Autoantibody Production (autoantibody + production)

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Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Deficiency of the type I interferon receptor protects mice from experimental lupus,

Dina C. Nacionales
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed according to a spectrum of clinical manifestations and autoantibodies associated with abnormal expression of type I interferon (IFN-I),stimulated genes (ISGs). The role of IFN-I in the pathogenesis of SLE remains uncertain, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. The objective of this study was to examine the role of IFN-I signaling in the pathogenesis of murine lupus induced by 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD). Methods IFN-I receptor,deficient (IFNAR,/,) 129Sv mice and wild-type (WT) 129Sv control mice were treated intraperitoneally with TMPD. The expression of ISGs was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Autoantibody production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteinuria and renal glomerular cellularity were measured and renal immune complexes were examined by immunofluorescence. Results Increased ISG expression was observed in the peripheral blood of TMPD-treated WT mice, but not in the peripheral blood of TMPD-treated IFNAR,/, mice. TMPD did not induce lupus-specific autoantibodies (anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti,double-stranded DNA) in IFNAR,/, mice, whereas 129Sv controls developed these specificities. Although glomerular immune complexes were present in IFNAR,/, mice, proteinuria and glomerular hypercellularity did not develop, whereas these features of glomerulonephritis were found in the TMPD-treated WT controls. The clinical and serologic manifestations observed in TMPD-treated mice were strongly dependent on IFNAR signaling, which is consistent with the association of increased expression of ISGs with lupus-specific autoantibodies and nephritis in humans. Conclusion Similar to its proposed role in human SLE, signaling via the IFNAR is central to the pathogenesis of autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis in TMPD-induced lupus. This lupus model is the first animal model shown to recapitulate the "interferon signature" in peripheral blood. [source]

Autoantibody production from a thymoma and a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus

J. Wang
Summary Background, Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. We previously reported that B cells in a Castleman tumour associated with PNP produced autoantibodies. However, it is uncertain whether the production of autoantibodies from the associated tumour is a common mechanism in PNP. Objectives, To investigate autoantibody production in a thymoma and a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma that were excised from two patients with PNP. Methods, Tumour cells were cultured, and their surface markers were identified. Indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using culture media from the tumours were used to detect PNP autoantibodies. Results, B cells with markers (CD22+, surface membrane IgG+ and surface membrane IgM+) of mature B lymphocytes constituted a proportion of cultured tumour cells in both tumours. Western blot showed that the medium from both the thymoma and the follicular dendritic cell sarcoma cells recognized 190-kDa periplakin and 210-kDa envoplakin bands of human epithelial proteins as well as recombinant linker regions of periplakin, envoplakin, desmoplakin and bullous pemphigoid antigen 1. ELISA was positive for antidesmoglein 3 antibody. Conclusions, The presence and localization in tumours of B-lymphocyte clones against proteins of the plakin family and desmoglein 3 in skin may not be confined to PNP with Castleman disease, but is possibly a common mechanism in PNP associated with various tumours. [source]

Increased stress protein ORP150 autoantibody production in Type 1 diabetic patients

Y. Nakatani
Abstract Aims Various genetic and environmental stresses interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which leads to the induction of ER stress. It has recently been reported that ER stress is involved in the development of diabetes in diabetic animal models. The aim of this study is to estimate ER stress levels in Type 1 diabetic patients. Methods We recruited Type 1 diabetic patients undergoing periodic follow-up examinations (n = 91) and healthy non-diabetic individuals (n = 37), and measured their serum anti-oxygen-related protein (ORP)150 autoantibody levels. Results Anti-ORP150 autoantibody levels in Type 1 diabetic patients were significantly higher compared with those in healthy non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the serum autoantibody levels in Type 1 diabetic patients correlated with HbA1c (F > 3.0, P = 0.079), indicating that hyperglycaemia itself induces ER stress in diabetes. Conclusions Anti-ORP150 autoantibody levels in Type 1 diabetic patients are higher compared with non-diabetic subjects, suggesting that ER stress is increased in Type 1 diabetes. [source]

