Root Respiration (root + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Responses of tree fine roots to temperature

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2000
KURT S. PREGITZER
Soil temperature can influence the functioning of roots in many ways. If soil moisture and nutrient availability are adequate, rates of root length extension and root mortality increase with increasing soil temperature, at least up to an optimal temperature for root growth, which seems to vary among taxa. Root growth and root mortality are highly seasonal in perennial plants, with a flush of growth in spring and significant mortality in the fall. At present we do not understand whether root growth phenology responds to the same temperature cues that are known to control shoot growth. We also do not understand whether the flush of root growth in the spring depends on the utilization of stored nonstructural carbohydrates, or if it is fueled by current photosynthate. Root respiration increases exponentially with temperature, but Q10 values range widely from c. 1.5 to > 3.0. Significant questions yet to be resolved are: whether rates of root respiration acclimate to soil temperature, and what mechanisms control acclimation if it occurs. Limited data suggest that fine roots depend heavily on the import of new carbon (C) from the canopy during the growing season. We hypothesize that root growth and root respiration are tightly linked to whole-canopy assimilation through complex source,sink relationships within the plant. Our understanding of how the whole plant responds to dynamic changes in soil temperature, moisture and nutrient availability is poor, even though it is well known that multiple growth-limiting resources change simultaneously through time during a typical growing season. We review the interactions between soil temperature and other growth-limiting factors to illustrate how simple generalizations about temperature and root functioning can be misleading. [source]


The effects of elevated CO2 on root respiration rates of two Mojave Desert shrubs

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
NAOMI M. CLARK
Abstract Although desert ecosystems are predicted to be the most responsive to elevated CO2, low nutrient availability may limit increases in productivity and cause plants in deserts to allocate more resources to root biomass or activity for increased nutrient acquisition. We measured root respiration of two Mojave Desert shrubs, Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata, grown under ambient (,375 ppm) and elevated (,517 ppm) CO2 concentrations at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) over five growing seasons. In addition, we grew L. tridentata seedlings in a greenhouse with similar CO2 treatments to determine responses of primary and lateral roots to an increase in CO2. In both field and greenhouse studies, root respiration was not significantly affected by elevated CO2. However, respiration of A. dumosa roots <1 month old was significantly greater than respiration of A. dumosa roots between 1 and 4 months old. For both shrub species, respiration rates of very fine (<1.0 mm diameter) roots were significantly greater than those of fine (1,2 mm diameter) roots, and root respiration decreased as soil water decreased. Because specific root length was not significantly affected by CO2 and because field minirhizotron measurements of root production were not significantly different, we infer that root growth at the NDFF has not increased with elevated CO2. Furthermore, other studies at the NDFF have shown increased nutrient availability under elevated CO2, which reduces the need for roots to increase scavenging for nutrients. Thus, we conclude that A. dumosa and L. tridentata root systems have not increased in size or activity, and increased shoot production observed under elevated CO2 for these species does not appear to be constrained by the plant's root growth or activity. [source]


Partitioning sources of soil respiration in boreal black spruce forest using radiocarbon

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
Edward A.G. Schuur
Abstract Separating ecosystem and soil respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic component sources is necessary for understanding how the net ecosystem exchange of carbon (C) will respond to current and future changes in climate and vegetation. Here, we use an isotope mass balance method based on radiocarbon to partition respiration sources in three mature black spruce forest stands in Alaska. Radiocarbon (,14C) signatures of respired C reflect the age of substrate C and can be used to differentiate source pools within ecosystems. Recently-fixed C that fuels plant or microbial metabolism has ,14C values close to that of current atmospheric CO2, while C respired from litter and soil organic matter decomposition will reflect the longer residence time of C in plant and soil C pools. Contrary to our expectations, the ,14C of C respired by recently excised black spruce roots averaged 14, greater than expected for recently fixed photosynthetic products, indicating that some portion of the C fueling root metabolism was derived from C storage pools with turnover times of at least several years. The ,14C values of C respired by heterotrophs in laboratory incubations of soil organic matter averaged 60, higher than the contemporary atmosphere ,14CO2, indicating that the major contributors to decomposition are derived from a combination of sources consistent with a mean residence time of up to a decade. Comparing autotrophic and heterotrophic ,14C end members with measurements of the ,14C of total soil respiration, we calculated that 47,63% of soil CO2 emissions were derived from heterotrophic respiration across all three sites. Our limited temporal sampling also observed no significant differences in the partitioning of soil respiration in the early season compared with the late season. Future work is needed to address the reasons for high ,14C values in root respiration and issues of whether this method fully captures the contribution of rhizosphere respiration. [source]


Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on below-ground carbon allocation in lettuce

