Autosomal Dominant Trait (autosomal + dominant_trait)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Birth defects caused by mutations in human GLI3 and mouse Gli3 genes

Ichiro Naruse
ABSTRACT GLI3 is the gene responsible for Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister,Hall syndrome (PHS) and Postaxial polydactyly type-A (PAP-A). Genetic polydactyly mice such as Pdn/Pdn (Polydactyly Nagoya), XtH/XtH (Extra toes) and XtJ/XtJ (Extra toes Jackson) are the mouse homolog of GCPS, and Gli3tmlUrtt/Gli3tmlUrt is produced as the mouse homolog of PHS. In the present review, relationships between mutation points of GLI3 and Gli3, and resulting phenotypes in humans and mice are described. It has been confirmed that mutation in the upstream or within the zinc finger domain of the GLI3 gene induces GCPS; that in the post-zinc finger region including the protease cleavage site induces PHS; and that in the downstream of the GLI3 gene induces PAP-A. A mimicking phenomenon was observed in the mouse homolog. Therefore, human GLI3 and mouse Gli3 genes have a common structure, and it is suggested here that mutations in the same functional regions produce similar phenotypes in human and mice. The most important issue might be that GCPS and PHS exhibit an autosomal dominant trait, but mouse homologs, such as Pdn/Pdn, XtH/XtH, XtJ/XtJ and Gli3tmlUrt/Gli3tmlUrt, are autosomal recessive traits in the manifestation of similar phenotypes to human diseases. It is discussed here how the reduced amounts of the GLI3 protein, or truncated mutant GLI3 protein, disrupt development of the limbs, head and face. [source]

Granulocyte function in patients with L-ferritin iron-responsive element (IRE) 39C,T-positive hereditary hyperferritinaemia,cataract syndrome

R. Fritsche-Polanz
Abstract Background, Hereditary hyperferritinaemia,cataract syndrome (HHCS) is an autosomal dominant trait associated with mutations in the iron responsive element (IRE) of the ferritin light-chain (L-ferritin) gene. Patients typically show elevated serum ferritin concentrations without iron overload and a bilateral cataract. Hyperferritinaemia can be associated with granulocyte dysfunction in patients with thalassemia beta and in haemodialysis patients. The effect of increased L-ferritin levels on granulocyte function in patients with HHCS is unknown. Material and methods, We examined glucose uptake, oxidative burst, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, apoptosis and intracellular calcium concentrations in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) of five affected members of a family with HHCS and in five healthy individuals matched for age and gender. Results, Mutation testing revealed a 39C,T transition in IRE in all five patients with HHCS. Serum ferritin levels of patients ranged between 907 and 2030 g L,1, respectively. In comparison with healthy individuals, PMNLs of patients with HHCS showed a significant increase in PMA-mediated stimulation of the oxidative burst, as well as a significantly higher stimulation of glucose uptake but no difference with respect to chemotaxis, phagocytosis, apoptosis and intracellular calcium concentrations. Conclusion, In summary, our study suggests that hyperferritinaemia in patients with IRE 39C,T-positive HHCS is associated with activation of PMNLs but not with disturbance of fundamental PMNL function. [source]

Familial chronic myeloproliferative disorders: the state of the art,

Elisa Rumi
Abstract Familial chronic myeloproliferative disorders are defined when in the same pedigree at least two relatives have a chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMD) as polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF). This condition should be distinguished from inherited disorders with Mendelian transmission and single haematopoietic lineage proliferation, named hereditary erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis. The recently discovered mutations in patients with CMD (V617F and exon 12 of JAK2 gene, MPL gene), and those identified in hereditary erythrocytosis and in hereditary thrombocytosis have improved our ability to discriminate these conditions. In familial CMD, the JAK2 mutations are acquired and occur as secondary genetic events. As both mutations of the JAK2 gene have been reported in the same pedigree, a genetic predisposition to the acquisition of the JAK2 mutations is supposed to be inherited. The prevalence of familial cases within CMD is at least 7.6%. The inheritance pattern of familial CMD is consistent with an autosomal dominant trait with decreased penetrance. The clinical presentation at diagnosis of patients with familial CMD does not differ from that of patients with sporadic CMD. In addition, patients with familial CMD develop the same type of complications (thrombosis and haemorrhage) and disease evolution (post-PV myelofibrosis, post-ET myelofibrosis and leukaemia) observed in patients with sporadic CMD. The 10-year survival is 83% for patients with familial PV, 100% for those with familial ET, and 30% for those with familial PMF. The aim of this review is to focus the state of the art of familial CMD and to offer an overview of inherited conditions causing erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