Efficient help for autoreactive B-cell activation requires CD4+ T-cell recognition of an agonist peptide at the effector stage

Brian D. Hondowicz
Abstract T-cell recognition of peptide/MHC complexes is flexible and can lead to differential activation, but how interactions with agonist (full activation) or partial agonist (suboptimal activation) peptides can shape immune responses in vivo is not well characterized. We investigated the effect of stimulation by agonist or partial agonist ligands during initial CD4+ T-cell priming, and subsequent T-B-cell cognate interactions, on antibody production by anti-chromatin B cells. We found that autoantibody production required TCR recognition of an agonist peptide at the effector stage of B-cell activation. However, interaction with a weak agonist ligand at this effector stage failed to promote efficient autoantibody production, even if the CD4+ T cells were fully primed by an agonist peptide. These studies suggest that the reactivity of the TCR for a target self-peptide during CD4+ T-B-cell interaction can be a critical determinant in restraining anti-chromatin autoantibody production. [source]

Development of nephritis but not sialadenitis in autoimmune-prone BAFF transgenic mice lacking marginal zone B cells

Abstract B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is a B cell survival factor required for B cell maturation. BAFF transgenic (Tg) mice develop autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibody production, which leads to nephritis and salivary gland destruction (sialadenitis), features reminiscent of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), respectively. Disease in BAFF Tg mice correlates with the expansion of the marginal zone (MZ) B cell compartment and the abnormal presence of MZ-like B cells in the blood, LN and inflamed salivary glands, suggesting a role for these cells in BAFF-induced autoimmunity. Lymphotoxin-, (LT,)-deficient mice show disrupted splenic architecture, lack MZ B cells and some peripheral LN, and are unable to mount T cell-dependent immune responses. BAFF Tg mice lacking LT, (LT,,-BTg) retained these defects, yet still developed nephritis associated with the presence of B-1 B cells in the kidneys. However, in contrast to old BAFF Tg mice, aging LT,,-BTg mice no longer developed sialadenitis. Thus, autoimmune disorders in BAFF Tg mice are possibly events coordinated by MZ and B-1 B cells at separate anatomical sites. [source]

Fc,RIIB deficiency with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmune disease

Kaori Yajima
Abstract MRL.Faslpr/lpr mice, a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and arthritis in humans, have a Fas mutation that results in spontaneous development of systemic autoimmune diseases and a short life span. Half of them die by 5,6,months of age due to massive progression of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus nephritis. However, C57BL/6 (B6).Faslpr/lpr strain does not develop such disorders within the normal life span, indicating that suppressor gene(s) in B6 mice may control the onset and exacerbation of disease. Here, we show that the gene for a unique inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (Fc,RIIB) is a critical SLE suppressor. Fc,RIIB-deficient B6.Faslpr/lpr (B6.IIB,/,Faslpr/lpr) mice developed systemic autoimmune diseases, including anti-DNA and anti-type,II collagen autoantibodies and cryoglobulin production, immune complex glomerulonephritis and arthritis. They were short-lived, due to enhanced autoantibody production by B cells culminating in fatal lupus nephritis. Thus, Fc,RIIB deletion with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmunity in B6 mice. The inhibitory signaling cascade via Fc,RIIB may be critical for suppressing SLE in humans. [source]

Interleukin-6 is responsible for aberrant B-cell receptor-mediated regulation of RAG expression in systemic lupus erythematosus

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
Sophie Hillion
Summary Defective regulation of secondary immunoglobulin V(D)J gene rearrangement promotes the production of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It remains unclear, however, whether the regulation of the recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 is effective in SLE. RAG1 and RAG2 messenger RNA expression was analysed before and after in vitro activation of sorted CD19+ CD5, B cells with anti-immunoglobulin M antibodies, in 20 SLE patients and 17 healthy controls. The expression of CDK2 and p27Kip1 regulators of the RAG2 protein, were examined. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its influence on RAG regulation were also evaluated in vitro. SLE patients had increased frequency of RAG-positive B cells. B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement induced a shift in the frequency of ,- and ,-positive cells, associated with a persistence of RAG messenger RNA and the maintenance of RAG2 protein within the nucleus. While expression of the RAG2-negative regulator CDK2 was normal, the positive regulator p27Kip1 was up-regulated and enhanced by BCR engagement. This effect was the result of the aberrant production of IL-6 by SLE B cells. Furthermore, IL-6 receptor blockade led to a reduction in p27Kip1 expression, and allowed the translocation of RAG2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Our study indicates that aberrant production of IL-6 contributes to the inability of SLE B cells to terminate RAG protein production. Therefore, we hypothesize that because of constitutive IL-6 signalling in association with BCR engagement, SLE B cells would become prone to secondary immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and autoantibody production. [source]

