Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Run

  • bank run
  • chromatographic run
  • consecutive run
  • control run
  • cooling run
  • experimental run
  • first run
  • long run
  • longer run
  • model run
  • production run
  • second run
  • separate run
  • short run
  • simulation run
  • single run
  • subsequent run
  • test run

  • Terms modified by Run

  • run length
  • run parallel
  • run performance
  • run size
  • run time

  • Selected Abstracts

    Predicting reading and spelling difficulties in transparent and opaque orthographies: a comparison between Scandinavian and US/Australian children

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2010
    Bjarte Furnes
    Abstract In this study, predictors of reading and spelling difficulties among children learning more transparent (Norwegian/Swedish) and less transparent (English) orthographies were examined longitudinally from preschool through Grade 2 using parallel versions of tests. A series of logistic regression analysis indicated three main findings. First, phonological awareness as a predictor of reading difficulties in the Scandinavian sample was time-limited to Grade 1, but remained as a significant predictor in the English-speaking sample. Second, phonological awareness predicted spelling difficulties similarly across orthographies. Third, preschool and kindergarten RAN was a significant predictor of reading and spelling difficulties at both Grades 1 and 2 across orthographies. The authors conclude that phonological awareness diminishes as a predictor of reading difficulties in transparent orthographies after the first years of schooling, that RAN is a better long-term predictor of reading difficulties, and that phonological awareness is associated with spelling difficulties similarly in transparent and opaque orthographies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities and Children with Reading Disabilities Who Are At Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    Justin C. Wise
    Limited research has examined the skills of children with a reading disability (RD) and children with RD and a mathematics disability (MD). Even less research has examined the phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in these two groups of children and how these skills relate to reading and math achievement. Additionally, various classification criteria are frequently implemented to classify children with MD. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the PA and RAN skills in children who met different criteria for RD only and children with RD who are at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDR). Participants were 114 second- or third-grade students with RD from public elementary schools in three large metropolitan areas. Students were classified as at risk for mathematics difficulties utilizing a 25th-percentile cutoff and a 15th-percentile cutoff as assessed by the KeyMath-Revised Test (Connolly, 1988). A series of PA and RAN measures were administered along with a range of reading and mathematics measures. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that children with RD only evidenced a different pattern of results compared to children with RD + MDR. Additionally, using a more stringent criterion to classify children at risk for mathematics difficulties resulted in a differential pattern of results when compared to a less stringent classification criterion. [source]

    An application of the 2-nitrobenzenesulfenyl method to proteomic profiling of human colorectal carcinoma: A novel approach for biomarker discovery

    Makoto Watanabe
    Abstract In the development of novel biomarkers, the proteomic approach is advantageous because using it the cancer-associated proteins can be directly identified. We previously developed a 2-nitrobenzenesulfenyl (NBS) method to improve quantitative proteome analysis. Here, we applied this method to proteomic profiling of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to identify novel proteins with altered expression in CRC. Each pair of tumor and normal tissue specimens from 12 CRC patients was analyzed, and approximately 5000 NBS-labeled paired peaks were quantified. Peaks with altered signal intensities (>1.5-fold) and occurring frequently in the samples (>70%) were selected, and 128 proteins were identified by MS/MS analyses as differentially expressed proteins in CRC tissues. Many proteins were newly revealed to be CRC related; 30 were reported in earlier studies of CRC. Six proteins that were up-regulated in CRC (ZYX, RAN, RCN1, AHCY, LGALS1, and VIM) were further characterized and validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. All six were found to be CRC-localized, either in cancer cells or in stroma cells near the cancer cells. These results indicate that the proteins identified in this study are novel candidates for CRC markers, and that the NBS method is useful in proteome mining to discover novel biomarkers. [source]

    Pricing and hedging of quanto range accrual notes under Gaussian HJM with cross-currency Levy processes

