Review

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Review

  • administration review
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  • bibliographic review
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  • brief historical review
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  • chart review
  • clinical review
  • cochrane review
  • cochrane systematic review
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  • comprehensive literature review
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  • drug review
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  • european review
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  • excellent review
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  • follow-up review
  • formal review
  • full review
  • general review
  • histologic review
  • histological review
  • historical review
  • i review
  • in-depth review
  • initial review
  • institutional review
  • integrate review
  • integrative literature review
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  • international review
  • irb review
  • judicial review
  • law review
  • literature review
  • major review
  • management review
  • many review
  • medical chart review
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  • medication review
  • medicine review
  • medline review
  • meta-analytic review
  • meta-analytical review
  • methodological review
  • methods retrospective review
  • methods review
  • methods systematic review
  • mini review
  • narrative review
  • national review
  • note review
  • paper review
  • pathologic review
  • pathology review
  • peer review
  • performance review
  • periodic review
  • pictorial review
  • present review
  • previous review
  • previous systematic review
  • published review
  • qualitative review
  • qualitative systematic review
  • quantitative review
  • rapid review
  • recent review
  • recent systematic review
  • record review
  • regular review
  • regulatory review
  • relevant review
  • research review
  • retrospective case note review
  • retrospective case review
  • retrospective case-note review
  • retrospective chart review
  • retrospective clinical review
  • retrospective database review
  • retrospective medical record review
  • retrospective record review
  • retrospective review
  • scientific review
  • scoping review
  • selective literature review
  • selective review
  • series review
  • several review
  • short review
  • similar review
  • state-of-the-art review
  • structured literature review
  • structured review
  • study review
  • systematic literature review
  • systematic review
  • systemic review
  • theoretical review
  • this review
  • thorough review
  • to review
  • traditional review
  • tutorial review
  • up-to-date review
  • updated review
  • utilization review

  • Terms modified by Review

  • review address
  • review analysis
  • review area
  • review argue
  • review article
  • review aspect
  • review attempt
  • review author
  • review board
  • review board approval
  • review board member
  • review committee
  • review criterioN
  • review data
  • review deal
  • review editor
  • review essay
  • review evidence
  • review experience
  • review finding
  • review group
  • review highlight
  • review i
  • review instrument
  • review literature
  • review look
  • review methods
  • review panel
  • review paper
  • review period
  • review practice
  • review present
  • review process
  • review program
  • review progress
  • review protocol
  • review report
  • review research
  • review reveal
  • review series
  • review shows
  • review strategy
  • review studies
  • review study
  • review system
  • review traces

  • Selected Abstracts


    REVIEW: The phosphate regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor-23

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    R. Marsell
    Abstract Over the last decade, the regulation of phosphate (Pi) homeostasis has been under intense investigation. By utilizing modern biochemical and genetic tools, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind several known hereditary and acquired hypo- and hyperphosphatemic diseases have been clarified. The results of these efforts have opened new insights into the causes of Pi dysregulation and hereby also the physiological mechanisms determining Pi homeostasis. Although several potential Pi-regulating proteins have been discovered and investigated, current data strongly argues for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a hormonal factor produced in bone, as a particularly important regulator of Pi homeostasis. In this article, we review the discovery of the FGF23 protein, as well as its biochemistry, localization of production, receptor specificity and mechanisms of action. [source]


    REVIEW: Role of adipokines in obesity-associated hypertension

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    M. Vlasova
    Abstract It has been well documented that obesity is a major risk factor for the development of the hypertensive state. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure level is well established. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms which contribute to obesity-related hypertension remain poorly understood. In the last years, we have realized that the white adipose tissue is not just an inert organ for nutrient storage and isolation but rather depending on the body mass index the biggest endocrinological organ. Thus, the possible contribution of adipokines to the blood pressure elevation becomes an attractive hypothesis to explain the hypertensive state that often occurs in obesity. In this review, we consider direct and indirect effects of main adipokines on structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system. [source]


    Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Subjects with Crow's Feet

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 3 2005
    Nicholas J. Lowe MD
    Background Published evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is an effective treatment for crow's feet. However, few dose-ranging studies have been performed. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of a single treatment with one of four doses of BTX-A (Botox/Vistabel, Allergan Inc) compared with placebo for the improvement of crow's feet. Methods Subjects received a single bilateral treatment of 18, 12, 6, or 3 U of BTX-A or placebo injected into the lateral aspect of the orbicularis oculi muscle (parallel-group, double,blind design). Investigators and subjects rated crow's feet severity at maximum smile on day 7 and at 30-day intervals from days 30 to 180. Results As observed by both investigators and subjects, all doses of BTX-A resulted in improvements in crow's feet severity when compared with placebo. A dose-dependent treatment effect for efficacy was observed, with higher doses having an increased magnitude and duration of effect. However, a clear differentiation between the 18 U and 12 U doses was not apparent. Few adverse events were reported, with no statistically significant differences between BTX-A and placebo in the incidence of subjects experiencing adverse events. Conclusion BTX-A is safe and effective in decreasing the severity of crow's feet, with 12 U per side suggested as the most appropriate dose. THIS STUDY WAS FUNDED BY ALLERGAN, WHICH WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE STUDY; COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA; AND PREPARATION, REVIEW, AND APPROVAL OF THE MANUSCRIPT. DRS. LOWE AND FRACZEK ARE PAID CONSULTANTS FOR ALLERGAN, DRS. KUMAR AND EADIE ARE EMPLOYEES OF ALLERGAN, AND DRS. LOWE AND KUMAR HOLD STOCK OPTIONS. [source]


    A REVIEW OF CURRENT CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ZOOM ENDOSCOPY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2005
    Kenshi Yao
    Current clinical applications of upper gastrointestinal (GI) zoom endoscopy were reviewed. The objective of upper GI zoom endoscopy has been the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions as well as the diagnosis of minute inflammatory mucosal change. The target organ and pathology of the neoplastic lesions have been squamous cell carcinoma in the oro- and hypo-pharynx and in the esophagus; intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; and adenocarcinoma in the stomach. For analyzing the magnified endoscopic findings, there were two different basic principles (mucosal microstructural change and subepithelial microvascular changes). Overall diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing a neoplastic lesion was above 80% throughout the upper GI tract. Although the diagnostic accuracy of the zoom endoscopy technique seems to be superior to that of the ordinary endoscopy technique alone, the continuous efforts to establish standardized guidelines and procedures are mandatory in order to lead to the routine use of upper GI zoom endoscopy in clinical practice. [source]


    REVIEW: Aortic Atheromas: Current Concepts and Controversies,A Review of the Literature

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Thenappan Thenappan M.D.
    The frequent use of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) has led to the increased recognition of aortic atheromas. Retrospective and prospective follow-up studies have reported an association between aortic atheromas and stroke in the high-risk patient population, with complex plaques being more likely to embolize than simple plaques. However, TEE-based studies in the low-risk cohorts have failed to show a similar association. There is growing body of evidence suggesting that aortic atheroma is a marker of generalized atherosclerosis. Although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) scan are emerging as a powerful noninvasive tool for characterization of aortic atheromas, TEE is the imaging modality of choice. Currently, treatment of aortic atheromas is not well defined, and mixed outcomes have been reported for anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. Statins appear promising based on their plaque stabilization properties. However, there are no randomized control trials to establish the role of both anticoagulation and statins in patients with aortic atheromas, and are warranted in the future. [source]


    CHALLENGING THE CHALLENGERS: A REVIEW OF SERENA OLSARETTI'S LIBERTY, DESERT AND THE MARKET AND DANIEL ATTAS'S LIBERTY, PROPERTY AND MARKETS

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2007
    Elaine Sternberg
    These books attack free markets and libertarianism, alleging that their fundamental assumptions are philosophically indefensible. Olsaretti challenges the thesis that free markets produce distributively just outcomes. At most, however, she shows that limited, desert-based justifications of free-market outcomes fail to satisfy her questionable desiderata, and that particular entitlement-based justifications are inadequately supported when they confound voluntariness and freedom. Attas challenges libertarianism itself, claiming that it is fundamentally wrong, and that libertarian notions of property rights are unsustainable. But he considers only arguments based on defective notions of self-ownership and confused notions of freedom; other, more robust justifications of liberty and property are ignored. Though both of these books fail to demonstrate the strong conclusions they assert, they highlight the dangers of substituting polemic for philosophy. Free markets, property and liberty need, and deserve, rigorous philosophical defences. [source]


    REVIEW: Behavioral evidence for the significance of serotoninergic (5-HT) receptors in cocaine addiction

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    gorzata Filip
    ABSTRACT Cocaine addiction has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Presently, there is no medication approved for the treatment of cocaine addiction. In recent years, data from the literature (pre-clinical studies and clinical trials) have provided several lines of evidence that serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors play a modulatory role in the mechanisms of action of cocaine. Here we review the contribution of 5-HT receptor subtypes to cocaine sensitization, discrimination, conditioned place preference, self-administration, reinstatement of seeking behavior and withdrawal symptoms in laboratory animals. Additionally, the consequences of chronic cocaine exposure on particular 5-HT receptor-assigned functions in pre-clinical studies are presented. [source]


