaired biliary secretion of sterols. The disease is caused by mutations in two half size ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We have analyzed the genomic sequence of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in five well-characterized patients with Sitosterolemia. In the first patient we found a heterozygous mutation in exon 8 of the ABCG5 gene leading to a premature termination of the protein (Arg408Ter). This German patient is the first European showing a mutation of the ABCG5 gene. In a second patient we found a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 5 of ABCG8 (c.584T>A; Leu195Gln). Both patients were heterozygous for the identified mutation, but no mutation could be identified on the other chromosome. In three further analyzed patients we found mutations in exons 7, 9 and 11 of the ABCG8 gene, respectively, of which two result in a premature termination signal for translation products. One of these patients was compound heterozygous (Trp361Ter and Arg412Ter), the other was homozygous for Trp361Ter. The third patient was homozygous for an amino acid exchange (Gly574Arg). In conclusion this report describes one novel mutation affecting a highly conserved amino acid and two previously identified mutations in the ABCG8 gene. In addition, we identified for the first time a mutation in the ABCG5 gene of a European Sitosterolemia patient. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Biochemical and mutational analyses of the cathepsin c gene (CTSC) in three North American families with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2002
    Y. Zhang
    Abstract Papillon Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and severe periodontitis. The disease is caused by mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) that maps to chromosome 11q14. CTSC gene mutations associated with PLS have been correlated with significantly decreased enzyme activity. Mutational analysis of the CTSC gene in three North American families segregating PLS identified four mutations, including a novel mutation p.G139R. All mutations were associated with dramatically reduced CTSC protease enzyme activity. A homozygous c.96T>G transversion resulting in a p.Y32X change was present in a Mexican PLS proband, while one Caucasian PLS proband was a compound heterozygote for the p.Y32X and p.R272P (c.815G>C) mutations. The other Caucasian PLS proband was a compound heterozygote for c.415G>A transition and c.1141delC mutations that resulted in a p.G139R and a frameshift and premature termination (p.L381fsX393), respectively. The c.415G>A was not present in more than 300 controls, suggesting it is not a CTSC polymorphism. Biochemical analysis demonstrated almost no detectable CTSC activity in leukocytes of all three probands. These mutations altered restriction enzyme sites in the highly conserved CTSC gene. Sequence analysis of CTSC exon 3 confirmed the previously reported p.T153I polymorphism in 4 of the 5 ethnically diverse populations studied. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Juvenile Paget's Disease: The Second Reported, Oldest Patient Is Homozygous for the TNFRSF11B "Balkan" Mutation (966_969delTGACinsCTT), Which Elevates Circulating Immunoreactive Osteoprotegerin Levels,,§¶

    Michael P Whyte MD
    Abstract The oldest person (60 yr) with juvenile Paget's disease is homozygous for the TNFRSF11B mutation 966_969delTGACinsCTT. Elevated circulating levels of immunoreactive OPG and soluble RANKL accompany this genetic defect that truncates the OPG monomer, preventing formation of OPG homodimers. Introduction: Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, features skeletal pain, fracture, and deformity from extremely rapid bone turnover. Deafness and sometimes retinopathy also occur. Most patients have diminished osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibition of osteoclastogenesis caused by homozygous loss-of-function defects in TNFRSF11B, the gene that encodes OPG. Circulating immunoreactive OPG (iOPG) is undetectable with complete deletion of TNFRSF11B but normal with a 3-bp in-frame deletion. Materials and Methods: We summarize the clinical course of a 60-yr-old Greek man who is the second reported, oldest JPD patient, including his response to two decades of bisphosphonate therapy. Mutation analysis involved sequencing all exons and adjacent mRNA splice sites of TNFRSF11B. Over the past 4 yr, we used ELISAs to quantitate his serum iOPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels. Results: Our patient suffered progressive deafness and became legally blind, although elevated markers of bone turnover have been normal for 6 yr. He carries the same homozygous mutation in TNFRSF11B (966_969delTGACinsCTT) reported in a seemingly unrelated Greek boy and Croatian man who also have relatively mild JPD. This frame-shift deletes 79 carboxyterminal amino acids from the OPG monomer, including a cysteine residue necessary for homodimerization. Nevertheless, serum iOPG and sRANKL levels are persistently elevated. Conclusions: Homozygosity for the TNFRSF11B "Balkan" mutation (966_969delTGACinsCTT) causes JPD in the second reported, oldest patient. Elevated circulating iOPG and sRANKL levels complement evidence that this deletion/insertion omits a cysteine residue at the carboxyterminus needed for OPG homodimerization. [source]

