Routing Protocol (routing + protocol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Performance of delay-sensitive traffic in multi-layered satellite IP networks with on-board processing capability

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 12 2007
Suzan Bayhan
Abstract In this article, performance of delay-sensitive traffic in multi-layered satellite Internet Protocol (IP) networks with on-board processing (OBP) capability is investigated. With OBP, a satellite can process the received data, and according to the nature of application, it can decide on the transmission properties. First, we present a concise overview of relevant aspects of satellite networks to delay-sensitive traffic and routing. Then, in order to improve the system performance for delay-sensitive traffic, specifically Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), a novel adaptive routing mechanism in two-layered satellite network considering the network's real-time information is introduced and evaluated. Adaptive Routing Protocol for Quality of Service (ARPQ) utilizes OBP and avoids congestion by distributing traffic load between medium-Earth orbit and low-Earth orbit layers. We utilize a prioritized queueing policy to satisfy quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of delay-sensitive applications while evading non-real-time traffic suffer low performance level. The simulation results verify that multi-layered satellite networks with OBP capabilities and QoS mechanisms are essential for feasibility of packet-based high-quality delay-sensitive services which are expected to be the vital components of next-generation communications networks. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Power aware scalable multicast routing protocol for MANETs

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 10 2006
R. Manoharan
Abstract Multicasting is an effective way to provide group communication. In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), multicasting can support a wide variety of applications that are characterized by a close degree of collaboration. Since MANETs exhibit severe resource constraints such as battery power, limited bandwidth, dynamic network topology and lack of centralized administration, multicasting in MANETs become complex. The existing multicast routing protocols concentrate more on quality of service parameters like end-to-end delay, jitter, bandwidth and power. They do not stress on the scalability factor of the multicast. In this paper, we address the problem of multicast scalability and propose an efficient scalable multicast routing protocol called ,Power Aware Scalable Multicast Routing Protocol (PASMRP)' for MANETs. PASMRP uses the concept of class of service with three priority levels and local re-routing to provide scalability. The protocol also ensures fair utilization of the resources among the nodes through re-routing and hence the lifetime of the network is increased. The protocol has been simulated and the results show that PASMRP has better scalability and enhanced lifetime than the existing multicast routing protocols. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


On the Internet routing protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol: is it optimal?

INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS IN OPERATIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2006
James R. Yee
Abstract Cisco's proprietary routing protocol, EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is one of the two most widely employed routing protocols in the Internet. The underlying algorithm is reputed to be optimal with respect to the EIGRP metric. We construct a counterexample to illustrate that it is not optimal. We implemented the test network from the counterexample in our Networking Lab and it was confirmed that the Cisco routers did not find optimal routes. We suggest ways in which the EIGRP algorithm can be improved. These suggestions would also improve the operation of the Diffusing Updating Algorithm, the portion of EIGRP used to recover from link/node failures. [source]


AODV-RIP: improved security in mobile ad hoc networks through route investigation procedure

CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 7 2010
Byung-Seok Kang
Abstract Most routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) place an emphasis on finding paths in dynamic networks without considering security. As a result, there are a number of attacks that can be used to manipulate the routing in MANET. A malicious node that sends a modified control message to an intermediate node can disturb the network using a control message. To solve this problem, we introduce AODV protocol with route investigation procedure (AODV-RIP). It uses two additional control messages to defeat security attacks that can occur in AODV routing protocol. When an intermediate node that is on the path between the source node and the destination node receives a control message, it sends a Rroute Investigation Request (IREQ) message to the destination node in order to check the reliability of the control message. According to the existence of Route Investigation Reply (IREP), the intermediate node decides whether it transmits the control message to the source node or not. Consequently, the intermediate node that receives the control message confirms that it is using two additive control messages: IREQ and IREP. Through this investigation procedure, the source node can obtain a reliable path for transmitting data packets to an intentional destination node. The simulation results show an improvement in the packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay at the expense of a moderate increase of the control message overhead compared with the current routing protocols. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


DS/CDMA throughput of a multi-hop sensor network in a Rayleigh fading underwater acoustic channel

CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 8 2007
Choong Hock Mar
Abstract Asynchronous half-duplex Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access (DS/CDMA) is a suitable candidate for the MAC protocol design of underwater acoustic (UWA) sensor networks owing to its many attractive features. Our ad-hoc multi-hop network is infrastructureless in that it is without centralized base stations or power control. Hence, we develop an asynchronous distributed half-duplex control protocol to regulate between the transmitting and receiving phases of transmissions. Furthermore, multi-hop communications are very sensitive to the time variability of the received signal strength in the fading channel and the ambient noise dominated by snapping shrimp in harsh underwater environments, because a broken link in the multi-hop path is enough to disrupt communications and initiate new route searches. In our configuration, we use the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol optimized for UWA networks. Empirical studies show that we can model the channel as a slow-varying frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading channel. We theoretically analyze the throughput of our configuration by considering three salient features: the ability of the receiver to demodulate the data, the effect of our control protocol and the effect of disconnections on the generation of routing packets. The throughput under various operating conditions is then examined. It is observed that at optimal node separation, the throughput is improved by a factor of 10. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Dynamic zone topology routing protocol for MANETs

EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 4 2007
Mehran Abolhasan
The limited scalability of the proactive and reactive routing protocols have resulted in the introduction of new generation of routing in mobile ad hoc networks, called hybrid routing. These protocols aim to extend the scalability of such networks beyond several hundred to thousand of nodes by defining a virtual infrastructure in the network. However, many of the hybrid routing protocols proposed to date are designed to function using a common pre-programmed static zone map. Other hybrid protocols reduce flooding by grouping nodes into clusters, governed by a cluster-head, which may create performance bottlenecks or a single point of failures at each cluster-head node. We propose a new routing strategy in which zones are created dynamically, using a dynamic zone creation algorithm. Therefore, nodes are not restricted to a specific region. Additionally, nodes perform routing and data forwarding in a cooperative manner, which means that in the case failure, route recalculation is minimised. Routing overheads are also further reduced by introducing a number of GPS-based location tracking mechanisms, which reduces the route discovery area and the number of nodes queried to find the required destination. Copyright 2006 AEIT [source]


Exploiting Context-Awareness in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

IEEJ TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2009
Md Enamul Haque Non-member
Abstract Most of the wireless sensor network's (WSN's) applications require getting accurate information as well as uninterrupted, prolonged service life. Among the constituting elements of WSN, an efficient routing protocol plays a significant role in attaining such service requirements. In this article, an energy efficient routing protocol, context-aware clustering hierarchy (CACH), is proposed where cluster formation is based on the context of the environment. Moreover, a technique is utilized to avoid similar data traffic across the network. The performance in the simulation shows energy saving which ensures prolonged service life. Copyright 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


Error-aware and energy-efficient routing approach in MANETs

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 1 2009
Liansheng Tan
Abstract The lifetime of a network is the key design factor of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). To prolong the lifetime of MANETs, one is forced to attain a tradeoff of minimizing the energy consumption and load balancing. In MANETs, energy waste resulting from retransmission due to high bit error rate (BER) and high frame error rate (FER) of wireless channel is significant. In this paper, we propose two novel protocols termed multi-threshold routing protocol (MTRP) and enhanced multi-threshold routing protocol (EMTRP). MTRP divides the total energy of a wireless node into multiple ranges. The lower bound of each range corresponds to a threshold. The protocol iterates from the highest threshold to the lowest one and chooses those routes with bottleneck energy being larger than the current threshold during each iteration. This approach thus avoids overusing certain routes and achieves load balancing. If multiple routes satisfy the threshold constraint, MTRP selects a route with the smallest hop count to further attain energy efficiency. Based on MTRP, EMTRP further takes channel condition into consideration and selects routes with better channel condition and consequently reduces the number of retransmissions and saves energy. We analyze the average loss probability (ALP) of the uniform error model and Gilbert error model and give a distributed algorithm to obtain the maximal ALP along a route. Descriptions of MTRP and EMTRP are given in pseudocode form. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed EMTRP outperforms the representative protocol CMMBCR in terms of total energy consumption and load balancing. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Reliable and efficient multicast protocol for mobile IP networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 7 2008
Sang-Jo Yoo
Abstract To provide a multicasting service, several multicast protocols for mobile hosts (MHs) have been proposed. However, all of these protocols have faults, such as non-optimal delivery routes and data loss when hosts move to another network, resulting in insecure multicast data transmissions. Thus, this paper presents a new reliable and efficient multicast routing protocol for mobile IP networks. The proposed protocol provides a reliable multicast transmission by compensating the data loss from the previous mobile agent when a MH moves to another network. In addition, an additional function allows for direct connection to the multicast tree according to the status of agents, thereby providing a more efficient and optimal multicast path. The performance of the proposed protocol is confirmed based on simulations under various conditions. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A survey of current architectures for connecting wireless mobile ad hoc networks to the Internet

