Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Rubber

  • acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
  • acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber
  • butadiene rubber
  • butyl rubber
  • liquid rubber
  • natural rubber
  • nitrile butadiene rubber
  • nitrile rubber
  • silicone rubber
  • styrene butadiene rubber
  • styrene-butadiene rubber

  • Terms modified by Rubber

  • rubber bleb nevus syndrome
  • rubber blend
  • rubber composite
  • rubber compound
  • rubber content
  • rubber dam
  • rubber glove
  • rubber latex
  • rubber material
  • rubber matrix
  • rubber particle
  • rubber phase
  • rubber tree

  • Selected Abstracts

    Influence of Layered Silicate on the Self-Crosslinking of Polychloroprene and Carboxylated Nitrile Rubber

    Amit Das
    Abstract The effect of organically modified clay on the properties of self-crosslinkable carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) and polychloroprene rubber (CR) blend is studied. Results of blends produced without crosslinking agents are compared with conventional sulphur cured compounds. Sulphur cured blends exhibit improved physical properties after the incorporation of organophilic-modified clay. In contrast, the self-crosslinked blends do not show any reinforcement after the incorporation of the organoclay. XRD spectra show an intercalation of polymer chain into the gallery gap of the clay in both cases. ATR-IR, DMA and SEM studies of these composites confirm that organoclay particles constrain the self-crosslinking mechanism. The influence of the organoclay on the crystallisation of CR is also shown. [source]

    Processing and Properties of Biobased Blends from Soy Meal and Natural Rubber

    Qiangxian Wu
    Abstract Vulcanized blends from soy meal and natural rubber were successfully processed through semi-pilot scale extrusion, roll milling and compression-molding. Blends containing about 50 wt.-% of soy meal are elastic and water resistant, compared with the brittle and hydrophilic soy meal. The natural rubber component was well embedded into the soy meal matrix, indicating the existence of an interaction between them. The glass transition temperature of the rubber component in the blends increased due to the existence of this interaction. Calcium sulfate, as a compatibilizer, was a physical cross-linker to the proteins in the soy meal and in the rubber. The morphological analysis of the soy meal and natural rubber blend through scanning electron microscopy revealed a partial compatibility of the blend. The blends containing near 50 wt.-% of inexpensive soy meal have potential for various applications. [source]

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Prepared via Living/Controlled Radical Polymerization (RAFT)

    Andreas Kaiser
    Abstract In the current work we present results on the controlled/living radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and 1,3-butadiene (BD) via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization techniques. For the first time, a solution polymerization process for the synthesis of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) via the use of dithioacetate and trithiocarbonate RAFT agents is described. It is demonstrated that the number average molar mass, , of the NBR can be varied between a few thousand and 60,000,g,·,mol,1 with polydispersities between 1.2 and 2.0 (depending on the monomer to polymer conversion). Excellent agreement between the experimentally observed and the theoretically expected molar masses is found. Detailed information on the structure of the synthesized polymers is obtained by variable analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). [source]


    Mai Sakai
    Abstract "Flipper rubbing" behavior was quantitatively analyzed in wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) around Mikura Island, Tokyo, Japan. We observed two types of flipper rubbing: (1) F-B rubbing; one dolphin (Rubber) rubbed its flipper over various parts of a partner's (Rubbee) body, and (2) F-F rubbing; both dolphins rubbed each other's anterior flipper edge in alternating shifts. F-B rubbings tended to be initiated by the Rubbee and were terminated by the Rubber. The Rubbee often moved actively its body part that was in contact with the Rubber's flipper, and assumed side-up, upside-down, or other postures while the Rubber remained horizontal in most cases. These facts suggest that the Rubbee engaged in F-B rubbing more actively than the Rubber, and might receive some benefit from the frictional contact during F-B rubbing. Dolphins often switched their roles as Rubber and Rubbee between episodes of flipper rubbing bout. Adults and sub-adults exchanged F-B rubbing and F-F rubbing most often with individuals of the same sex in the same age class. F-B rubbing was frequent in mother-and-calf dyads. Our results suggest that flipper rubbing is an affiliative behavior which could be a quantitative measure of social relationships among individuals of this species in future studies. [source]

    Amplitude- and temperature effects of filler-reinforced rubber: Experiments and Modelling