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis as a bridge to liver transplantation in fulminant Wilson disease

    Jeffrey S. Jhang
    Abstract Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism that leads to the accumulation of copper mainly in the liver, cornea, brain, and kidney. Rarely, Wilson disease can present as fulminant hepatic failure with direct antiglobulin test,negative hemolytic anemia and renal failure. In the absence of liver transplantation, this disease is uniformly fatal because medical therapy is ineffective. This report describes the successful use of plasmapheresis for a patient with fulminant Wilson disease as a bridge to transplantation. Five daily therapeutic plasmapheresis procedures using fresh frozen plasma as a replacement fluid were performed over 6 days. Serum copper, urinary copper excretion, and hemolysis were significantly reduced and renal function improved. The patient's clinical status improved and she remained clinically stable until a liver transplant was possible. Plasmapheresis can be a successful medical treatment in fulminant Wilson disease and should be considered as a therapeutic measure to stabilize a patient by decreasing serum copper, reducing hemolysis, and helping to prevent renal tubular injury from copper and copper complexes until liver transplantation is possible. J. Clin. Apheresis. 22:, 2007 © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A role for the Werner syndrome protein in epigenetic inactivation of the pluripotency factor Oct4

    AGING CELL, Issue 4 2010
    Johanna A. Smith
    Summary Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, the hallmarks of which are premature aging and early onset of neoplastic diseases (Orren, 2006; Bohr, 2008). The gene, whose mutation underlies the WS phenotype, is called WRN. The protein encoded by the WRN gene, WRNp, has DNA helicase activity (Gray et al., 1997; Orren, 2006; Bohr, 2008; Opresko, 2008). Extensive evidence suggests that WRNp plays a role in DNA replication and DNA repair (Chen et al., 2003; Hickson, 2003; Orren, 2006; Turaga et al., 2007; Bohr, 2008). However, WRNp function is not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that WRNp is involved in de novo DNA methylation of the promoter of the Oct4 gene, which encodes a crucial stem cell transcription factor. We demonstrate that WRNp localizes to the Oct4 promoter during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human pluripotent cells and associates with the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b in the chromatin of differentiating pluripotent cells. Depletion of WRNp does not affect demethylation of lysine 4 of the histone H3 at the Oct4 promoter, nor methylation of lysine 9 of H3, but it blocks the recruitment of Dnmt3b to the promoter and results in the reduced methylation of CpG sites within the Oct4 promoter. The lack of DNA methylation was associated with continued, albeit greatly reduced, Oct4 expression in WRN-deficient, retinoic acid-treated cells, which resulted in attenuated differentiation. The presented results reveal a novel function of WRNp and demonstrate that WRNp controls a key step in pluripotent stem cell differentiation. [source]

    Wilson's disease presenting with rapidly progressive visual loss: Another neurologic manifestation of Wilson's disease?

    Paul J Gow
    Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in copper-induced tissue damage that primarily involves the liver and central nervous system. The neurologic manifestations of WD almost universally involve a derangement of basal ganglia function or psychiatric disturbance. We report the case of a 46-year-old man presenting with end-stage liver disease caused by WD who had associated rapidly progressive optic neuropathy. We also discuss the possible association between the two conditions. [source]

    Intellectual and adaptive behaviour functioning in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

    K. Freeman
    Abstract Background Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in iron accumulation in the brain, has a diverse phenotypic expression. Based on limited case studies of one or two patients, intellectual impairment is considered part of PKAN. Investigations of cognitive functioning have utilized specific neuropsychological tests, without attention to general intellectual skills or adaptive behaviour. Methods Sixteen individuals with PKAN completed measures of global intellectual functioning, and participants or care providers completed measures of adaptive behaviour skills and day-to-day functional limitations. Clinicians provided global ratings of condition severity. Results Testing with standardized measures documented varied phenotypic expression, with general cognitive skills and adaptive behaviour ranging from high average to well below average. Age of disease onset correlated with measures of intellectual functioning, adaptive functioning and disease severity. Conclusions Findings support previously described clinical impressions of varied cognitive impairment and the association between age of onset and impairment. Further, they add important information regarding the natural history of the disease and suggest assessment strategies for use in treatment trials. [source]