The immunological basis of B-cell therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus

Mo Yin MOK
Abstract Loss of B-cell tolerance is a hallmark feature of the pathogenesis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease that is characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. These autoantibodies lead to formation of immune-complex deposition in internal organs causing inflammation and damage. Autoreactive B-cells are believed to be central in the pathophysiology of SLE. Other than its role in the production of antibodies that mediate humoral immune response, B-cells also function as antigen-presenting cells and are capable of activating T-cells. Activated B-cells may also produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that aggravate local inflammation. Abnormal B-cell homeostasis has been described in SLE patients. This may occur as a result of intrinsic B-cell defect or from aberrant regulation by maturation and survival signals. B-cell-based therapy is the current mainstream of research and development of novel therapies in SLE patients with severe and refractory disease. Potential cellular and molecular targets for B-cell therapies include cell surface molecules such as CD20 (rituximab) and CD22 (epratuzumab); co-stimulatory molecules involved in B-cell,T-cell interaction such as CTLA4 and B7 molecules (abatacept); maturation and growth factors such as B-cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand (belimumab, briobacept, atacicept) and B-cell tolerogen (abetimus). This article provides an overview on normal B-cell physiology and abnormal B-cell biology in SLE that form the immunological basis of B-cell-targeted therapy in the treatment of these patients with refractory diseases. [source]

Peritoneal and Peripheral B-1-Cell Populations in Patients with Endometriosis

Dr. Fumihisa Chishima
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and peripheral blood of patients with endometriosis. Materials and Methods: We examined 31 patients with endometriosis and 14 normal nonpregnant women. Peripheral blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were stained with FITC or PE-labeled anti-CD5/CD19 monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence analysis was performed using a flow cytometer. The significance of differences between the patient and control groups was determined by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no significant difference in the percentages of B-1 cells in the peripheral blood of women with and without endometriosis (median, 22.7%; range, 4.7,92.3% vs median, 20.05%; range, 11.1,12.6%, respectively). Endometriosis patients with antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) demonstrated significantly elevated B-1 cells compared to both endometriosis patients without ANAs and normal controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively). Endometriosis patients demonstrated significantly higher B-1 cell populations (B-1 cells/total B-cell ratio) in PECs than did non-endometriosis patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The peripheral B-1-cell population in patients with endometriosis is related to ANA production. B-1 cells might play important roles in the development of endometriosis through autoantibody production. [source]

Modulation of immune response with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin-induced anergic T cells in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura,

Summary.,Background:,Platelet glycoprotein (GP)-reactive CD4+ T cells are essential for the stimulation and maintenance of antiplatelet autoantibody production in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Blocking costimulatory signals could result in platelet-specific T-cell anergy. Methods:,GP-specific CD4+ T cells from patients with ITP were made anergic using cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig). The CTLA4-Ig-induced GP-specific anergic T cells were investigated for their inhibitory function on GP-reactive T-cell proliferation and antibody production with in vitro culture systems. To further analyze their tolerizing mechanisms, we cocultured GP-anergic T cells with dendritic cells (DCs) from patients with ITP. Results:,Our studies demonstrated that the anergized GP-specific T cells have profound effects on both GP-specific T-cell proliferation and antibody production. These anergic T cells exerted their suppressive effects mainly in a cell contact-dependent manner, and they were not constitutively suppressive but required specific antigen stimulation to make DCs tolerogenic. The anergic T-cell-modulated DCs could induce the autoreactive T cells to be tolerant, and this effect was not restricted to T cells of the same specificity. Conclusion:,Our studies demonstrate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in suppressing the pathologic autoimmune responses in ITP. These findings provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of anergy induction in chronic ITP. [source]

