Routine Health Care (routine + health_care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of a cognitive behaviourally oriented service for relapse prevention in schizophrenia

S. Klingberg
Klingberg S, Wittorf A, Fischer A, Jakob-Deters K, Buchkremer G, Wiedemann G. Evaluation of a cognitive behaviourally oriented service for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. Objective:, There is little work demonstrating the effectiveness of cognitive behaviourally oriented interventions in routine service settings. This pragmatic trial is designed to test the impact of a group treatment service on relapse rates under the conditions of routine health care. Method:, A total of 169 schizophrenia patients were randomly allocated either to a comprehensive cognitive behaviourally oriented service (CBOS) or to treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome is the time until the first relapse after discharge from hospital. Relapse was defined as an increase in positive or negative symptoms as assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Survival analysis has been conducted up to the 6-month assessment. Results:, The mean time to relapse after discharge from hospital in the CBOS group was significantly longer than in the TAU group (log rank test, P = 0.033). This was due to less exacerbations regarding negative symptoms in the CBOS condition (log rank test, P = 0.014). The number of social contacts was improved in the CBOS group only. Conclusion:, The CBOS intervention appears to be beneficial in reducing early negative symptom exacerbations. [source]

Brief alcohol intervention,where to from here?

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
Challenges remain for research, practice
ABSTRACT Brief intervention (BI) is intended as an early intervention for non-treatment-seeking, non-alcohol-dependent, hazardous and harmful drinkers. This text provides a brief summary of key BI research findings from the last three decades and discusses a number of knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Five areas are described: patient intervention efficacy and effectiveness; barriers to BI implementation by health professionals; individual-level factors that impact on BI implementation; organization-level factors that impact on BI implementation; and society-level factors that impact on BI implementation. BI research has focused largely upon the individual patient and health professional levels, with the main focus upon primary health care research, and studies are lacking in other settings. However, research must, to a larger degree, take into account the organizational and wider context in which BI occurs, as well as interaction between factors at different levels, in order to advance the understanding of how wider implementation of BI can be achieved in various settings and how different population groups can be reached. It is also important to expand BI research beyond its current parameters to investigate more ambitious long-term educational programmes and new organizational models. More widespread implementation of BI will require many different interventions (efforts, actions, initiatives, etc.) at different interlinked levels, from implementation interventions targeting individual health professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours concerning alcohol issues, BI and behaviour change counselling to efforts at the organizational and societal levels that influence the conditions for delivering BI as part of routine health care. [source]

The clinical and epidemiological burden of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

A. REDAELLI phd director of global outcomes research-oncology
The purpose of this literature review was to identify and summarize published studies describing the epidemiology and management of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia represents 22,30% of all leukaemia cases with a worldwide incidence projected to be between <,1 and 5.5 per 100 000 people. Australia, the USA, Ireland and Italy have the highest CLL incidence rates. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presents in adults, at higher rates in males than in females and in whites than in blacks. Median age at diagnosis is 64,70 years. Five-year survival rate in the USA is 83% for those <,65 years old and 68% for those 65 + years old. Hereditary and genetic links have been noted. Persons with close relatives who have CLL have an increased risk of developing it themselves. No single environmental risk factor has been found to be predictive for CLL. Patients are usually diagnosed at routine health care visits because of elevated lymphocyte counts. The most common presenting symptom of CLL is lymphadenopathy, while difficulty exercising and fatigue are common complaints. Most patients do not receive treatment after initial diagnosis unless presenting with clear pathologic conditions. Pharmacological therapy may consist of monotherapy or combination therapy involving glucocorticoids, alkylating agents, and purine analogs. Fludarabine may be the most effective single drug treatment currently available. Combination therapy protocols have not been shown to be more effective than fludarabine alone. As no cure is yet available, a strong unmet medical need exists for innovative new therapies. Experimental treatments under development include allogeneic stem cell transplant, mini-allogeneic transplants, and monoclonal antibodies (e.g. alemtuzumab against CD52; rituximab against CD20). [source]

Reducing Adverse Outcomes from Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Clinical Plan of Action

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2006
R. Louise Floyd
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are among the leading preventable causes of developmental disorders in the United States; however, recognition and prevention of these conditions cannot be achieved without informed and educated health providers. This commentary addresses the importance of recognition and prevention of FASDs through the use of well-established standardized practices of diagnosis, screening, and brief alcohol reduction counseling. It is hoped that more knowledge on currently available procedures will encourage their use in the provision of routine health care to all women of childbearing age. [source]

Brief Intervention for Female Heavy Drinkers in Routine General Practice: A 3-Year Randomized, Controlled Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2000
Mauri Aalto
Background: Today, heavy drinking is a common health hazard among women. The evidence in favor of providing some kind of brief intervention to reduce drinking is quite convincing. However, we do not know if intervention works in a natural environment of routine health care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of long-lasting, brief alcohol intervention counseling for women in a routine general practice setting. Methods: In five primary care outpatient clinics in a Finnish town, 118 female early-phase heavy drinkers who consulted their general practitioners for various reasons were given brief alcohol intervention counseling. Intervention groups A (n= 40) and B (n= 38) were offered seven and three brief intervention sessions, respectively, over a 3-yr period. The control group C (n= 40) was advised to reduce drinking at baseline. Main outcome measures were self-reported weekly alcohol consumption, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Results: Depending on the outcome measure and the study group, clinically meaningful reduction of drinking was found in 27% to 75% of the heavy drinkers. Within all the groups, MCV significantly decreased. However, there were no statistically significant differences between study groups A, B, and C in the mean changes between the beginning and endpoint in the main outcome measures. Conclusions: The present study indicated that minimal advice, as offered to group C, was associated with reduced drinking as much as the brief intervention, as offered to groups A and B, given over a 3-yr period. Furthermore, in the routine setting of the general practice office, the effectiveness of the brief intervention may not be as good as in special research conditions. The factors possibly reducing the effectiveness in a routine setting are unknown. Thus, different methods of implementing brief intervention need to be evaluated to find better ways to support general practice personnel in their efforts to help heavy-drinking female patients to reduce their drinking. [source]