    Szu-Lang Liao
    This study analyzes the pricing and hedging problems for quanto range accrual notes (RANs) under the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) framework with Levy processes for instantaneous domestic and foreign forward interest rates. We consider the effects of jump risk on both interest rates and exchange rates in the pricing of the notes. We first derive the pricing formula for quanto double interest rate digital options and quanto contingent payoff options; then we apply the method proposed by Turnbull (Journal of Derivatives, 1995, 3, 92,101) to replicate the quanto RAN by a combination of the quanto double interest rate digital options and the quanto contingent payoff options. Using the pricing formulas derived in this study, we obtain the hedging position for each issue of quanto RANs. In addition, by simulation and assuming the jump risk to follow a compound Poisson process, we further analyze the effects of jump risk and exchange rate risk on the coupons receivable in holding a RAN. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 29:973,998, 2009 [source]

    Age effects on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical activity and environmental enrichment in the APP23 mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 10 2009
    Sebastian Mirochnic
    Abstract An active lifestyle is to some degree protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis for this benefit is still far from clear. We hypothesize that physical and cognitive activity increase a reserve for plasticity by increasing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We thus assessed how age affects the response to activity in the murine APP23 model of AD compared with wild type (WT) controls and studied the effects of physical exercise (RUN) and environmental enrichment (ENR) in comparison with standard housing (CTR) at two different ages (6 months and 18 months) and in both genotypes. At 18 months, both activity paradigms reduced the hippocampal human A,1-42/A,1-40 ratio when compared with CTR, despite a stable plaque load in the hippocampus. At this age, both RUN and ENR increased the number of newborn granule cells in the DG of APP23 mice when compared with CTR, whereas the levels of regulation were equivalent to those in WT mice under the same housing conditions. At 6 months, however, neurogenesis in ENR but not RUN mice responded like the WT. Quantifying the number of cells at the doublecortin-positive stage in relation to the number of cells on postmitotic stages we found that ENR overproportionally increased the number of the DCX-positive "late" progenitor cells, indicative of an increased potential to recruit even more new neurons. In summary, the biological substrates for activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis were preserved in the APP23 mice. We thus propose that in this model, ENR even more than RUN might contribute to a "neurogenic reserve" despite a stable plaque load and that age affects the outcome of an interaction based on "activity." © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2007
    Article first published online: 8 FEB 200, Marco Missaglia
    ABSTRACT The idea of demand-led growth is defended by neo-Kaleckians and neo-Keynesians using very specific assumptions. In their models the paradox of costs is always valid in the long run. The central message of this paper is that these specific and strong assumptions are not needed to defend the Kaleckian perspective of a demand-driven long-run growth. What is needed is simply a less demanding theory of flexible mark-ups in an open economy. The formal model developed in this paper shows that long-run growth may be demand driven even when the paradox of costs does not hold in the long run. [source]


    Diamond and Dybvig provide a model of intermediation in which deposit insurance can avoid socially undesirable bank runs. We extend the Diamond,Dybvig model to evaluate the costs and benefits of deposit insurance in the presence of moral hazard by banks and monitoring by depositors. We find that complete deposit insurance alone will not support the first-best outcome: depositors will not have adequate incentives for monitoring and banks will invest in excessively risky projects. However, an additional capital requirement for banks can restore the first-best allocation. [source]

    Caffeine mimics adenine and 2,-deoxyadenosine, both of which inhibit the guanine-nucleotide exchange activity of RCC1 and the kinase activity of ATR

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 5 2003
    Hitoshi Nishijima
    Background: Both caffeine and the inactivation of RCC1, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of Ran, induce premature chromatin condensation (PCC) in hamster BHK21 cells arrested in the S-phase, suggesting that RCC1 is a target for caffeine. Results: Caffeine inhibited the Ran-GEF activity of RCC1 by preventing the binary complex formation of Ran-RCC1. Inhibition of the Ran-GEF activity of RCC1 by caffeine and its derivatives was correlated with their ability to induce PCC. Since caffeine is a derivative of xanthine, the bases and nucleosides were screened for their ability to inhibit RCC1. Adenine, adenosine, and all of the 2,-deoxynucleosides inhibited the Ran-GEF activity of RCC1; however, only adenine and 2,-deoxyadenosine (2,-dA) induced PCC. A factor(s) other than RCC1, should therefore be involved in PCC-induction. We found that both adenine and 2,-dA, but none of the other 2,-deoxynucleosides, inhibited the kinase activity of ATR, similar to that of caffeine. The ATR pathway was also abrogated by the inactivation of RCC1 in tsBN2 cells. Conclusion: The effect of caffeine on cell-cycle control mimics the biological effect of adenine and 2,-dA, both of which inhibit ATR. dATP, a final metabolite of adenine and 2,-dA, is suggested to inhibit ATR, resulting in PCC. [source]