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 8 2007
Habib M. Ammari
Abstract Connecting wired and wireless networks, and particularly mobile wireless ad hoc networks (MANETs) and the global Internet, is attractive in real-world scenarios due to its usefulness and praticality. Because of the various architectural mismatches between the Internet and MANETs with regard to their communication topology, routing protocols, and operation, it is necessary to introduce a hybrid interface capable of connecting to the Internet using Mobile IP protocol and to MANETs owing to an ad hoc routing protocol. Specifically, the approaches available in the literature have introduced updated versions of Mobile IP agents or access points at the edge of the Internet to help MANET nodes get multi-hop wireless Internet access. The main differences in the existing approaches concern the type of ad hoc routing protocol as well as the switching algorithm used by MANET nodes to change their current Mobile IP agents based on specific switching criteria. This paper surveys a variety of approaches to providing multi-hop wireless Internet access to MANET nodes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 7 2007
Ye Ming Lu
Abstract The energy consumption is a key design criterion for the routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. Some of the conventional single path routing schemes may not be optimal to maximize the network lifetime and connectivity. In this paper, we propose a distributed, scalable and localized multipath search protocol to discover multiple node-disjoint paths between the sink and source nodes. We also propose a load balancing algorithm to distribute the traffic over the multiple paths discovered. We compare our proposed scheme with the directed diffusion, directed transmission, N -to-1 multipath routing, and the energy-aware routing protocols. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has a higher node energy efficiency, lower average delay and control overhead than those protocols. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Efficient Delaunay-based localized routing for wireless sensor networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 7 2007
Yu Wang
Abstract Consider a wireless sensor network consisting of n wireless sensors randomly distributed in a two-dimensional plane. In this paper, we show that with high probability we can locally find a path for any pair of sensors such that the length of the path is no more than a constant factor of the minimum. By assuming each sensor knows its position, our new routing method decides where to forward the message purely based on the position of current node, its neighbours, and the positions of the source and the target. Our method is based on a novel structure called localized Delaunay triangulation and a geometric routing method that guarantees that the distance travelled by the packets is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum when the Delaunay triangulation of sensor nodes are known. Our experiments show that the delivery rates of existing localized routing protocols are increased when localized Delaunay triangulation is used instead of several previously proposed topologies, and our localized routing protocol based on Delaunay triangulation works well in practice. We also conducted extensive simulations of another localized routing protocol, face routing. The path found by this protocol is also reasonably good compared with previous one although it cannot guarantee a constant approximation on the length of the path travelled theoretically. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Power aware scalable multicast routing protocol for MANETs

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 10 2006
R. Manoharan
Abstract Multicasting is an effective way to provide group communication. In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), multicasting can support a wide variety of applications that are characterized by a close degree of collaboration. Since MANETs exhibit severe resource constraints such as battery power, limited bandwidth, dynamic network topology and lack of centralized administration, multicasting in MANETs become complex. The existing multicast routing protocols concentrate more on quality of service parameters like end-to-end delay, jitter, bandwidth and power. They do not stress on the scalability factor of the multicast. In this paper, we address the problem of multicast scalability and propose an efficient scalable multicast routing protocol called ,Power Aware Scalable Multicast Routing Protocol (PASMRP)' for MANETs. PASMRP uses the concept of class of service with three priority levels and local re-routing to provide scalability. The protocol also ensures fair utilization of the resources among the nodes through re-routing and hence the lifetime of the network is increased. The protocol has been simulated and the results show that PASMRP has better scalability and enhanced lifetime than the existing multicast routing protocols. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Adaptive zone routing protocol for ad hoc network nodes with non-uniform mobilities