LDL-receptor mutations in Europe,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2004
George V.Z. Dedoussis
Abstract Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a clinical definition for a remarkable increase of cholesterol serum concentration, presence of xanthomas, and an autosomal dominant trait of either increased serum cholesterol or premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The identification of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor (LDLR) as the underlying cause and its genetic characterization in FH patients revealed more insights in the trafficking of LDL, which primarily transports cholesterol to hepatic and peripheral cells. Mutations within LDLR result in hypercholesterolemia and, subsequently, cholesterol deposition in humans to a variable degree. This confirms the pathogenetic role of LDLR and also highlights the existence of additional factors in determining the phenotype. Autosomal dominant FH is caused by LDLR deficiency and defective apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB), respectively. Heterozygosity of the LDLR is relatively common (1:500). Clinical diagnosis is highly important and genetic diagnosis may be helpful, since treatment is usually effective for this otherwise fatal disease. Very recently, mutations in PCSK9 have been also shown to cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. For autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia, mutations within the so-called ARH gene encoding a cellular adaptor protein required for LDL transport have been identified. These insights emphasize the crucial importance of LDL metabolism intra- and extracellularly in determining LDL-cholesterol serum concentration. Herein, we focus on the published European LDLR mutation data that reflect its heterogeneity and phenotypic penetrance. Hum Mutat 24:443,459, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification of five chromosomal regions involved in predisposition to melanoma by genome-wide scan in the MeLiM swine model

Claudine Geffrotin
Abstract In human familial melanoma, 3 risk susceptibility genes are already known, CDKN2A, CDK4 and MC1R. However, various observations suggest that other melanoma susceptibility genes have not yet been identified. To search for new susceptibility loci, we used the MeLiM swine as an animal model of hereditary melanoma to perform a genome scan for linkage to melanoma. Founders of the affected MeLiM stock were crossed with each other and with healthy Duroc pigs, generating MeLiM, F1 and backcross families. As we had previously excluded the MeLiM CDKN2A gene, we paid special attention to CDK4 and MC1R, as well as to other candidates such as BRAF and the SLA complex, mapping them on the swine radiation hybrid map and/or isolating close microsatellite markers to introduce them into the genome scan. The results revealed, first, that swine melanoma was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance, preferably in black animals. Second, 4 chromosomal regions potentially involved in melanoma susceptibility were identified on Sus Scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 1, 2, 7 and 8, respectively, in intervals 44,103, 1.9,18, 59,73 and 47,62 cM. A fifth region close to MC1R was revealed on SSC 6 by analyzing an individual marker located at position 7.5 cM. Lastly, CDK4 and BRAF were unlikely to be melanoma susceptibility genes in the MeLiM swine model. The 3 regions on SSC 1, 6 and 7, respectively, have counterparts on human chromosomes (HSA) 9p, 16q and 6p, harboring melanoma candidate loci. The 2 others, on SSC 2 and 8, have counterparts on HSA 11 and 4, which might therefore be of interest for human studies. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Peutz,Jeghers syndrome in a 14-year-old boy: case report and review of the literature

Summary., Peutz,Jeghers syndrome (PSJ) is a relatively rare but well-recognized condition, with a prevalence of approximately one in 120 000 births in the USA. It is generally inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, although 35% of cases are new mutations. This disorder is characterized by melanocytic macules on the hands, feet, peri,oral skin and oral mucosa, and multiple gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps. People with PSJ have an increased risk for developing a variety of malignant tumours. The aim of the present study was to report one case of PSJ in a 14-year-old boy with mucocutaneous pigmentation associated with duodenal hamartomatous polyps. [source]