    Tamo selectively modulates nuclear import in Drosophila

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 4 2003
    Svetlana Minakhina
    Background: The NF-,B/Rel pathway functions in the establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity and in the innate humoral and cellular immune response in Drosophila. An important aspect of all NF-,B/Rel pathways is the translocation of the Rel proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where they function as transcription factors. Results: We have identified a new protein, Tamo, which binds to Drosophila Rel protein Dorsal, but not to Dorsal lacking the nuclear localization sequence. Tamo does not bind to the other Drosophila Rel proteins, Dif and Relish. The Tamo-Dorsal complex forms in the cytoplasm and Tamo also interacts with a cytoplasmically orientated nucleoporin. In addition Tamo binds the Ras family small GTPase, Ran. Tamo functions during oogenesis and, based on phenotypic analysis, controls the levels of nuclear Dorsal in early embryos. It further regulates the accumulation of Dorsal in the nucleus after immune challenge. Conclusions:Tamo has an essential function during oogenesis. Tamo interacts with Dorsal and proteins that are part of the nuclear import machinery. We propose that tamo modulates the levels of import of Dorsal and other proteins. [source]

    Nucleocytoplasmic protein traffic and its significance to cell function

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 10 2000
    Yoshihiro Yoneda
    In eukaryotic cells, cell functions are maintained in an orderly manner through the continuous traffic of various proteins between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear import and export of proteins occurs through nuclear pore complexes and typically requires specific signals: the nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal, respectively. The transport pathways have been found to be highly divergent, but are known to be largely mediated by importin ,-like transport receptor family molecules. These receptor molecules bind to and carry their cargoes directly or via adapter molecules. A small GTPase Ran ensures the directionality of nuclear transport by regulating the interaction between the receptors and their cargoes through its GTP/GDP cycle. Moreover, it has been recently elucidated how the transport system is involved in various functions of cell physiology, such as cell cycle control. [source]

    Crystallization of the flexible nuclear import receptor importin-, in the unliganded state

    Noelia Roman
    The transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope is an essential eukaryotic process that enables proteins such as transcription factors, polymerases and histones to gain access to the genetic material contained within the nucleus. Importin-, plays a central role in the nucleocytoplasmic transport process, mediating nuclear import through a range of interactions with cytoplasmic, nuclear and nuclear pore proteins such as importin-,, Ran, nucleoporins and various cargo molecules. The unliganded form of the full-length yeast importin-, has been expressed and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion at pH 6.5 and 290,K. The crystals belonged to space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 58.17, b = 127.25, c = 68.52,Å, , = 102.23). One molecule is expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to 2.4,Å resolution using a laboratory X-ray source and were suitable for crystal structure determination. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Vicinal Dinitridoruthenium-Substituted Polyoxometalates ,-[XW10O38{RuN}2]6- (X: Si or Ge).