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 9 2003
Xiaofeng Zhang
Abstract In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols for mobile ad hoc wireless NETworks (MANETs) have been developed. Performance evaluation and comparison of many of these routing protocols have been performed using detailed simulation models. Zone routing protocol (ZRP) is one of these routing protocols, which is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routing information for a local neighbourhood (routing zone), while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the routing zone. The studies on ZRP have assumed homogeneous scenarios where all mobile nodes have uniform mobility and are statistically identical, lacking the studies on heterogeneous scenarios where mobile nodes move with non-uniform mobilities in the same network. In this paper, we study the performance of ZRP in such scenarios. We propose an efficient scheme for ZRP to adapt to the non-uniform mobilities scenario and study its performance for different mobility scenarios, network loads and network sizes. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Urban mesh and ad hoc mesh networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NETWORK MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2008
Anders Nilsson Plymoth
Mesh networking is currently gaining much attention, within both academia and industry. Mesh networking allows cheap and fast deployment of wireless services. It is regarded as a very promising solution for urban deployment scenarios as well as for temporary emergency response situations. Another related promising field is that of ad hoc wireless networking, which consists of mobile nodes that dynamically create and maintain a network without the need for any infrastructure. We propose a solution and architecture for urban mesh ad hoc networks, a network that combines mesh networking with ad hoc networks for urban environments. We present four types of ad hoc mesh and ad hoc mesh networks. The most general one consists of mesh nodes, called mesh points (MP), that act as a type of access point for user nodes (UN). The MPs have at least two interfaces: one which is used to communicate with UNs, and one which is used to maintain the mesh access network and transport data. These two interfaces can basically use any type of technology (IEEE 802.11 a/b/g, WiMax, etc.), and for capacity reasons it is generally regarded that the best solution is to let the mesh interface operate on a separate high-capacity channel or channels. An intricate part of these types of networks are routing and location services. In our solution, UN devices operate in ad hoc mode running an ad hoc routing protocol. This allows UNs that wish to communicate to connect directly in an ad hoc manner, or through an MP. An important question is therefore whether two UNs that wish to communicate should connect through the mesh or connect directly. We show that from a capacity point of view whether a UN should route its packets to the closest available MP, or through a ad hoc network, depends on the environment the network is located, the amount traffic and the type of protocols used. Since MPs need to know where to route packets within the mesh, i.e., locating the MP closest to the destination UN, each UN run a small application that registers the UN to the mesh network. In addition to the above features we have developed a new MAC that quickly queries two candidate nodes, which picks the candidate with the currently best radio conditions. This enable nodes to cope with deep dips in signal strength due to fast fading, a well-known problem in urban environments. We show that this new protocol achieves significantly lower delays. We also show that in dense urban environments performance and battery lifetime can be improved if ad hoc technologies are used. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Study of MANET routing protocols by GloMoSim simulator

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NETWORK MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2005
Ashwini K. Pandey
This paper compares ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR) and wireless routing protocol (WRP) for MANETs to distance vector protocol to better understand the major characteristics of the three routing protocols, using a parallel discrete event-driven simulator, GloMoSim. MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is a multi-hop wireless network without a fixed infrastructure. Following are some of our key findings: (1) AODV is most sensitive to changes in traffic load in the messaging overhead for routing. The number of control packets generated by AODV became 36 times larger when the traffic load was increased. For distance vector, WRP and DSR, their increase was approximately 1.3 times, 1.1 times and 7.6 times, respectively. (2) Two advantages common in the three MANET routing protocols compared to classical distance vector protocol were identified to be scalability for node mobility in end-to-end delay and scalability for node density in messaging overhead. (3) WRP resulted in the shortest delay and highest packet delivery rate, implying that WRP will be the best for real-time applications in the four protocols compared. WRP demonstrated the best traffic scalability; control overhead will not increase much when traffic load increases. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A novel QoS routing protocol for LEO and MEO satellite networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING, Issue 6 2007
Yunhui Zhou
Abstract The rapid advance of communication and satellite technology pushes broadband satellite networks to carry on multimedia traffic. However, the function of onboard routing cannot be provided in existing satellite networks with inter-satellite links, and quality of service (QoS) of satellite networks cannot be reliably guaranteed because of great difficulties in processing of long distance-dependent traffic. In this paper, a two-layered low-Earth orbit and medium-Earth orbit satellite network (LMSN) is presented. A novel hierarchical and distributed QoS routing protocol (HDRP) is investigated, and an adaptive bandwidth-constrained minimum-delay path algorithm is developed to calculate routing tables efficiently using the QoS metric information composed of delays and bandwidth. The performance of LMSN and HDRP is also evaluated through simulations and theoretical analysis. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