Specific immunotherapy of experimental myasthenia gravis by a novel mechanism

Jie Luo PhD
Objective Myasthenia gravis (MG) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), are antibody (Ab)-mediated autoimmune diseases, in which autoantibodies bind to and cause loss of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction. To develop a specific immunotherapy of MG, we treated rats with ongoing EAMG by intraperitoneal injection of bacterially-expressed human muscle AChR constructs. Methods Rats with ongoing EAMG received intraperitoneal treatment with the constructs weekly for 5 weeks beginning after the acute phase. Autoantibody concentration, subclassification, and specificity were analyzed to address the underlying therapeutic mechanism. Results EAMG was specifically suppressed by diverting autoantibody production away from pathologically relevant specificities directed at epitopes on the extracellular surface of muscle AChRs toward pathologically irrelevant epitopes on the cytoplasmic domain. A mixture of subunit cytoplasmic domains was more effective than a mixture containing both extracellular and cytoplasmic domains or than only the extracellular domain of ,1 subunits. Interpretation Therapy using only cytoplasmic domains, which lack pathologically relevant epitopes, avoids the potential liability of boosting the pathological response. Use of a mixture of bacterially-expressed human muscle AChR cytoplasmic domains for antigen-specific immunosuppression of myasthenia gravis has the potential to be specific, robust, and safe. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:441,451 [source]

Protein phosphorylation and kinome profiling reveal altered regulation of multiple signaling pathways in B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Taher E. Taher
Objective The cause of B lymphocyte hyperactivity and autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear. Previously, we identified abnormalities in the level and translocation of signaling molecules in B cells in SLE patients. The present study was undertaken to examine the extent of signaling abnormalities that relate to altered B cell responses in SLE. Methods B lymphocytes from 88 SLE patients and 72 healthy controls were isolated from blood by negative selection. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and cellular kinase levels were analyzed by Western blotting, flow cytometry, and a kinome array protocol. Changes in protein phosphorylation were determined in ex vivo B cells and following B cell receptor engagement. Results Differences in tyrosine phosphorylation in B cells from patients with SLE, compared with matched controls, were demonstrated. Further, the kinome array analysis identified changes in the activation of key kinases, i.e., the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which regulates survival and differentiation, was up-regulated and the activity of Rac and Rho kinases, which regulate the cytoskeleton and migration, was increased. In contrast, the activity of ATR, which regulates the cell cycle, was down-regulated in SLE patients compared with controls. Differences in signaling pathways were seen in all SLE B lymphocyte subsets that manifested phenotypic features of immature, mature, and memory cells. Conclusion This study revealed dysregulation in multiple signaling pathways that control key responses in B cells of SLE patients. Data generated in this study provide a molecular basis for further analysis of the altered B lymphocyte responses in SLE. [source]

Prolonged effects of short-term anti-CD20 B cell depletion therapy in murine systemic lupus erythematosus

Kai W. Bekar
Objective Although B cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, the role of B cell depletion (BCD) as a treatment is controversial, given the variable benefit in human disease. This study was undertaken to test the effects of BCD therapy in a murine lupus model to better understand the mechanisms, heterogeneity, and effects on disease outcomes. Methods (NZB × NZW)F1 female mice with varying degrees of disease severity were treated with an anti-mouse CD20 (anti-mCD20) antibody (IgG2a), BR3-Fc fusion protein (for BAFF blockade), or control anti-human CD20 monoclonal antibody (,10 mg/kg each). Tissue samples were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry. The development and extent of nephritis were assessed by monitoring proteinuria (using a urine dipstick) and by immunohistochemical analysis of the kidneys. Serum immunoglobulin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results After a single injection of anti-mCD20, BCD was more efficient in the peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and spleen compared with the bone marrow and peritoneum of normal mice as well as younger mice with lupus. Since depletion of the marginal zone and peritoneal B cells was incomplete and variable, particularly in older mice with established nephritis, a strategy of sequential weekly dosing was subsequently used, which improved the extent of depletion. BAFF blockade further enhanced depletion in the spleen and lymph nodes. Early BCD therapy delayed disease onset, whereas BCD therapy in mice with advanced disease reduced the progression of nephritis. These effects were long-lasting, even after B cell reconstitution occurred, and were associated with a reduction in T cell activation but no significant change in autoantibody production. Conclusion The lasting benefit of a short course of BCD therapy in lupus-prone mice with an intact immune system and established disease highlights the validity of this treatment approach. [source]