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 50 2009
    Anna Proust
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Helping Young People Make Choices for the Long Run

    Darlene Librero
    First page of article [source]

    Run Out of Landslides , Continuum Mechanics versus Discontinuum Mechanics Models

    Rainer Poisel a.o.Univ.-Prof.
    In general, a rock slope failure leads to the detachment of a rock mass consisting of a mass of blocks. During the last few years continuum mechanics as well as discontinuum mechanics numerical codes have been developed for modelling the run out of these masses. In order to compare both methods, Punta Thurwieser Rock Avalanche and Frank Slide were modelled by the continuum mechanics numerical code DAN3D as well as by the distinct element method PFC3D modified for run out modelling. The simulations showed that the parameters necessary to get results coinciding with observations in nature are completely different and that Frank run out was a real "slide" of a coherent mass, whereas Punta Thurwieser run out was a rock mass fall with much internal movement. The parameters for a run out simulation, therefore, have to be chosen in such a way that the simulation gives a rock mass fall in one particular case and a slide of a coherent mass in another, corresponding to the real conditions. Therefore, the prediction of the run out kinematics and the fixing of the parameters is a demanding task in each case when modelling run outs. Bergstürze , Vergleich kontinuumsmechanische und diskontinuumsmechanische Rechenmodelle Das Versagen von Felsböschungen und Talflanken führt meist zur Ablösung einer Masse von Blöcken. In den letzten Jahren wurden sowohl kontinuumsmechanische als auch diskontinuumsmechanische Rechenmodelle für die Simulation des Absturzvorgangs solcher Massen entwickelt. Anhand der Modellierung der Bergstürze Punta Thurwieser und Frank Slide mittels DAN3D und PFC3D werden die genannten Ansätze verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich die für eine realitätsnahe Modellierung erforderlichen Parameter stark unterscheiden. Während der Frank Slide als weitgehend kohärente Masse abging, war der Bergsturz Punta Thurwieser ein stark turbulenter Trümmerstrom. Die Parameter für die rechnerische Modellierung eines Bergsturzes müssen daher im einen Fall so gewählt werden, dass sich , je nach realen Verhältnissen , eine "laminare" Bewegung, im anderen Fall aber so, dass sich eine turbulente Bewegung ergibt. Die Vorhersage der Kinematik eines Bergsturzes und die darauf aufbauende Auswahl von Rechenparametern stellt daher eine anspruchsvolle Aufgabe dar. [source]

    Sources of stream sulphate in headwater catchments in Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia, USA

    Ross D. Fitzhugh
    Abstract Upland forested catchments in the Appalachian Plateau region receive among the greatest rates of atmospheric sulphur (S) deposition in the eastern USA, although coal mines and S-bearing minerals in bedrock may also contribute to stream acidity in this region. Watershed mass balance and stable S isotopic values (,34S) of sulphate (SO42,) were used to assess the contributions to stream SO42, from atmospheric and lithogenic sources at Yellow Creek (YC), a headwater catchment on the Appalachian Plateau in West Virginia. Oxygen isotopic values (,18O) of water were used to study catchment hydrology. Stream output of SO42, was c. 60% of atmospheric S deposition during a relatively dry year, whereas atmospheric S input was nearly balanced by stream output during a year with above normal amounts of precipitation. The temporal patterns and values of ,34S were similar between bulk precipitation and stream water at two upper elevation sites. At the lowest elevation site, stream ,34S values were similar to bulk precipitation values during the dormant season but were slightly lower than precipitation during the low-flow summer, probably as the result of a greater proportion of stream water being derived from deep hydrological flowpaths that have contacted S-bearing minerals with low ,34S values in coal seams. Stream ,34S values at YC were significantly higher than at Coal Run, a catchment containing abandoned coal prospects and having a greater amount of S-bearing minerals than YC. Results suggested that lithogenic S is a relatively minor source and that atmospheric deposition is the principal source of stream SO42,, and thus stream acidity, at YC. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    "Grab the Signatures and Run": Federal Unity Strategy in Canada from the Referendum to Patriation

    Neal Carter
    Whether as a traumatic event or great accomplishment, the legacy of the First Ministers' Conference of 1981 lives on in Canadian politics. Constitutional negotiations among the prime minister and provincial premiers in 1981 produced the only "packaged" agreement since Confederation to achieve even the minimal support necessary to achieve ratification. The resulting Constitution Act of 1982, which included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, remains in place and is the principal manifestation of intergovernmental bargaining from over two decades ago. This study reevaluates the strategic interaction and conflict processes that took place between Ottawa and the provinces in negotiations leading up to that fateful November 1981 conference. We apply the sociological framework for assessment of the dynamics of identity contention adopted from McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly (2001) and find tentative support for its propositions. After an overview of the article's agenda, we present an analytic framework for the study of conflict processes. Second, the background to the constitutional crisis of 1980-81 is summarized. Using the analytic framework, the third section focuses on the federal strategy in the crisis as suggested by minutes from cabinet meetings, and the fourth section examines key events of the First Ministers Conference of November 1981. Fifth, and finally, the contributions of the preceding sections are summed up and ideas are put forward for further research. [source]

