Rock Formations (rock + formation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hornton Stone: battlefields, buildings and Jurassic seas

GEOLOGY TODAY, Issue 4 2009
Jonathan D. Radley
The Hornton Stone is an unusually pure ooidal ironstone of the Lower Jurassic Marlstone Rock Formation, cropping out on the Edge Hill escarpment and adjacent ironstone plateau in central England. The stone has been quarried for building and ornamental purposes since Medieval times, and more recently as a source of iron ore. Local quarries and buildings provide excellent opportunities to appreciate its fossil content, sedimentary structures and origin. [source]

The genesis of the carbonatized and silicified ultramafics known as listvenites: a case study from the Mihal,çç,k region (Eski,ehir), NW Turkey

Mehmet Akbulut
Abstract The Mihal,çç,k region (Eski,ehir) in NW Turkey includes an ophiolitic assemblage with a serpentinite-matrix mélange. The serpentinites of this mélange host silica-carbonate metasomatites which were previously named as listvenites. Our mineralogical and geochemical studies revealed that these alteration assemblages represent members of the listvenitic series, mainly the carbonate rocks, silica-carbonate rocks and birbirites, rather than true listvenites (sensu stricto). Tectonic activity and lithology are principal factors that control the formation of these assemblages. Carbonatization and silicification of the serpentinite host-rock is generated by CO2, SiO2 -rich H2O hydrothermal fluid which includes As, Ba, Sb and Sr. Low precious metal (Au, Ag) contents of the alteration assemblages indicate lack of these metals in the fluid. Primary assemblages of the alteration are carbonate rocks that are followed by silica-carbonate rocks and birbirites, respectively. Petrographic studies and chemical analyses suggested an alkaline and moderate to high temperature (350,400°C) fluid with low oxygen and sulphur fugacity for the carbonatization of the serpentinites. The low temperature phases observed in the subsequent silicification indicated that the fluid cooled during progressive alteration. The increasing Fe-oxide content and sulphur phases also suggested increasing oxygen and sulphur fugacity during this secondary process and silica-carbonate rock formation. The occurrence of birbirites is considered as a result of reactivation of tectonic features. These rocks are classified in two sub-groups; the Group 1 birbirites show analogous rare earth element (REE) trends with the serpentinite host-rock, and the Group 2 birbirites simulate the REE trends of the nearby tectonic granitoid slices. The unorthodox REE trend of Group 2 birbirites is interpreted to have resulted from a mobilization process triggered by the weathering solutions rather than being products of enrichment by the higher temperature hydrothermal activity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The creation of an asymmetric hydraulic fracture as a result of driving stress gradients

T. Fischer
SUMMARY Hydraulic fracture stimulation is frequently performed in hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal systems to increase the permeability of the rock formation. These hydraulic fractures are often mapped by hypocentres of induced microearthquakes. In some cases microseismicity exhibits asymmetry relative to the injection well, which can be interpreted by unequal conditions for fracture growth at opposite sides of the well or by observation effects. Here we investigate the role of the lateral change of the minimum compressive stress. We use a simple model to describe the relation among the lateral stress gradient, the mean viscous pressure gradients in the fracture wings, the fracture geometry, and the net pressure in the fracture. Our model predicts a faster fracture growth in the direction of decreasing stress and a limited growth in the opposite direction. We derive a simple relationship to estimate the lateral stress gradient from the injection pressure and the shape of the seismic hypocentre cloud. The model is tested by microseismic data obtained during stimulation of a Canyon Sands gas field in West Texas. Using a maximum likelihood method we fit the parameters of the asymmetric fracture model to the space,time pattern of hypocentres. The estimated stress gradients per metre are in the range from 0.008 to 0.010 times the bottom-hole injection overpressure (8,10 kPa m,1 assuming the net pressure of 1 MPa). Such large horizontal gradients in the order of the hydrostatic gradient could be caused by the inhomogeneous extraction of gas resulting in a lateral change of the effective normal stress acting normal to the fracture wall. [source]

Groundwater quality in the semi-arid region of the Chahardouly basin, West Iran

A. Taheri Tizro
Abstract Chahardouly basin is located in the western part of Iran and is characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions and scarcity in water resources. The main aquifer systems are developed within alluvial deposits. The availability of groundwater is rather erratic owing to the occurrence of hard rock formation and a saline zone in some parts of the area. The aquifer systems of the area show signs of depletion, which have taken place in recent years due to a decline in water levels. Groundwater samples collected from shallow and deep wells were analysed to examine the quality characteristics of groundwater. The major ion chemistry of groundwater is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3,, while higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater are associated with high concentrations of all major ions. An increase in salinity is recorded in the down-gradient part of the basin. The occurrence of saline groundwater, as witnessed by the high electrical conductivity (EC), may be attributed to the long residence time of water and the dissolution of minerals, as well as evaporation of rainfall and irrigation return flow. Based on SAR values and sodium content (%Na), salinity appears to be responsible for the poor groundwater quality, rendering most of the samples not suitable for irrigation use. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Synthesis of Rock Textures in Chinese Landscape Painting