Cowden's syndrome (multiple hamartoma and neoplasia syndrome): diagnostic dilemmas in three cases

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2000
SI Chaudhry
Cowden's syndrome is a multisystem disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expression. The disease has typical oral manifestations which often precede more systemic involvement, and the dental professional is therefore well placed to institute a regime of regular checks to ensure early treatment of any neoplasms which may occur. However, since not all of the classical signs are present in all patients, diagnosis may be difficult. The case report of a patient with most of the features of Cowden's syndrome is presented and features compared with two other possible cases. [source]

Unusual presentation of a hypoglossal nerve neurofibroma

ORAL SURGERY, Issue 4 2009
V. Patel
Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 1 genetic disorder is an inherited autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance and expressivity and occurs in one of every 2000,3300 live births. Neurofibromatosis type 2, on the other hand, afflicts only one in approximately 50 000 people. Within these patients, the frequency of intra-oral involvement of neurofibromas has been reported in a range of 4,7%. Alternatively, neurofibromas in the oral cavity minus the presence of a neurofibromatosis disease has been documented but the prevalence is even less than stated earlier making a solitary neurofibroma of the tongue a rare occurrence. This article reports an unusual presentation of a neurofibroma masquerading as a lipoma with the tumour occurring at the base of the tongue. [source]

Detection of a novel silent deletion, a missense mutation and a nonsense mutation in TCOF1

Hirotaka Fujioka
Abstract Background: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development, that is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene. TCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, and haploinsufficiency of the TCOF1 gene product treacle is proposed to be etiologically involved. Methods: Mutational analysis of the TCOF1 gene was done in 10 patients diagnosed with TCS using single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. Results: Among these 10 patients, a novel 9 bp deletion was found, together with a previously reported 2 bp deletion, a novel missense mutation and a novel nonsense mutation in three different families. Familial studies allowed judgment of whether these abnormal findings were responsible for the TCS phenotype, or not. The 9 bp deletion of three amino acids Lys-Glu-Lys (1378,1380), which was located in the nuclear localization domain of treacle, seemed not essential for the treacle function. In contrast, the novel mutation of Ala26Val is considered to affect the LisH domain, an important domain of treacle. All of the mutations thus far detected in exon 5 have resulted in frameshift, but a nonsense mutation was detected (Lys159Stop). Conclusion: The information obtained in the present study provides additional insights into the functional domains of treacle. [source]

Clinical heterogeneity in recessive epidermolysis bullosa due to mutations in the keratin 14 gene, KRT14

E. Yiasemides
Summary Background., Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), the most common subtype of EB, is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait caused by mutations in either the keratin 5 (KRT5) or keratin 14 (KRT14) genes. Recessive EBS (R-EBS) is extremely rare. Methods., We present the first Australian patient diagnosed with R-EBS, to our knowledge, and a comprehensive review of genotypes and phenotypes of R-EBS reported cases. Results., The female proband, of Turkish descent with consanguineous parentage, was referred to us at the age of 8 years. Clinically, she had a severe phenotype including generalized blisters, mucosal involvement and EB naevi. Immunofluorescence mapping and electron microscopy were consistent with a diagnosis of EBS. Staining for Keratin 14 (K14) was negative. The basal layer, however, reacted with monoclonal antibodies to keratins 6 (K6) and 16 (K16). Mutation screening from genomic DNA showed that the proband was homozygous for the truncation mutation Y204X in exon 3 of KRT14, and both unaffected parents were heterozygous for a single KRT14 Y204X mutation. The phenotype of our patient is reported in more detail and with longer follow-up than those of others published in the literature. Discussion., The proband's phenotype was severe as an infant but improved with age, suggesting that an alternative keratin is pairing with K5 in her skin to compensate for the loss of K14 , a novel biological compensatory mechanism. It is interesting that K6 and K16 were expressed, as these are normally positive in hyperproliferative skin disorders. [source]