    Demographic analysis of dormancy and survival in the terrestrial orchid Cypripedium reginae

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Summary 1We use capture-recapture models to estimate the fraction of dormant ramets, survival and state transition rates, and to identify factors affecting these rates, for the terrestrial orchid Cypripedium reginae. We studied two populations in West Virginia, USA, for 11 years and investigated relationships between grazing and demography. Abe Run's population was small, with moderate herbivory by deer and relatively constant population size. The population at Big Draft was of medium size, with heavy deer grazing, and a sharply declining number of flowering plants up to the spring before our study started, when the population was fenced. 2We observed dormant episodes lasting from 1 to 4 years. At Abe Run and Big Draft, 32.5% and 7.4% of ramets, respectively, were dormant at least once during the study period for an average of 1.6 and 1.3 years, respectively. We estimated the annual fraction of ramets in the dormant state at 12.3% (95% CI 9.5,15.8%) at Abe Run and at 1.8% (95% CI 1.2,2.6%) at Big Draft. Transition rates between the dormant, vegetative and flowering life-states did not vary between years in either population. Most surviving ramets remained in the same state from one year to the next. Survival rates were constant at Abe Run (0.96, 95% CI 0.93,0.97), but varied between years at Big Draft (0.89,0.99, mean 0.95). 3At Big Draft, we found neither a temporal trend in survival after cessation of grazing, nor relationships between survival and the number of spring frost days or cumulative precipitation during the current or the previous 12 months. However, analysis of precipitation on a 3-month basis revealed a positive relationship between survival and precipitation during the spring (March,May) of the previous year. 4Relationship between climate and the population dynamics of orchids may have to be studied with a fine temporal resolution, and considering possible time lags. Capture-recapture modelling provides a comprehensive and flexible framework for demographic analysis of plants with dormancy. [source]


    Sue L. Niezgoda
    Abstract: Natural channel designs often incorporate rigid instream structures to protect channel banks, provide grade control, promote flow deflection, or otherwise improve channel stability. The long term impact of rigid structures on natural stream processes is relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to use long term alluvial channel modeling to evaluate the effect of rigid structures on channel processes and assess current and future stream channel stability. The study was conducted on Oliver Run, a small stream in Pennsylvania relocated due to highway construction. Field data were collected for one year along the 107 m reach to characterize the stream and provide model input, calibration, and verification data. FLUVIAL-12 was used to evaluate the long term impacts of rigid structures on natural channel adjustment, overall channel stability, and changing form and processes. Based on a consideration of model limitations and results, it was concluded that the presence of rigid structures reduced channel width-to-depth ratios, minimized bed elevation changes due to long term aggradation and degradation, limited lateral channel migration, and increased the mean bed material particle size throughout the reach. Results also showed how alluvial channel modeling can be used to improve the stream restoration design effort. [source]

    Exit: The Right to Die by First Run,Icarus Film

    Article first published online: 24 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Effects of Doubling Limestone Sand Applications in Two Acidic Southwestern Pennsylvania Streams