Der-Lor Way
In Chinese landscape painting, rock textures portray the orientation of mountains and contribute to the atmosphere. Many landscape-painting skills are required according to the type of rock. Landscape painting is the major theme of Chinese painting. Over the centuries, masters of Chinese landscape painting developed various texture strokes. Hemp-fiber and axe-cut are two major types of texture strokes. A slightly sinuous and seemingly broken line, the hemp-fiber stroke is used for describing the gentle slopes of rock formations whereas the axe-cut stroke best depicts hard, rocky surfaces. This paper presents a novel method of synthesizing rock textures in Chinese landscape painting, useful not only to artists who want to paint interactively, but also in automated rendering of natural scenes. The method proposed underwrites the complete painting process after users have specified only the contour and parameters. [source]

A new Cosserat-like constitutive model for bedded salt rocks

Yin-Ping Li
Abstract Salt rocks are commonly used as geologic host rocks for storage of gas and crude oil, and are being considered for the disposal of radioactive waste. Different from the salt rock domes in many countries, the salt rock formations in China are usually laminar with many alternating layers, i.e. rock salt, anhydrite, and/or mudstone. Considering the unique stratigraphic characteristics of these salt rocks, a new Cosserat-like medium constitutive model is proposed in order to facilitate efficient modeling of the mechanical behavior of these formations. In this model, a new representative volume element, containing two different layers, is employed to simulate the compatibility of the meso-displacement between two different layers and also the bending effect. A new method for the deformation and failure analysis of bedded salt rocks is derived therefrom. Having the macro-average stresses, the conventional stresses in the different layers can be obtained in sequence. The conventional stresses can then be utilized in a routine way for the strength and failure analysis. For the initial numerical modeling, the new Cosserat-like medium is reduced to a transversely isotropic one. The simplified constitutive model for layered media is then implemented into FLAC3D codes. A test sample validates that the results by using the numerical model are in good agreement with that by using the built-in model, and the mesh size for the new model is reduced greatly. Finally, an application for the stability of oil storage caverns in deep thinly bedded salt rocks is carried out. The effects on convergence of storage caverns and on the failure of surrounding rock due to the presence of the mudstone interlayers (hard phase) are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nature of the Martian uplands: Effect on Martian meteorite age distribution and secondary cratering

William K. Hartmann
Some 80,89% of these launch sites sampled igneous rock formations from only the last 29% of Martian time. We hypothesize that this imbalance arises not merely from poor statistics, but because the launch processes are dominated by two main phenomena: first, much of the older Martian surface is inefficient in launching rocks during impacts, and second, the volumetrically enormous reservoir of original cumulate crust enhances launch probability for 4.5 Gyr old rocks. There are four lines of evidence for the first point, not all of equal strength. First, impact theory implies that MM launch is favored by surface exposures of near-surface coherent rock (,102 m deep), whereas Noachian surfaces generally should have ,102 m of loose or weakly cemented regolith with high ice content, reducing efficiency of rock launch. Second, similarly, both Mars Exploration Rovers found sedimentary strata, 1,2 orders of magnitude weaker than Martian igneous rocks, favoring low launch efficiency among some fluvial-derived Hesperian and Noachian rocks. Even if launched, such rocks may be unrecognized as meteorites on Earth. Third, statistics of MM formation age versus cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age weakly suggest that older surfaces may need larger, deeper craters to launch rocks. Fourth, in direct confirmation, one of us (N. G. B.) has found that older surfaces need larger craters to produce secondary impact crater fields (cf. Barlow and Block 2004). In a survey of 200 craters, the smallest Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian craters with prominent fields of secondaries have diameters of ,45 km, ,19 km, and ,10 km, respectively. Because 40% of Mars is Noachian, and 74% is either Noachian or Hesperian, the subsurface geologic characteristics of the older areas probably affect statistics of recognized MMs and production rates of secondary crater populations, and the MM and secondary crater statistics may give us clues to those properties. [source]

Physical properties of rocks from the upper part of the Yaxcopoil-1 drill hole, Chicxulub crater

Y. Popov
Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, density, and porosity were measured on 120 dry and water-saturated rocks with a core sampling interval of 2,2.5 m. Nondestructive, non-contact optical scanning technology was used for thermal property measurements including thermal anisotropy and inhomogeneity. Supplementary petrophysical properties (acoustic velocities, formation resisitivity factor, internal surface, and hydraulic permeability) were determined on a selected subgroup of representative samples to derive correlations with the densely measured parameters, establishing estimated depth logs to provide calibration values for the interpretation of geophysical data. Significant short- and long-scale variations of porosity (1,37%) turned out to be the dominant factor influencing thermal, acoustic, and hydraulic properties of this post impact limestone formation. Correspondingly, large variations of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, acoustic velocities, and hydraulic permeability were found. These variations of physical properties allow us to subdivide the formation into several zones. A combination of experimental data on thermal conductivity for dry and water-saturated rocks and a theoretical model of effective thermal conductivity for heterogeneous media have been used to calculate thermal conductivity of mineral skeleton and pore aspect ratio for every core under study. The results on thermal parameters are the necessary basis for the determination of heat flow density, demonstrating the necessity of dense sampling in the case of inhomogeneous rock formations. [source]