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 13 2002
Y Kuzyakov
Abstract The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the below-ground carbon (C) translocation by lettuce and the CO2 efflux from its rhizosphere. Two N fertilisation levels (80 and 160,kg N,ha,1) and two growth stages (43 and 60 days) were tested. 14C pulse labelling of shoots followed by 14C monitoring in the soil, roots, microbial biomass and CO2 efflux from the soil was used to distinguish between root-derived and soil organic matter-derived,C. The 14C allocation in the below-ground plant parts was 1.5,4.6 times lower than in the leaves. The total quantity of C translocated into the soil was much lower than in the case of cereals and grasses, amounting to 120 and 160,kg C,ha,1 for low and high N respectively. N fertilisation diminished the proportion of assimilated C translocated below ground. About 5,8% of the assimilated C was respired into the rhizosphere. Root-derived CO2 (the sum of root respiration and rhizomicrobial respiration) represented about 15,60% of the total CO2 efflux from the planted soil. Two peaks were measured in the 14CO2 efflux: the first peak (4,5,h after labelling) was attributed to root respiration, whilst the second peak (12,h after labelling) was attributed to microbial respiration of exudates. Twelve days after labelling, 0.15,0.25% of the assimilated C was found in the microbial biomass. The higher microbial activity in the lettuce rhizosphere doubled the soil organic matter decomposition rate compared with unplanted soil. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Responses of tree fine roots to temperature

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2000
KURT S. PREGITZER
Soil temperature can influence the functioning of roots in many ways. If soil moisture and nutrient availability are adequate, rates of root length extension and root mortality increase with increasing soil temperature, at least up to an optimal temperature for root growth, which seems to vary among taxa. Root growth and root mortality are highly seasonal in perennial plants, with a flush of growth in spring and significant mortality in the fall. At present we do not understand whether root growth phenology responds to the same temperature cues that are known to control shoot growth. We also do not understand whether the flush of root growth in the spring depends on the utilization of stored nonstructural carbohydrates, or if it is fueled by current photosynthate. Root respiration increases exponentially with temperature, but Q10 values range widely from c. 1.5 to > 3.0. Significant questions yet to be resolved are: whether rates of root respiration acclimate to soil temperature, and what mechanisms control acclimation if it occurs. Limited data suggest that fine roots depend heavily on the import of new carbon (C) from the canopy during the growing season. We hypothesize that root growth and root respiration are tightly linked to whole-canopy assimilation through complex source,sink relationships within the plant. Our understanding of how the whole plant responds to dynamic changes in soil temperature, moisture and nutrient availability is poor, even though it is well known that multiple growth-limiting resources change simultaneously through time during a typical growing season. We review the interactions between soil temperature and other growth-limiting factors to illustrate how simple generalizations about temperature and root functioning can be misleading. [source]


Fine-root respiration in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest exposed to elevated CO2 and N fertilization

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 11 2008
JOHN E. DRAKE
ABSTRACT Forest ecosystems release large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere from fine-root respiration (Rr), but the control of this flux and its temperature sensitivity (Q10) are poorly understood. We attempted to: (1) identify the factors limiting this flux using additions of glucose and an electron transport uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone); and (2) improve yearly estimates of Rr by directly measuring its Q10in situ using temperature-controlled cuvettes buried around intact, attached roots. The proximal limits of Rr of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and N fertilization were seasonally variable; enzyme capacity limited Rr in the winter, and a combination of substrate supply and adenylate availability limited Rr in summer months. The limiting factors of Rr were not affected by elevated CO2 or N fertilization. Elevated CO2 increased annual stand-level Rr by 34% whereas the combination of elevated CO2 and N fertilization reduced Rr by 40%. Measurements of in situ Rr with high temporal resolution detected diel patterns that were correlated with canopy photosynthesis with a lag of 1 d or less as measured by eddy covariance, indicating a dynamic link between canopy photosynthesis and root respiration. These results suggest that Rr is coupled to daily canopy photosynthesis and increases with carbon allocation below ground. [source]


Tree root and soil heterotrophic respiration as revealed by girdling of boreal Scots pine forest: extending observations beyond the first year

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2003
BHUPINDERPAL-SINGH
ABSTRACT Limitations in available techniques to separate autotrophic (root) and soil heterotrophic respiration have hampered the understanding of forest C cycling. The former is here defined as respiration by roots, their associated mycorrhizal fungi and other micro-organisms in the rhizosphere directly dependent on labile C compounds leaked from roots. In order to separate the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration, all Scots pine trees in 900 m2 plots were girdled to instantaneously terminate the supply of current photosynthates from the tree canopy to roots. Högberg et al. (Nature 411, 789,792, 2001) reported that autotrophic activity contributed up to 56% of total soil respiration during the first summer of this experiment. They also found that mobilization of stored starch (and likely also sugars) in roots after girdling caused an increased apparent heterotrophic respiration on girdled plots. Herein a transient increase in the ,13C of soil CO2 efflux after girdling, thought to be due to decomposition of 13C-enriched ectomycorrhizal mycelium and root starch and sugar reserves, is reported. In the second year after girdling, when starch reserves of girdled tree roots were exhausted, calculated root respiration increased up to 65% of total soil CO2 efflux. It is suggested that this estimate of its contribution to soil respiration is more precise than the previous based on one year of observation. Heterotrophic respiration declined in response to a 20-day-long 6 °C decline in soil temperature during the second summer, whereas root respiration did not decline. This did not support the idea that root respiration should be more sensitive to variations in soil temperature. It is suggested that above-ground photosynthetic activity and allocation patterns of recent photosynthates to roots should be considered in models of responses of forest C balances to global climate change. [source]