    A.L. Keener
    Abstract We studied the effects of limestone sand additions in Bear and Rock runs, two chronically and episodically acidified streams in southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Linn Run, a nearby episodically acidified stream, served as a reference stream. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of doubling recommended limestone sand amounts on water quality and macroinvertebrates on Bear and Rock runs and to assess substrate changes resulting from limestone sand inundation. Approximately 23 and 6 tonnes of limestone sand were added annually to the headwaters of Bear and Rock runs, respectively, from 1999 to 2001. In 2002, amounts were doubled. Macroinvertebrate communities were assessed from 1999 to 2003 at points above and below the sand additions on Bear Run and Rock Run. Small, plastic substrate samplers were used to assess sand substrate effects. Doubling annual limestone sand amounts resulted in significantly improved pH and acid-neutralizing capacity; however, total dissolved aluminum increased significantly downstream (,, 0.05). Macroinvertebrate density and diversity were not significantly affected, but an increase in acid-sensitive taxa was observed at a site 3,500 m downstream. Substrate sampler data indicated a significant negative relationship between amount of sand deposited and density of macroinvertebrates. The mixed water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate results were reasonably consistent with earlier work and call into question the use of limestone sand in the restoration of chronically and episodically acidified waters. [source]

    Automation versus Intermediation: Evidence from Treasuries Going Off the Run

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 5 2006
    ABSTRACT This paper examines the choice of trading venue by dealers in U.S. Treasury securities to determine when services provided by human intermediaries are difficult to replicate in fully automated trading systems. When Treasury securities go "off the run" their trading volume drops by more than 90%. This decline in trading volume allows us to test whether intermediaries' knowledge of the market and its participants can uncover hidden liquidity and facilitate better matching of customer orders in less active markets. Consistent with this hypothesis, the market share of electronic intermediaries falls from 81% to 12% when securities go off the run. [source]

    Risks for the Long Run: A Potential Resolution of Asset Pricing Puzzles

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 4 2004
    Ravi Bansal
    ABSTRACT We model consumption and dividend growth rates as containing (1) a small long-run predictable component, and (2) fluctuating economic uncertainty (consumption volatility). These dynamics, for which we provide empirical support, in conjunction with Epstein and Zin's (1989) preferences, can explain key asset markets phenomena. In our economy, financial markets dislike economic uncertainty and better long-run growth prospects raise equity prices. The model can justify the equity premium, the risk-free rate, and the volatility of the market return, risk-free rate, and the price,dividend ratio. As in the data, dividend yields predict returns and the volatility of returns is time-varying. [source]

    On the Run: The Narrative of an Asylum Seeker

    Solrun Williksen
    The object of the article is to try and understand how a young woman managed to live through the experience of losing everything that was dear to her, first of all of her sister being "sold" to an old man, then of being threatened with death, then having to leave the picture of her mother behind, and then traveling into the unknown to a new existence in a country that she had never heard of,until she was told the name by the immigration police. It is the story of how to create an experience out of chaos, and how to come to terms with it through looking back and groping for words to give shape and sense to what has happened. In a wider theoretical perspective the article explores the problem of the interplay between the lived experience and the story in the making. This might indicate a dichotomy between experience and narrative, and that acting in the world, in this case being on the run, is lived experience, whereas the telling is just that ,telling, thus removed from the drama of getting on with the living of it. That is not how I see it. When I was in the middle of unraveling Ada's life story I read an article by Sarah Lamb, "Being a Widow" (2001), where she shows that the widow's story is part of her lived life. However, I find the distinctions in approaches very subtle and have, in fact, never quite seen how anything concerned with human experience, let alone one's own life story, can be seen as outside of lived life, outside of reality, like a text. It is true that to the person in this account, a young asylum seeker in Norway, it may seem at times as if the story she is telling is about somebody else. "Sometimes I don't know who I am. How can all this have happened and yet I am still alive?" she asks. Nevertheless I was inspired by Lamb's insistence on the creative practice, and indeed experience, of the narrative presentation itself. Although I have encouraged Ada,as she will be called here,to tell her story, I have done so with a small feeling of doubt. Is it really the case that a forgotten period needs to be recaptured in order for people to feel they own their own lives? She herself has said, "If I told people everything that happened, nobody would believe me and I wouldn't know what words to use either, or how to start." [source]

    International Capital Mobility in the Short Run and the Long Run: A Daily Data Study for Japan, Singapore and Taiwan*