    Martin Rendek
    Rubber,like materials exhibit special mechanical properties in a wide range of technical applications. To achieve a desired behaviour of the end product, the materials are reinforced with active fillers like carbon black. In the focus of this paper are selected cyclic,monofrequent experiments with constant strain amplitudes. Special attention will be focused to the excitation with small dynamic amplitudes. The amplitude dependence of the storage and loss moduli is known as the Payne,effect. We study the amplitude, and temperature dependence of storage and loss modulus as well as dissipation effects. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    A New Micromechanically Based Approach for the Elastic Response of Rubber,like Materials at Large Strains

    Serdar Göktepe M. Sc.
    The approach models the elasticity of a rubber,like materials based on micro,structure that can be symbolized by a micro,sphere. The proposed model incorporates both non, deformation of unconstrained chains and superimposed constraint e.ects of tube,like topological formations in a consistent manner. Framework of the constitutive modeling and numerical examples illustrating the excellent predictive capacity of the model are presented. [source]

    A Thermo-Mechanical Formulation Describing the Frictional Behavior of Rubber

    K. Hofstetter Dipl.-Ing.
    In this paper mechanical and thermal phenomena during the sliding motion of a rubber block on a rough surface are investigated. The presented formulation describes the frictional behavior of rubber on a macroscopic scale. Thus, it is not necessary to consider the roughness of the surface explicitly. Only macroscopic characteristics of the involved solids are required for the contact formulation. For the purpose of parameter identification and model verification, experiments have been carried out. The results from numerical simulations by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM) agree well with the experimental results. [source]

    Interaction of Zinc Oxide Clusters with Molecules Related to the Sulfur Vulcanization of Polyolefins ("Rubber")

    Ralf Steudel Prof. Dr.
    Abstract The vulcanization of rubber by sulfur is a large-scale industrial process that is only poorly understood, especially the role of zinc oxide, which is added as an activator. We used the highly symmetrical cluster Zn4O4 (Td) as a model species to study the thermodynamics of the initial interaction of various vulcanization-related molecules with ZnO by DFT methods, mostly at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level. The interaction energy of Lewis bases with Zn4O4 increases in the following order: COCSSH. [source]

    Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the static and dynamic properties of neoprene rubbers

    Hsoung-Wei Chou
    Abstract Rubbers deteriorate when they are exposed to ultraviolet irradiation for long periods of time. By conducting a series of hardness measurements and simple tension tests, the static properties of neoprene rubbers before and after exposure to various durations of ultraviolet irradiation were first measured. It is found that the Shore A hardness and tensile modulus of neoprene rubbers after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation are increased but their elongation at break, tensile strength, and energy to break are significantly decreased. On the basis of a complex spring model of a vibration system, the dynamic shear properties of neoprene rubbers before and after exposure to different durations of ultraviolet irradiation were then determined from the experimental results of dynamic transmissibility tests. It is also found that the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of neoprene rubbers are drastically affected by the duration of ultraviolet irradiation they experienced. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    A New Family of Styrene/Diene Rubbers

    Philippe Zinck
    Abstract The insertion of single styrene units into polyisoprene is demonstrated using borohydrido rare earth/dialkylmagnesium systems. This yields a new family of styrene/diene copolymers (SBR rubbers). The resulting poly[(1,4- trans -isoprene)- co -styrene] exhibits quite narrow molecular weight distributions, up to 30% inserted styrene, and a 96,98% 1,4- trans -microstructure. The presence of a bulky and electron-rich ligand in the coordination sphere of the metal leads to an increase of the amount of styrene inserted and narrower chemical composition and molecular weight distributions. The presence of significant quantities of styrene in the medium does not alter the selectivity of the reaction, in contrast with cis -specific polymerizations. [source]

    Bio-Based Rubbers by Concurrent Cationic and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of a Modified Linseed Oil

    Wonje Jeong
    Abstract Bio-based rubbers prepared by tandem cationic polymerization and ROMP using a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil, DilulinÔ, and a norbornene diester, NBDC, have been prepared and characterized. Increasing the concentration of the NBDC in the mixture results in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. The new bio-based rubbers exhibit tensile test behavior ranging from relatively brittle (18% elongation) to moderately flexible (52% elongation) and with decreasing values of tensile stress with increasing NBDC content. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the bio-based rubbers have maximum decomposition temperatures of over 450,°C with their thermal stability decreasing with increasing loadings of NBDC. [source]

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to rubber in sports equipment

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2007
    Katharina Moritz
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Improving Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Palmar Hyperhidrosis: Wrist Block and Technical Considerations