On the Internet routing protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol: is it optimal?

INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS IN OPERATIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2006
James R. Yee
Abstract Cisco's proprietary routing protocol, EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is one of the two most widely employed routing protocols in the Internet. The underlying algorithm is reputed to be optimal with respect to the EIGRP metric. We construct a counterexample to illustrate that it is not optimal. We implemented the test network from the counterexample in our Networking Lab and it was confirmed that the Cisco routers did not find optimal routes. We suggest ways in which the EIGRP algorithm can be improved. These suggestions would also improve the operation of the Diffusing Updating Algorithm, the portion of EIGRP used to recover from link/node failures. [source]


Optimization of Internet Protocol network design and routing

NETWORKS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
Kaj Holmberg
Abstract We consider network design and routing for Internet Protocol (IP) traffic. The design problem concerns capacity dimensioning of communication links, where the design cost consists of fixed charges and linear capacity expansion costs. The optimization problem also concerns determining the amount of traffic demand to be carried by the network and the metric used by a shortest path routing protocol. We present a novel linear mixed-integer mathematical formulation and two heuristic solution procedures. The first heuristic uses mixed-integer programming to generate a sequence of routing solutions. The second solution approach is a simulated annealing meta heuristic. Computational experiments for synthesized and real-life networks show that high-quality solutions can be obtained by both approaches. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


AODV-RIP: improved security in mobile ad hoc networks through route investigation procedure

CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 7 2010
Byung-Seok Kang
Abstract Most routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) place an emphasis on finding paths in dynamic networks without considering security. As a result, there are a number of attacks that can be used to manipulate the routing in MANET. A malicious node that sends a modified control message to an intermediate node can disturb the network using a control message. To solve this problem, we introduce AODV protocol with route investigation procedure (AODV-RIP). It uses two additional control messages to defeat security attacks that can occur in AODV routing protocol. When an intermediate node that is on the path between the source node and the destination node receives a control message, it sends a Rroute Investigation Request (IREQ) message to the destination node in order to check the reliability of the control message. According to the existence of Route Investigation Reply (IREP), the intermediate node decides whether it transmits the control message to the source node or not. Consequently, the intermediate node that receives the control message confirms that it is using two additive control messages: IREQ and IREP. Through this investigation procedure, the source node can obtain a reliable path for transmitting data packets to an intentional destination node. The simulation results show an improvement in the packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay at the expense of a moderate increase of the control message overhead compared with the current routing protocols. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Dynamic zone topology routing protocol for MANETs

EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 4 2007
Mehran Abolhasan
The limited scalability of the proactive and reactive routing protocols have resulted in the introduction of new generation of routing in mobile ad hoc networks, called hybrid routing. These protocols aim to extend the scalability of such networks beyond several hundred to thousand of nodes by defining a virtual infrastructure in the network. However, many of the hybrid routing protocols proposed to date are designed to function using a common pre-programmed static zone map. Other hybrid protocols reduce flooding by grouping nodes into clusters, governed by a cluster-head, which may create performance bottlenecks or a single point of failures at each cluster-head node. We propose a new routing strategy in which zones are created dynamically, using a dynamic zone creation algorithm. Therefore, nodes are not restricted to a specific region. Additionally, nodes perform routing and data forwarding in a cooperative manner, which means that in the case failure, route recalculation is minimised. Routing overheads are also further reduced by introducing a number of GPS-based location tracking mechanisms, which reduces the route discovery area and the number of nodes queried to find the required destination. Copyright 2006 AEIT [source]