    Han-Min Hsing
    F32; F41; G15 Using daily data from between 1993 and 2003, covered interest differential and cointegration tests are applied to examine short-run and long-run international capital mobility for Japan, Singapore and Taiwan, and, for comparison purposes, the UK. Despite the high short-run mobility in Japan (Singapore and Taiwan), being slightly (significantly) lower than in the UK, perfect long-run mobility exists in all three Asian economies, especially when the Asian currency crisis is excluded. Different short-run and long-run mobility implies the existence of a response lag in the financial market. As expected, although the impulse response reaches the significant long-run equilibrium level shortly after the shock in the UK, lagged responses appear in the three Asian economies, particularly in Singapore and Taiwan. [source]

    A novel reactor for exploring the effect of water content on biofilter degradation rates

    Milinda A. Ranasinghe
    A novel batch recycle reactor was developed to investigate the effect of water content changes on the biological degradation rate of gas phase contaminants in low water content systems, such as biofilters. The reactor tightly controlled the water content of the unsaturated packing material using the principle of a suction cell. Matric potential in the compost was controlled between ,6 and ,36 cm H2O. A soil water retention curve relating matric potential to gravimetric water content was generated for the compost. Periodic dry weight analyses of reactor samples, together with the water retention curve, verified moisture content control. Runs were performed with toluene as the contaminant using unamended compost at a constant temperature of 30°C. Degradation results indicated a linear, biologically limited degradation region, followed by a non-linear region at lower concentrations. Elimination capacities were calculated for the linear region for different matric potentials along both the wetting and drying curves, and both changes in the water content and direction of approach affected the removal rates in the linear region. The elimination capacity ranged from 155 g/m3 hr to 24 g/m3 hr for toluene over the matric potential range investigated. Repeatability studies indicated that moisture content was most likely the parameter that influenced changes in performance. [source]

    Removal of TEX vapours from air in a peat biofilter: influence of inlet concentration and inlet load

    Carmen Gabaldón
    Abstract This paper presents the results of the study of the removal of toluene, ethylbenzene, and o -xylene (TEX) by biofiltration using a commercial peat as filter-bed material. Runs with a single organic compound in air, and with the mixture of TEX in air, were carried out for at least 55 days in laboratory-scale reactors inoculated with a conditioned culture. The influence of organic compound inlet load and of gas flow rate on the biofilter's performance was studied, including relatively high values of pollutant inlet concentration (up to 4.3 gC m,3 for ethylbenzene, 3.2 gC m,3 for toluene, and 2.7 gC m,3 for o -xylene). Results obtained show maximum elimination capacities of 65 gC m,3 h,1 for o-xylene, 90 gC m,3 h,1 for toluene, and 100 gC m,3 h,1 for ethylbenzene, and high removal efficiency (>90%) even for moderately elevated concentrations: 3.0, 2.5 and 1.8 gC m,3 for ethylbenzene, toluene and o -xylene, respectively. The behaviour of the TEX mixture was in good agreement with the results obtained for the runs in which only one organic compound was present. Ethylbenzene and toluene are degraded easier than o -xylene, and inhibitory effects due to the presence of multiple substrates were not observed. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Kinetic modeling of catalytic conversion of methylcyclohexane over USY zeolites: Adsorption and reaction phenomena

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
    Mustafa Al-Sabawi
    Abstract Catalytic conversion of cycloparaffins is a complex process involving competing reaction steps. To understand this process, FCC experiments using methylcyclohexane (MCH) on USY zeolite catalysts were carried out in the mini-fluidized CREC riser simulator. Runs were developed under relevant FCC process conditions in terms of partial pressures of MCH, temperatures (450,550°C), contact times (3,7 s), catalyst-oil mass ratios (5), and using fluidized catalysts. MCH overall conversions ranged between 4 to 16 wt %, with slightly higher conversions obtained using the larger zeolite crystallites. Moreover, it was found that MCH undergoes ring opening, protolytic cracking, isomerization, hydrogen transfer and transalkylation. A heterogeneous kinetic model for MCH conversion including thermal effects, adsorption and intrinsic catalytic reaction phenomena was established. Adsorption and kinetic parameters were determined, including the heat of adsorption (,40 kJ/mol), as well as thermal and primary catalytic intrinsic activation energies, which were in the range of 43,69 kJ/mol, and 50,74 kJ/mol, respectively. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