    Ada Regina Trindade De Almeida MD
    Botulinum A exotoxin has become an excellent therapeutic option to treat focal hyperhidrosis, but when the problem affects the palmar region the technique has some drawbacks. Pain with injection is difficult to tolerate and the large dose needed to treat both hands are two concerns, as well as muscle weakness secondary to botulinum toxin diffusion and the possibility of antibody production. All these problems limit the number of patients treated. The author's suggestion is to treat only the dominant hand, after performing a wrist block. The use of a device adapted from a cartridge rubber may help to control the injection depth and the risk of muscular weakness. [source]

    Rubber Erasures, Rubber Producing Rights: Making Racialized Territories in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Nancy Lee Peluso
    ABSTRACT This article makes connections between often-disparate literatures on property, violence and identity, using the politics of rubber growing in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as an example. It shows how rubber production gave rise to territorialities associated with and productive of ethnic identities, depending on both the political economies and cultural politics at play in different moments. What it meant to be Chinese and Dayak in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia, as well as how categories of subjects and citizens were configured in the two respective periods, differentially affected both the formal property rights and the means of access to rubber and land in different parts of West Kalimantan. However, incremental changes in shifting rubber production practices were not the only means of producing territory and ethnicity. The author argues that violence ultimately played a more significant role in erasing prior identity-based claims and establishing the controls of new actors over trees and land and their claims to legitimate access or ,rightfulness'. Changing rubber production practices and reconfigurations of racialized territories and identity-based property rights are all implicated in hiding the violence. [source]

    HDR devices for the seismic protection of frame structures: Experimental results and numerical simulations

    Laura Ragni
    Abstract As part of a national research programme an experimental campaign was carried out on a real scale mock-up consisting of a steel,concrete composite frame equipped with dissipative bracings, based on high damping rubber (HDR) devices. Free vibration tests, followed by force-controlled and displacement-controlled cyclic tests were performed. The experimental tests were aimed at studying the dynamic response of the coupled system in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of HDR devices in increasing the stiffness and dissipation capacity of the frame and investigating the ability of the constitutive HDR model proposed by the authors to predict the dynamic response of the coupled system. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dynamic systems with high damping rubber: Nonlinear behaviour and linear approximation

    Andrea Dall'Asta
    Abstract High damping rubber (HDR) shows a quite complex constitutive behaviour, which is nonlinear with respect to strain and is dependent on the strain rate. In addition, it exhibits a transient response during which the material properties change (scragging or more generally the Mullins effect). A number of recent works were dedicated to analysing and modelling material behaviour. This paper studies the nonlinear dynamics of systems with restoring force produced by HDR-based devices in order to propose a procedure to define equivalent linear models considering both transient and stationary behaviours. The reliability of these linear models is tested by evaluating the upper and lower bounds of the seismic response of a structural system equipped with HDR-based devices (structural system with dissipative bracings and isolated systems). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Strain field measurements of rubber by image analysis and design criteria for laminated rubber bearings (LRB)

    Chamindalal Sujeewa Lewangamage
    Abstract Although seismic isolation rubber bearings in bridges and buildings have proven to be a very effective passive method for reducing earthquake-induced forces, a detailed mechanical modeling of the rubber that is used in bearings under large strains has not been established. Therefore, a 3D model of failure behavior and the design criteria for the safety evaluation of seismic isolation bearings have not yet been developed. This paper presents: (1) correlation-based template-matching algorithms to measure large strain fields of continua; (2) a failure criterion for rubber; and (3) the design criteria for the safety evaluation of laminated algorithms, data-validation algorithms were developed and implemented to eliminate possible unrealistic displacement vectors present in the measured displacement field. The algorithms were successfully employed in the strain field measurement of LRB and rubber materials that are subjected to failure. The measured local strains for rubber material at failure were used to develop a failure criterion for rubber. The validity of the proposed criterion was evaluated by applying it to the LRB; the criterion was introduced into a 3D finite element model of LRB, compared with the experimental results of bearings failure, and verified. Finally, design criteria are proposed for LRB for the safety evaluation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Local hydrologic effects of introducing non-native vegetation in a tropical catchment