Liver X receptor agonism promotes articular inflammation in murine collagen-induced arthritis

Darren L. Asquith
Objective Liver X receptors (LXRs) have previously been implicated in the regulation of inflammation and have, in general, been ascribed an antiinflammatory role. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the biologic mechanisms of LXRs in vivo and in vitro in an experimental inflammatory arthritis model. Methods Male DBA/1 mice were immunized with type II collagen and treated from an early or established stage of arthritis with 2 different concentrations of the LXR agonists T1317 and GW3965 or vehicle control. The mice were monitored for articular inflammation and cartilage degradation by scoring for clinical signs of arthritis, histologic examination of the joints, and analysis of serum cytokine and antibody levels. In vitro, primary human monocytes and T cells were cultured in the presence of GW3965 or T1317, and the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were measured by multiplex assay. Results Contrary to expectations, LXR agonism with the use of 2 discrete, specific molecular entities led to substantial exacerbation of articular inflammation and cartilage destruction in this murine collagen-induced arthritis model. This was associated ex vivo with elevated cytokine expression, with enhanced Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, and with elevated collagen-specific autoantibody production. In vitro, LXR agonists, in concert with lipopolysaccharide, promoted cytokine and chemokine release from human monocytes, and similar effects were observed in a T cell,macrophage coculture model that closely recapitulates the pathways that drive synovial cytokine release. Conclusion Since LXRs are present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium, these results suggest that LXR-mediated pathways could exacerbate the chronic inflammatory response typical of RA. [source]

European population substructure is associated with mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus

Sharon A. Chung
Objective To determine whether genetic substructure in European-derived populations is associated with specific manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including mucocutaneous phenotypes, autoantibody production, and renal disease. Methods SLE patients of European descent (n = 1,754) from 8 case collections were genotyped for >1,400 ancestry informative markers that define a north,south gradient of European substructure. Using the Structure program, each SLE patient was characterized in terms of percent Northern (versus percent Southern) European ancestry based on these genetic markers. Nonparametric methods, including tests for trend, were used to identify associations between Northern European ancestry and specific SLE manifestations. Results In multivariate analyses, increasing levels of Northern European ancestry were significantly associated with photosensitivity (Ptrend = 0.0021, odds ratio for highest quartile of Northern European ancestry versus lowest quartile [ORhigh,low] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.13,2.35) and discoid rash (Ptrend = 0.014, ORhigh,low 1.93, 95% CI 0.98,3.83). In contrast, increasing levels of Northern European ancestry had a protective effect against the production of anticardiolipin autoantibodies (Ptrend = 1.6 × 10,4, ORhigh,low 0.46, 95% CI 0.30,0.69) and anti,double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (Ptrend = 0.017, ORhigh,low 0.67, 95% CI 0.46,0.96). Conclusion This study demonstrates that specific SLE manifestations vary according to Northern versus Southern European ancestry. Thus, genetic ancestry may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity and variation in disease outcomes among SLE patients of European descent. Moreover, these results suggest that genetic studies of SLE subphenotypes will need to carefully address issues of population substructure based on genetic ancestry. [source]

Autoimmune regulator controls T cell help for pathogenetic autoantibody production in collagen-induced arthritis