A study of a routing attack in OLSR-based mobile ad hoc networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 11 2007
Bounpadith Kannhavong
Abstract A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which are able to communicate with each other without relying on predefined infrastructures or central administration. Due to their flexibilities and easy deployment, MANET can be applied in situation where network infrastructures are not available. However, due to their unique characteristics such as open medium and the lack of central administration, they are much more vulnerable to malicious attacks than a conventional infrastructured wireless network. MANET employs routing to provide connectivity for mobile nodes that are not within direct wireless transmission range. Existing routing protocols in MANET assume a trusted and cooperative environment. However, in hostile environment, mobile nodes are susceptible to various kinds of routing attacks. In this paper, we show that an OLSR MANET node is prone to be isolated by malicious attack called Node Isolation attack. After analysing the attack in detail, we present a technique to mitigate the impact of the attack and improve the performance of the network when the attack is launched. The results of our implementations illustrate that the proposed solution can mitigate the attack efficiently. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A survey of current architectures for connecting wireless mobile ad hoc networks to the Internet

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 8 2007
Habib M. Ammari
Abstract Connecting wired and wireless networks, and particularly mobile wireless ad hoc networks (MANETs) and the global Internet, is attractive in real-world scenarios due to its usefulness and praticality. Because of the various architectural mismatches between the Internet and MANETs with regard to their communication topology, routing protocols, and operation, it is necessary to introduce a hybrid interface capable of connecting to the Internet using Mobile IP protocol and to MANETs owing to an ad hoc routing protocol. Specifically, the approaches available in the literature have introduced updated versions of Mobile IP agents or access points at the edge of the Internet to help MANET nodes get multi-hop wireless Internet access. The main differences in the existing approaches concern the type of ad hoc routing protocol as well as the switching algorithm used by MANET nodes to change their current Mobile IP agents based on specific switching criteria. This paper surveys a variety of approaches to providing multi-hop wireless Internet access to MANET nodes. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 7 2007
Ye Ming Lu
Abstract The energy consumption is a key design criterion for the routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. Some of the conventional single path routing schemes may not be optimal to maximize the network lifetime and connectivity. In this paper, we propose a distributed, scalable and localized multipath search protocol to discover multiple node-disjoint paths between the sink and source nodes. We also propose a load balancing algorithm to distribute the traffic over the multiple paths discovered. We compare our proposed scheme with the directed diffusion, directed transmission, N -to-1 multipath routing, and the energy-aware routing protocols. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has a higher node energy efficiency, lower average delay and control overhead than those protocols. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Efficient Delaunay-based localized routing for wireless sensor networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 7 2007
Yu Wang
Abstract Consider a wireless sensor network consisting of n wireless sensors randomly distributed in a two-dimensional plane. In this paper, we show that with high probability we can locally find a path for any pair of sensors such that the length of the path is no more than a constant factor of the minimum. By assuming each sensor knows its position, our new routing method decides where to forward the message purely based on the position of current node, its neighbours, and the positions of the source and the target. Our method is based on a novel structure called localized Delaunay triangulation and a geometric routing method that guarantees that the distance travelled by the packets is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum when the Delaunay triangulation of sensor nodes are known. Our experiments show that the delivery rates of existing localized routing protocols are increased when localized Delaunay triangulation is used instead of several previously proposed topologies, and our localized routing protocol based on Delaunay triangulation works well in practice. We also conducted extensive simulations of another localized routing protocol, face routing. The path found by this protocol is also reasonably good compared with previous one although it cannot guarantee a constant approximation on the length of the path travelled theoretically. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Power aware scalable multicast routing protocol for MANETs