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Maite Guardiola-Claramonte
    Abstract This study investigates the hydrologic implications of land use conversion from native vegetation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Southeast Asia. The experimental catchment, Nam Ken (69 km2), is located in Xishuangbanna Prefecture (22°N, 101°E), in the south of Yunnan province, in southwestern China. During 2005 and 2006, we collected hourly records of 2 m deep soil moisture profiles in rubber and three native land-covers (tea, secondary forest and grassland), and measured surface radiation above the tea and rubber canopies. Observations show that root water uptake of rubber during the dry season is controlled by day-length, whereas water demand of the native vegetation starts with the arrival of the first monsoon rainfall. The different dynamics of root water uptake in rubber result in distinct depletion of soil moisture in deeper layers. Traditional evapotranspiration and soil moisture models are unable to simulate this specific behaviour. Therefore, a different conceptual model, taking in account vegetation dynamics, is needed to predict hydrologic changes due to land use conversion in the area. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stability Enhancement of All-Solid-State H+ ISEs with Cross-Linked Silicon-Urethane Matrices

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 8 2005
    Nak-Hyun Kwon
    Abstract An all-solid-state hydrogen-ion-selective electrode (ASHISE) was fabricated using the polymer hybrid membrane. Polymer membranes composed of Tecoflex polyurethane (TPU), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), silicon rubber (SR), and additives (KTpClPB, DOA, and TDDA) were cast on a carbon rod. The TPU/SR hybrid membrane exhibited a longer lifetime and a higher sensitivity in the sensing of the H+ ion compared to conventional TPU/PVC and PVC/SR hybrid membranes. Moreover, the addition of SiCl4 to TPU-based matrices enhanced the potentiometric response and ISE stability, due to the chemical bonding between Si and CO in urethane, in which the cross-linking configuration was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR, and XPS experiments. TPU/SR membranes containing SiCl4 were rendered more stable and showed a pH response over a wide range (i.e., pH,2,11.5) with the slope of 60±2,mV/pH for more than four months. The ASHISE exhibited a small interfering potential variation in the wide range of the salt concentration (from 1.0×10,6,M up to 0.1,M). The ASHISE showed a result comparable to a commercial clinical blood analyzer. [source]

    Material stiffness, branching pattern and soil matric potential affect the pullout resistance of model root systems

    S. B. Mickovski
    Summary Understanding of the detailed mechanisms of how roots anchor in and reinforce soil is complicated by the variability and complexity of both materials. This study controlled material stiffness and architecture of root analogues, by using rubber and wood, and also employed real willow root segments, to investigate the effect on pullout resistance in wet and air-dry sand. The architecture of model roots included either no laterals (tap-root) or a single pair at two different locations (herringbone and dichotomous). During pullout tests, data on load and displacement were recorded. These studies were combined with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) image analysis of the model root-soil system at a transparent interface during pullout to increase understanding of mechanical interactions along the root. Model rubber roots with small stiffness had increasing pullout resistance as the branching and the depth of the lateral roots increased. Similarly, with the stiff wooden root models, the models with lateral roots embedded deeper showed greatest resistance. PIV showed that rubber model roots mobilized their interface shear strength progressively whilst rigid roots mobilized it equally and more rapidly over the whole root length. Soil water suction increased the pullout resistance of the roots by increasing the effective stress and soil strength. Separate pullout tests conducted on willow root samples embedded in sand showed similar behaviour to the rigid model roots. These tests also demonstrated the effect of the root curvature and rough interface on the maximum pullout resistance. [source]

    Preparation and Characterization of Styrene Butadiene Rubber Based Nanocomposites and Study of their Mechanical Properties

    S. Sadhu
    Nanocomposites were prepared from styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) having different styrene contents and octadecyl amine modified Na-montmorillonite clay (OC). The modified and the unmodified clays were characterized with the help of X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). All these nanocomposites were then subjected to tensile testing. The modified clay-rubber nanocomposites showed improved tensile strength (55% increase) and elongation at break (76% increase) compared to those of the gum vulcanizates. [source]

    Description of fatigue damage in carbon black filled natural rubber

    J.-B. LE CAM
    ABSTRACT The present paper describes macroscopic fatigue damage in carbon black-filled natural rubber (CB-NR) under uniaxial loading conditions. Uniaxial tension-compression, fully relaxing uniaxial tension and non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions were applied until sample failure. Results, summarized in a Haigh-like diagram, show that only one type of fatigue damage is observed for uniaxial tension-compression and fully relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions, and that several different types of fatigue damage take place in non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions. The different damage types observed under non-relaxing uniaxial tension, loading conditions are closely related to the improvement of rubber fatigue life. Therefore, as fatigue life improvement is classically supposed to be due to strain-induced crystallization (SIC), a similar conclusion can be drawn for the occurrence of different types of fatigue damage. [source]