Ian K. Campbell
Objective Autoimmune regulator (Aire) promotes the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), leading to negative selection of autoreactive T cells. This study was undertaken to determine whether loss of central tolerance renders Aire-deficient (Aire,/,) mice more susceptible to the induction of autoimmune arthritis. Methods Medullary TECs were isolated from Aire,/, and wild-type C57BL/6 mice for gene expression analysis. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was elicited by injection of chick type II collagen (CII) in adjuvant. Cellular and humoral immune responses to CII were evaluated. Chimeric mice were created by reconstituting lymphocyte-deficient mice with either Aire,/, or wild-type CD4 T cells and wild-type B cells. Results Wild-type, but not Aire,/,, mTECs expressed the CII gene Col2a1. Aire,/, mice developed more rapid and severe CIA, showing elevated serum anti-CII IgG levels, with earlier switching to arthritogenic IgG subclasses. No evidence was found of enhanced T cell responsiveness to CII in Aire,/, mice; however, Aire,/, CD4 T cells were more efficient at stimulating wild-type B cells to produce anti-CII IgG following immunization of chimeric mice with CII. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Aire-dependent expression of CII occurs in mTECs, implying that there is central tolerance to self antigens found in articular cartilage. Reduced central tolerance to CII in Aire,/, mice manifests as increased CD4 T cell help to B cells for cross-reactive autoantibody production and enhanced CIA. Aire and central tolerance help prevent cross-reactive autoimmune responses to CII initiated by environmental stimuli and limit spontaneous autoimmunity. [source]

Decrease in glomerulonephritis and Th1-associated autoantibody production after progesterone treatment in NZB/NZW mice

Grant C. Hughes
Objective While estrogen treatment exacerbates disease in models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the effects of progesterone are unclear. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of continuous progesterone treatment on autoantibody production and spontaneous glomerulonephritis (GN) in a mouse model of SLE. Methods Female (NZB × NZW)F1 (NZB/NZW) mice were treated with vehicle, 2 mg of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), or 10 mg of DMPA every 6 weeks. Survival, proteinuria, and serum anti,double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels were monitored. At 39 weeks of age, kidneys were analyzed for abnormalities and glomerular accumulation of IgG subclasses and C3. Spleen leukocyte subsets were also analyzed. Results DMPA treatment reduced mortality in a dose-dependent manner in association with reduced proteinuria and glomerular damage. High-dose DMPA treatment resulted in a reduction of total serum IgG and IgG2a anti-dsDNA antibody levels, whereas IgG1 anti-dsDNA antibody levels were modestly increased. High-dose DMPA reduced glomerular accumulation of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, and complement, while low-dose DMPA decreased glomerular IgG2a and IgG3 levels compared with vehicle treatment. Conclusion Our findings indicate that treatment of premorbid female NZB/NZW mice with DMPA reduces mortality and attenuates spontaneous GN, likely through multiple mechanisms, including altered ratios of protective Th2-related IgG antibodies versus nephritogenic Th1-related IgG autoantibodies. Thus, estrogen and progesterone may have disparate effects on lupus autoimmunity, lending new significance to observed hormonal imbalances in patients with SLE. These data also suggest that treatment of SLE patients with DMPA may have therapeutic benefit. [source]

Modulation of peripheral B cell tolerance by CD72 in a murine model

Daniel Hsieh-Hsin Li
Objective B cells play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. It is not well understood how B cell signaling contributes to autoantibody production. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of CD72 in modulating B cell receptor (BCR),mediated tolerogenic signaling and peripheral B cell tolerance. Methods A mouse model utilizing hen egg lysozyme (HEL) "anergic" B cells was studied. CD72-deficient mice carrying the BCR-specific IgHEL and/or soluble HEL (sHEL) transgenes were generated by breeding IgHEL -transgenic MD4 mice and/or sHEL -transgenic ML5 mice with congenic, CD72-deficient C57BL/6J mice. Normal and anergic B cells were isolated for analyses of B cell signaling. Aged wild-type and CD72-deficient mice were also examined for autoimmune phenomena. Results In the absence of CD72, anergic B cells inappropriately proliferated and survived in response to stimulation with self antigen. Biochemical analyses indicated that in anergic B cells, CD72 dominantly down-regulated BCR signaling to limit the antigen-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i and the activation of NFATc1, NF-,B, MAPK, and Akt. Mechanistically, CD72 was associated with, and regulated, the molecular adaptor Cbl-b in anergic B cells, suggesting that Cbl-b may play a role in mediating the negative effects of CD72 on BCR signaling. Moreover, in aged CD72-deficient mice, spontaneous production of antinuclear and anti,double-stranded DNA autoantibodies and features of lupus-like autoimmune disease were observed. Conclusion CD72 is required to maintain B cell anergy and functions as a regulator of peripheral B cell tolerance. Thus, altered CD72 expression may play a role during the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. [source]