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 10 2006
R. Manoharan
Abstract Multicasting is an effective way to provide group communication. In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), multicasting can support a wide variety of applications that are characterized by a close degree of collaboration. Since MANETs exhibit severe resource constraints such as battery power, limited bandwidth, dynamic network topology and lack of centralized administration, multicasting in MANETs become complex. The existing multicast routing protocols concentrate more on quality of service parameters like end-to-end delay, jitter, bandwidth and power. They do not stress on the scalability factor of the multicast. In this paper, we address the problem of multicast scalability and propose an efficient scalable multicast routing protocol called ,Power Aware Scalable Multicast Routing Protocol (PASMRP)' for MANETs. PASMRP uses the concept of class of service with three priority levels and local re-routing to provide scalability. The protocol also ensures fair utilization of the resources among the nodes through re-routing and hence the lifetime of the network is increased. The protocol has been simulated and the results show that PASMRP has better scalability and enhanced lifetime than the existing multicast routing protocols. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


QoS routing through alternate paths in wireless ad hoc networks

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 3 2004
Baoxian Zhang
Abstract Quality of service (QoS) routing plays an important role in QoS provisioning for mobile ad hoc networks. This work studies the issue of route selection subject to QoS constraint(s). Our method searches for alternate routes with satisfied QoS requirement(s) to accommodate each communication request when the shortest path connecting the source,destination pair of the request is not qualified. In order to effectively reduce protocol overhead, a directed search mechanism is designed to limit the breadth of the searching scope, which aims at achieving a graceful tradeoff between the success probability in QoS route acquisition and communication overhead. Efficient hop-by-hop routing protocols are designed for route selection subject to delay and bandwidth constraint, respectively. Simulation results show that the designed protocols can achieve high performance in acquiring QoS paths and in efficient resource utilization with low control overhead. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Adaptive zone routing protocol for ad hoc network nodes with non-uniform mobilities

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Issue 9 2003
Xiaofeng Zhang
Abstract In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols for mobile ad hoc wireless NETworks (MANETs) have been developed. Performance evaluation and comparison of many of these routing protocols have been performed using detailed simulation models. Zone routing protocol (ZRP) is one of these routing protocols, which is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routing information for a local neighbourhood (routing zone), while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the routing zone. The studies on ZRP have assumed homogeneous scenarios where all mobile nodes have uniform mobility and are statistically identical, lacking the studies on heterogeneous scenarios where mobile nodes move with non-uniform mobilities in the same network. In this paper, we study the performance of ZRP in such scenarios. We propose an efficient scheme for ZRP to adapt to the non-uniform mobilities scenario and study its performance for different mobility scenarios, network loads and network sizes. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Study of MANET routing protocols by GloMoSim simulator

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NETWORK MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2005
Ashwini K. Pandey
This paper compares ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR) and wireless routing protocol (WRP) for MANETs to distance vector protocol to better understand the major characteristics of the three routing protocols, using a parallel discrete event-driven simulator, GloMoSim. MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is a multi-hop wireless network without a fixed infrastructure. Following are some of our key findings: (1) AODV is most sensitive to changes in traffic load in the messaging overhead for routing. The number of control packets generated by AODV became 36 times larger when the traffic load was increased. For distance vector, WRP and DSR, their increase was approximately 1.3 times, 1.1 times and 7.6 times, respectively. (2) Two advantages common in the three MANET routing protocols compared to classical distance vector protocol were identified to be scalability for node mobility in end-to-end delay and scalability for node density in messaging overhead. (3) WRP resulted in the shortest delay and highest packet delivery rate, implying that WRP will be the best for real-time applications in the four protocols compared. WRP demonstrated the best traffic scalability; control overhead will not increase much when traffic load increases. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Efficient visualization of large routing topologies

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NETWORK MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2004
Siew Cheong Au
As the Internet grows in size and complexity, network managers face a significant challenge in trying to understand the behaviour of routing protocols in large networks. In this paper, we present a tool called VLNT (visualizing large network topologies), which helps network managers to analyse complex routing topologies. A key contribution of our system is a novel hybrid layout algorithm, which significantly reduces the computation time required to layout large network topologies in comparison to conventional layout approaches. In addition our algorithm includes a novel termination criterion that avoids unnecessary iterations when optimizing the network layout. We demonstrate how the visualization features of VLNT can be used to analyse and improve BGP routing topologies, and provide examples using real-life routing data.,Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]