    Alex Anas
    ABSTRACT RELU is a dynamic general equilibrium model of a metropolitan economy and its land use, derived by unifying in a theoretically valid way, models developed by one of the authors [Anas (1982), Anas,Arnott (1991, 1997), Anas,Kim (1996), Anas,Xu (1999)]. RELU equilibrates floor space, land and labor markets, and the market for the products of industries, treating development (construction and demolition), spatial interindustry linkages, commuting, and discretionary travel. Mode choices and equilibrium congestion on the highway network are treated by unifying RELU with the TRAN algorithm of stochastic user equilibrium [Anas,Kim (1990)]. The RELU-TRAN algorithm's performance for a stationary state is demonstrated for a prototype consisting of 4-building, 4-industry, 4-labor-type, 15-land-use-zone, 68-link-highway-network version of the Chicago MSA. The algorithm solves 656 equations in a special block-recursive convergent procedure by iterations nested within loops and loops within cycles. Runs show excellent and smooth convergence from different starting points, so that the number of loops within successive cycles continually decreases. The tests also imply a numerically ascertained unique stationary equilibrium solution of the unified model for the calibrated parameters. [source]

    Heart Rate Turbulence After Short Runs of Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia in Chronic Heart Failure

    Background:Heart rate turbulence (HRT) following isolated premature complexes is a baroreceptor-mediated prognostic marker. Short runs of spontaneous, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT) exert a greater hemodynamic effect than extrasystoles and may trigger a more potent turbulence-like response (HRTVT), possibly related to other risk-related markers, such as heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and original HRT parameters (turbulence slope [TS] and turbulence onset [TO]). Methods:We studied 27 patients with heart failure (HF) and nsVT (4,7 beats) on 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic recordings (mean age 58 ± 3.6 years, EF 36%± 5.0%). Following nsVT, TSVT and TOVT were measured according to the original definitions. HRV, TS, and TO were also assessed. Results:HRTVT parameters were related to HRV. A significant relation existed between TSVT and EF (r= 0.66, P < 0.05). HRTVT parameters were related to the originally described (TS and TO), whereas TOVT was higher than TO (1.63 ± 1.6 vs ,1.7 ± 0.65, P < 0.05). Conclusions:In mild-to-moderate HF, turbulence is observed following short nsVT runs and is related to prognostically important HRV indexes and EF. HRTVT is similar to HRT but TOVT is shifted toward more positive values than TO. HRTVT might be prognostically significant. [source]

    Determination of chlorpheniramine in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS: application to a dexchlorpheniramine comparative bioavailability study

    Ronilson Agnaldo Moreno
    Abstract In the present study a fast, sensitive and robust validated method to quantify chlorpheniramine in human plasma using brompheniramine as internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from plasma by LLE (diethyl ether,dichloromethane, 80:20, v/v) and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was performed using a gradient of methanol from 35 to 90% with 2.5,mm NH4OH on a Gemini Phenomenex C8 5,,m column (50 × 4.6,mm i.d.) in 5.0,min/run. The method fitted to a linear calibration curve (0.05,10,ng/mL, R > 0.9991). The precision (%CV) and accuracy ranged, respectively: intra-batch from 1.5 to 6.8% and 99.1 to 106.6%, and inter-batch from 2.4 to 9.0%, and 99.9 to 103.1%. The validated bioanalytical procedure was used to assess the comparative bioavailability in healthy volunteers of two dexchlorpheniramine 2.0,mg tablet formulations (test dexchlorpheniramine, Eurofarma, and reference Celestamine®, Schering-Plough). The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 2 week washout interval. Since the 90% confidence interval for Cmax and AUC ratios were all within the 80,125% interval proposed by ANVISA and FDA, it was concluded that test and reference formulations are bioequivalent concerning the rate and the extent of absorption. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]