    Regional and Developmental Expression of the Npc1 mRNA in the Mouse Brain

    A. Prasad
    Abstract: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal, autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol metabolism that results in progressive central nervous system deterioration and premature death. Recently, a gene mutated in NP-C disease (NPC1) was identified in both human patients and in the npcnih mouse model. Although the function of the NPC1 gene is at present unknown, determining the pattern of its expression in the brain may facilitate identification of the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease and in identifying relevant targets for any potential therapeutic intervention. We have used in situ hybridization techniques to characterize the pattern of Npc1 mRNA expression in both the wild-type and the npcnih mutant mouse brain. In adult animals of both genotypes, the Npc1 mRNA was detected in the majority of neurons in nearly all regions, but at significantly higher levels in the cerebellum and in specific pontine nuclei. Analysis of Npc1 mRNA levels during development in the wild-type mouse indicated that this transcript was expressed in neurons as early as embryonic day 15 and that a significant region-specific pattern of expression was established by postnatal day 7. Our data suggest that whereas the NPC1 gene is widely expressed in neurons of the brain, the higher levels of expression in the cerebellum and pontine structures established by early postnatal ages may make these regions more susceptible to neuronal dysfunction in NP-C disease. [source]

    Review article: the clinical management of congenital chloride diarrhoea

    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 477,485 Summary Background, Congenital chloride diarrhoea in a newborn is a medical emergency, requiring early diagnostics and treatment to prevent severe dehydration and infant mortality. While most of the 250 cases reported arise from Finland, Poland and Arab countries, single cases with this autosomal recessive disorder appear worldwide. Such congenital chloride diarrhoea rarity makes diagnosis difficult. Life-long salt substitution with NaCl and KCl stabilizes fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance diagnosis. When properly treated, the long-term outcome is favourable. Aim To summarize data on congenital chloride diarrhoea diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment, and to provide guidelines for both acute and long-term management of congenital chloride diarrhoea. Methods, Data are based on MEDLINE search for ,chloride diarrhoea', in addition to clinical experience in the treatment of the largest known series of patients. Results, Treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea involves (i) life-long salt substitution; (ii) management of acute dehydration and hypokalaemia during gastroenteritis or other infections; and (iii) recognition and treatment of other manifestations of the disease, such as intestinal inflammation, renal impairment and male subfertility. Conclusions, This review summarizes data on congenital chloride diarrhoea and provides guidelines for treatment. After being a mostly paediatric problem, adult patients constitute a rare challenge for gastroenterologists worldwide. [source]

    Six novel mutations including triple heterozygosity for Phe31Ser, 514delT and 516T,G factor X gene mutations are responsible for congenital factor X deficiency in patients of Nepali and Indian origin

    Summary., Factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare (1 : 100000) autosomal recessive disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations in FX gene. We have studied the molecular basis this disease in six Indian and one Nepali patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by measuring the FX coagulant activity (FX: C) using a PT based assay. Six of them had a FX: C of < 1% and one patient had 24% coagulant activity. Mutations were identified in all the seven patients. These included eight (88.8%) missense and one frame-shift (11.2%) mutations of which six were novel. Three of the novel mutations, a Phe31Ser affecting ,Gla' domain and 514delT and 516T,G mutations affecting Cys132 in ,connecting region' were identified in a triple compound heterozygous state in a Nepali patient presenting with a severe phenotype. Two other novel mutations, Gly133Arg, may affect the disulphide bridge between Cys132-Cys302 in the connecting region while Gly223Arg may perturb the catalytic triad (His236, Asp282 and Ser379). The other novel mutation, Ser354Arg, involves the replacement of a small-buried residue by a large basic aminoacid and is likely to have steric or electrostatic effects in the pocket involving Lys351-Arg347-Lys414 that contributes to the core epitope of FXa for binding to FVa. Three previously reported mutations, Thr318Met; Gly323Ser; Gly366Ser were also identified. This is the first report of the molecular basis of FX deficiency in patients from the Indian subcontinent. [source]