    Multiaxial fatigue of rubber: Part I: equivalence criteria and theoretical aspects

    W. V. MARS
    ABSTRACT This paper investigates commonly used approaches for fatigue crack nucleation analysis in rubber, including maximum principal strain (or stretch), strain energy density and octahedral shear strain criteria. The ability of these traditional equivalence criteria, as well as a recent equivalence criterion (the cracking energy density) to predict multiaxial fatigue behaviour is explored. Theoretical considerations are also introduced relating to the applicability of various fatigue life analysis approaches. These include the scalar nature of traditional equivalence criteria, robustness of the criteria investigated for a wide range of multiaxial loadings, effects of crack closure and applications to non-proportional multiaxial loadings. It is shown that the notion of a stress or strain amplitude tensor used for the analysis of multiaxial loading in metals is not appropriate in the analysis of rubber due to nonlinearity associated with finite strains and near incompressibility. Taken together, these considerations illustrate that traditional criteria are not sufficiently consistent or complete to permit confident analysis of arbitrary multiaxial loading histories, and that an analysis approach specific to the failure plane is needed. Of the three traditional criteria, maximum principal strain is shown to match most closely to the cracking energy density criterion, in terms of a failure locus in principal stretch space. [source]

    Fatigue crack nucleation and growth in filled natural rubber

    W. V. MARS
    ABSTRACT Rubber components subjected to fluctuating loads often fail due to nucleation and the growth of defects or cracks. The prevention of such failures depends upon an understanding of the mechanics underlying the failure process. This investigation explores the nucleation and growth of cracks in filled natural rubber. Both fatigue macro-crack nucleation as well as fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted using simple tension and planar tension specimens, respectively. Crack nucleation as well as crack growth life prediction analysis approaches were used to correlate the experimental data. Several aspects of the fatigue process, such as failure mode and the effects of R ratio (minimum strain) on fatigue life, are also discussed. It is shown that a small positive R ratio can have a significant beneficial effect on fatigue life and crack growth rate, particularly at low strain range. [source]

    Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of cDNA encoding cis -prenyltransferases from Hevea brasiliensis

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 23 2003
    A key factor participating in natural rubber biosynthesis
    Natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is a high molecular mass polymer of isoprene units with cis -configuration. The enzyme responsible for the cis -1,4-polymerization of isoprene units has been idengified as a particle-bound rubber transferase, but no gene encoding this enzyme has been cloned from rubber-producing plants. By using sequence information from the conserved regions of cis -prenyl chain elongating enzymes that were cloned recently, we have isolated and characterized cDNAs from H. brasiliensis for a functional factor participating in natural rubber biosynthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the five highly conserved regions among cis -prenyl chain elongating enzymes were found in the protein sequences of the Hevea cis -prenyltransferase. Northern blot analysis indicated that the transcript(s) of the Hevea cis -prenyltransferase were expressed predominantly in the latex as compared with other Hevea tissues examined. In vitro rubber transferase assays using the recombinant gene product overexpressed in Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme catalyzed the formation of long chain polyprenyl products with approximate sizes of 2 × 103,1 × 104 Da. Moreover, in the presence of washed bottom fraction particles from latex, the rubber transferase activity producing rubber product of high molecular size was increased. These results suggest that the Hevea cis -prenyltransferase might require certain activation factors in the washed bottom fraction particles for the production of high molecular mass rubber. [source]

    Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 grown under subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin to a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic substratum

    Amparo M Gallardo-Moreno
    Abstract The effect of two subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations of ampicillin and vancomycin during growth on the adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass and silicone rubber was studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Initial deposition rates and numbers of adhering bacteria after 4 h were higher on hydrophilic glass than on hydrophobic silicone rubber, regardless of growth conditions. The presence of 1/4 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin during growth reduced enterococcal adhesion to both substrata, but growth in the presence of 1/4 MIC vancomycin did not affect the adhesion of E. faecalis. Moreover, enterococcal adhesion increased after growth in the presence of 1/8 MIC vancomycin. The increased adhesion after growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin may have strong implications for patients living with implanted biomaterials, as they may suffer adverse effects from use of this antibiotic, especially since bacteria once adhered are less sensitive to antibiotics. [source]

