Rock Fabric (rock + fabric)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Geomechanical simulation to predict open subsurface fractures

Helen Lewis
ABSTRACT Geomechanical simulation of the evolution of a geological structure can play an important role in predicting open fracture development for all stages in that structure's development. In this work, three such geomechanical simulations are used to predict the evolving stress and strain fields, including dilational and compactional changes in the rock fabric in developing fault and fold systems. Their consequences for open fracture development and flow are addressed. These simulated stress and strain fields show considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity that is consistent with deformation patterns observed in both natural examples and in laboratory-deformed analogues. But the stress and strain states that develop are neither co-axial nor do they bear a simple relationship to one another. The dilational and compactional strains, manifest as open fracturing or sealing, represent some significantly increased or significantly decreased flow rates. However, open-fracture predictions based on such geomechanical simulations are extremely difficult to validate with any degree of confidence as there is little direct evidence of sub-surface fracture distributions. In this context we also discuss possible integration of seismic anisotropy measurements, as an independent measure of open fracture alignment, to support the geomechanically derived fracture predictions. The focus of this work is on volumetric strains in fault zone evolution, though folding is also addressed. [source]

A comparison of cross-hole electrical and seismic data in fractured rock

J.V. Herwanger
ABSTRACT Cross-hole anisotropic electrical and seismic tomograms of fractured metamorphic rock have been obtained at a test site where extensive hydrological data were available. A strong correlation between electrical resistivity anisotropy and seismic compressional-wave velocity anisotropy has been observed. Analysis of core samples from the site reveal that the shale-rich rocks have fabric-related average velocity anisotropy of between 10% and 30%. The cross-hole seismic data are consistent with these values, indicating that observed anisotropy might be principally due to the inherent rock fabric rather than to the aligned sets of open fractures. One region with velocity anisotropy greater than 30% has been modelled as aligned open fractures within an anisotropic rock matrix and this model is consistent with available fracture density and hydraulic transmissivity data from the boreholes and the cross-hole resistivity tomography data. However, in general the study highlights the uncertainties that can arise, due to the relative influence of rock fabric and fluid-filled fractures, when using geophysical techniques for hydrological investigations. [source]


H. Rahimpour-Bonab
Dolomitization and related anhydrite cementation can complicate the characterization of carbonate reservoirs. Both processes have affected the Permo-Triassic Upper Dalan , Kangan carbonates, the main reservoir at the South Pars gasfield, offshore Iran. The carbonates were deposited in a shallow-marine ramp or epeiric platform and, according to previous studies, underwent intense near-surface diagenesis and minor burial modification. Detailed petrographical and geochemical analyses indicate that dolomitization and anhydrite precipitation can be explained in terms of the sabkha/seepage-reflux models. The early dolomites then re-equilibrated or re-crystallized in a shallow burial setting. Evaluation of poroperm values in different reservoir intervals indicates that replacive dolomitization in the absence of anhydrite precipitation or with only patchy anhydrite has enhanced the reservoir quality. Where anhydrite cement is pervasive and has plugged the rock fabric, poroperm values are significantly decreased. As emphasized in previous studies and confirmed here, dolomitization and anhydrite cementation, together with original facies type, are the major factors controlling reservoir quality in the Dalan , Kangan carbonates at South Pars. When associated with minor anhydrite cementation, replacive dolomitization has enhanced reservoir quality by increasing permeability. However, porosity in fabric-retentive dolomite was apparently inherited from the precursor rock and therefore reflects the original depositional environment. Low-temperature dolomitization is commonly fabric-selective and partially fabric-retentive. Whole rock stable isotope thermometry indicates that fabric-destructive dolomites in the reservoir rocks formed at temperatures above 22C, whereas fabric-retentive dolomites and associated anhydrites formed in surface and near-surface conditions. Fabric-destructive dolomite or dolomite neomorphism post-date fabric-retentive dolomite and continued to form in deep burial conditions (,1400m). These observations may explain why fabric-retentive dolomite and anhydrite fabrics are traversed by stylolites. [source]