Association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genotypes with radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis is dependent on autoantibody status

I. Marinou
Objective Recent evidence has highlighted a major genetic contribution to radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in the loci for interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22), and selenoprotein S are associated with radiographic damage. Methods Modified Larsen scores of radiographic damage were determined in a cross-sectional population of patients with RA (n = 964). Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti,cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) were also assayed. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test was used to compare median radiographic damage scores across genotype groups, followed by the Cuzick nonparametric test for trend to assess gene-dose effects. Results An allele-dose association of IL-6 ,174G with increasing radiographic damage was present (P = 0.005), but only in patients who were RF positive (P = 0.004) or anti-CCP positive (P = 0.01). Patients with the IL-10 ,592CC genotype had more extensive radiographic damage than did those with the AC or AA genotype (P = 0.006), but this was observed only among patients who were RF negative (P = 0.002) or anti-CCP negative (P = 0.002). However, RF status and anti-CCP status were not associated with the IL-6 or IL-10 genotype. No other genetic associations were detected, apart from a marginal association of PTPN22 +1858T with increased radiographic damage. Conclusion The reported associations of IL-6 ,174G with high IL-6 production and IL-10 ,592 with low IL-10 production and our own results support a role of genetically determined dysregulated cytokine production in disease severity. The lack of association of these genotypes with RF and anti-CCP antibody status suggests that they act downstream of autoantibody production. We conclude that IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes may be useful in predicting disease severity in autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative patients, respectively. [source]

Distinct mechanisms of action of anti-CD154 in early versus late treatment of murine lupus nephritis

Sergio A. Quezada
Objective Treatment with anti-CD154 antibody is known to ameliorate murine lupus nephritis when given early in the disease. The aims of this study were to identify the mechanism of this early effect, to determine whether late anti-CD154 treatment could halt established nephritis, and, if so, to examine potential mechanisms of late efficacy. Methods We studied the effects of anti-CD154 treatment on autoantibody production and immune complex deposition, renal pathology, survival, and renal cytokine and chemokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression both in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice (BW mice) and in NZM.2410 mice. Results Early treatment with anti-CD154 produced long-term survival in BW mice, with abrogation of renal immune complex deposition for months after treatment was stopped. Late anti-CD154 treatment, started after development of nephritis, could halt disease in ,40% of mice. In some mice, proteinuria could be reversed repeatedly with sequential courses of anti-CD154 antibody. The remissions induced by late treatment with anti-CD154 occurred despite ongoing renal immune complex deposition. In preliminary studies, responding mice had rapid reductions in renal mRNA for transforming growth factor ,, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor ,. Conclusion Amelioration of murine lupus by anti-CD154 therapy is mediated by distinct mechanisms in early versus late intervention. We postulate that anti-CD154 therapy prevents autoantibody production and renal immune complex deposition in the early, induction phase and limits secondary tissue damage in situ in the late, effector phase. These data demonstrate that CD40,CD154 interactions are critical for the maintenance of autoimmunity and suggest a potential role for anti-CD154 as a therapeutic agent in established human lupus. [source]

Autoantibody production from a thymoma and a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus

J. Wang
Summary Background, Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease. We previously reported that B cells in a Castleman tumour associated with PNP produced autoantibodies. However, it is uncertain whether the production of autoantibodies from the associated tumour is a common mechanism in PNP. Objectives, To investigate autoantibody production in a thymoma and a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma that were excised from two patients with PNP. Methods, Tumour cells were cultured, and their surface markers were identified. Indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using culture media from the tumours were used to detect PNP autoantibodies. Results, B cells with markers (CD22+, surface membrane IgG+ and surface membrane IgM+) of mature B lymphocytes constituted a proportion of cultured tumour cells in both tumours. Western blot showed that the medium from both the thymoma and the follicular dendritic cell sarcoma cells recognized 190-kDa periplakin and 210-kDa envoplakin bands of human epithelial proteins as well as recombinant linker regions of periplakin, envoplakin, desmoplakin and bullous pemphigoid antigen 1. ELISA was positive for antidesmoglein 3 antibody. Conclusions, The presence and localization in tumours of B-lymphocyte clones against proteins of the plakin family and desmoglein 3 in skin may not be confined to PNP with Castleman disease, but is possibly a common mechanism in PNP associated with various tumours. [source]

The role of CD4+CD25+ T cells in autoantibody production in murine lupus

W.-T. Hsu
Summary Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of tolerance to self-antigen. Because it is currently not known if regulatory T (Treg) cells are involved in the pathogenesis, we determined the frequency of CD4+CD25+ T cells and assayed the related gene expression levels in CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from both lupus mice (NZB/NZW F1) and normal control mice (DBA2/NZW F1). The results showed that the frequency of CD4+CD25+ T cells in lupus mice was lower than that of normal mice. Except for the high expression level of interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA, CD4+CD25+ T cells from lupus mice expressed normal forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-, mRNA, and exerted suppressive functions. Furthermore, we depleted CD25+ Treg cells of non-autoimmune mice with anti-CD25 antibody and broke their tolerance with apoptotic cell-pulsed dendritic cells for the follow-up of autoantibody levels. The mice in the CD25+ cell-depleted group had higher titres of anti-double-strand/single-strand DNA antibodies than those of the isotype control antibody-treated group. These findings indicated that CD4+CD25+ T cells might be involved in the regulatory mechanism of autoantibody production. [source]

Inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotides , therapeutic promise for systemic autoimmune diseases?

P. Lenert
Summary Recent studies have shed new light on a possible link between the innate activation of plasmocytoid dendritic cells and marginal zone B cells and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Animal studies have identified that this response requires the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Engagement of the TLR9 by various ligands, including non-canonical CpG-motifs, can cause or aggravate pathogenic autoantibody production and cytokine secretion in lupus. Attempts to neutralize this activity either by blocking the acidification of the endosomal compartment with chloroquine and related compounds, or by preventing the interaction between the CpG-DNA sequences and TLR9 using inhibitory oligonucleotides could be a promising therapeutic option for lupus. [source]

Association of FcGRIIa with Graves' disease: a potential role for dysregulated autoantibody clearance in disease onset/progression

Kadija Yesmin
Summary Objective, Although autoantibody production is a key feature of autoimmunity, it is not known whether variation in autoantibody production and clearance pathways is involved in disease susceptibility. The Fc Gamma Receptor IIa (FcGRIIa) molecule is involved in the clearance of autoantibodies and a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1801274, which has been shown to alter autoantibody clearance, has been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) including systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to determine whether FcGRIIa is associated with Graves' disease (GD) in the UK Caucasian population by Tag SNP screening common polymorphisms within the FcGRIIa region. Design, A case control association study investigating nine Tag SNPs within FcGRIIa, which captured the majority of known common variation within this gene region. Patients, A dataset comprising 2504 UK Caucasian GD patients and 2784 geographically matched controls taken from the 1958 British Birth cohort. Measurements, We used the ,2 -test to investigate association between the Tag SNPs and GD. Results, Association between the rs1801274 (P,= 0·003, OR = 1·12 [95% CI = 1·03,1·22] and rs6427598 (P = 0·012, OR = 0·90 [95% CI = 0·83-0·98]) SNPs and GD was observed. No other SNPs showed association with GD. No associations were seen between any of the SNPs investigated and specific GD clinical phenotypes. Conclusions, This study suggests that variation in FcGRIIa predisposes to GD and further supports the role of FcGRIIa as a susceptibility locus for AIDs in general. [source]