    Toughening study of fire-retardant high-impact polystyrene

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 2 2009
    Cui Wenguang
    Abstract Fire-retardant high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) was modified by melt blending with varying amounts of three types of tougheners. The effects of the tougheners on the properties of the fire-retardant HIPS were studied by mechanical, combustion tests, and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphologies of fracture surfaces and char layers were characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the impact properties of styrene,butadiene,styrene (SBS)-containing composites were better than those of ethylene,propylene,diene monomer (EPDM)-containing or ethylene,vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)-containing composites. The tensile strength and flexural modulus of the fire-retardant HIPS decreased evidently with the addition of tougheners. It is found that the compatibility between SBS copolymer and HIPS matrix was best among the three types of tougheners. The addition of SBS had little influence on the thermal property, residue, flammability, and morphology of char layer of the fire-retardant HIPS, but the addition of EPDM rubber or EVA brought adverse influence on the residue, flammability, and morphology of char layer of the fire-retardant HIPS, especially for EPDM. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A further study of factors affecting pneumatic-impact ignition of polymers

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 6 2006
    Fu-Yu Hshieh
    Abstract One likely cause of polymer ignition in high-pressure oxygen systems is the adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. The previous study showed that pneumatic-impact ignition of polymers could be initiated by a local heterogeneous reaction between the hot oxygen and the oxidation sites of the polymer. This study further investigates other factors that cause pneumatic-impact ignition of polymers in high-pressure oxygen. Because the oxygen concentration has a significant effect on pneumatic-impact ignition, threshold oxygen concentrations for pneumatic-impact ignition of six selected polymers were determined at 20.7 MPa (3000 psia), an expected service pressure in high-pressure oxygen systems. The six polymers investigated were: Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), Neoflon CTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene), PEEK (polyetheretherketone), Zytel 42 (nylon 6/6), Buna N (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber), and Viton A (copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene). The results show that PEEK exhibited the highest threshold oxygen concentration (65%) and Zytel 42 exhibited the lowest threshold oxygen concentration (<21%). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines from fires,a screening of common materials found in buildings

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 6 2003
    Per Blomqvist
    Abstract Isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines were quantified from the combustion of 24 different materials or products typically found in buildings. Small-scale combustion experiments were conducted in the cone calorimeter, where generally well-ventilated combustion conditions are attained. Measurements were further made in two different full-scale experiments. Isocyanates and amino-compounds were sampled using an impinger-filter sampling system with a reagent solution of di-n-butylamine in toluene. Filter and impinger solution were analysed separately using LC-MS technique. Further the particulate distribution in the smoke gases was determined by impactor technique, and selected gaseous compounds quantified by FTIR. It was found in the small-scale that isocyanates were produced from the majority of the materials tested. The highest concentration was found for glass wool insulation, and further high concentrations were found for PUR products, particleboard, nitrile rubber and melamine. Lower concentrations were found for wood and cable-products. Amino-isocyanates and amines were generally found from PUR products only. The distribution of isocyanates between the particulate- and fluid phases varied for the different materials and a tendency to enrichment of particles was seen for some of the materials. Further, when comparing the potential health hazard between isocyanates and other major fire gases (based on NIOSH IDLH-values) it was found that isocyanates in several cases represented the greatest hazard. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) trunk phloem necrosis: aetiological investigations failed to confirm any biotic causal agent

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    F. Pellegrin
    Summary Trunk phloem necrosis (TPN) is currently a main constraint in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. The apparent spread of the disease, from tree to tree along the planting line, strongly supported the implication of a pathogen that could be transmitted mechanically via the tapping knife. In order to detect a causal agent of the disease, studies focusing on characterization of the known mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. viroids, cryptic viruses or phytoplasma) were initiated. RNA strands of low molecular weight (200,400 and >500 bp) displaying structural similarities with viroids and viral dsRNAs were observed in various tested samples. However, attempts to show the potential role of these RNA molecules in the spread of the disease failed. First of all, there was no significant or reproducible correlation between the health status of the rubber trees sampled and these RNA molecules. Moreover, no sequence homology with known pathogens could be found when randomly amplified cDNA fragments isolated from trees presenting the disease symptoms were sequenced. In conclusion, the aetiological investigations, in order to show the presence of a pathogen responsible of the TPN disease, were non-conclusive, which tends to disprove the hypothesis of a biotic causal agent. [source]