    REVIEW: Cognitive effects of nicotine: genetic moderators

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Aryeh I. Herman
    ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking is the main preventable cause of death in developed countries, and the development of more effective treatments is necessary. Cumulating evidence suggests that cognitive enhancement may contribute to the addictive actions of nicotine. Several studies have demonstrated that nicotine enhances cognitive performance in both smokers and non-smokers. Genetic studies support the role of both dopamine (DA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) associated with nicotine-induced cognitive enhancement. Based on knockout mice studies, ,2 nAChRs are thought to be essential in mediating the cognitive effects of nicotine. ,7nAChRs are associated with attentional and sensory filtering response, especially in schizophrenic individuals. Genetic variation in D2 type DA receptors and the catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme appears to moderate cognitive deficits induced by smoking abstinence. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene variation also moderates nicotine-induced improvement in spatial working memory. Less is known about the contribution of genetic variation in DA transporter and D4 type DA receptor genetic variation on the cognitive effects of nicotine. Future research will provide a clearer understanding of the mechanism underlying the cognitive-enhancing actions of nicotine. [source]


    REVIEW: Ethanol consumption: how should we measure it?

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Achieving consilience between human, animal phenotypes
    ABSTRACT There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: (1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; (2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed; and (3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or to abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical studies should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field, together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies, provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes. [source]


    REVIEW: Human and laboratory rodent low response to alcohol: is better consilience possible?

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    John C. Crabbe
    ABSTRACT If people are brought into the laboratory and given alcohol, there are pronounced differences among individuals in many responses to the drug. Some participants in alcohol challenge protocols show a cluster of ,low level of responses to alcohol' determined by observing post-drinking-related changes in subjective, motor and physiological effects at a given dose level. Those individuals characterized as having low level of response (LR) to alcohol have been shown to be at increased risk for a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD), and this relationship between low LR and AD appears to be in part genetic. LR to alcohol is an area where achieving greater consilience between the human and the rodent phenotypes would seem to be highly likely. However, despite extensive data from both human and rodent studies, few attempts have been made to evaluate the human and animal data systematically in order to understand which aspects of LR appear to be most directly comparable across species and thus the most promising for further study. We review four general aspects of LR that could be compared between humans and laboratory animals: (1) behavioral measures of subjective intoxication; (2) body sway; (3) endocrine responses; and (4) stimulant, autonomic and electrophysiological responses. None of these aspects of LR provide completely face-valid direct comparisons across species. Nevertheless, one of the most replicated findings in humans is the low subjective response, but, as it may reflect either aversively valenced and/or positively valenced responses to alcohol as usually assessed, it is unclear which rodent responses are analogous. Stimulated heart rate appears to be consistent in animal and human studies, although at-risk subjects appear to be more rather than less sensitive to alcohol using this measure. The hormone and electrophysiological data offer strong possibilities of understanding the neurobiological mechanisms, but the rodent data in particular are rather sparse and unsystematic. Therefore, we suggest that more effort is still needed to collect data using refined measures designed to be more directly comparable in humans and animals. Additionally, the genetically mediated mechanisms underlying this endophenotype need to be characterized further across species. [source]


    REVIEW: Reward sensitivity: issues of measurement, and achieving consilience between human and animal phenotypes

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    David N. Stephens
    ABSTRACT Reward is a concept fundamental to discussions of drug abuse and addiction. The idea that altered sensitivity to either drug,reward, or to rewards in general, contributes to, or results from, drug-taking is a common theme in several theories of addiction. However, the concept of reward is problematic in that it is used to refer to apparently different behavioural phenomena, and even to diverse neurobiological processes (reward pathways). Whether these different phenomena are different behavioural expressions of a common underlying process is not established, and much research suggests that there may be only loose relationships among different aspects of reward. Measures of rewarding effects of drugs in humans often depend upon subjective reports. In animal studies, such insights are not available, and behavioural measures must be relied upon to infer rewarding effects of drugs or other events. In such animal studies, but also in many human methods established to objectify measures of reward, many other factors contribute to the behaviour being studied. For that reason, studying the biological (including genetic) bases of performance of tasks that ostensibly measure reward cannot provide unequivocal answers. The current overview outlines the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches that hinder the conciliation of cross-species studies of the genetics of reward sensitivity and the dysregulation of reward processes by drugs of abuse. Some suggestions are made as to how human and animal studies may be made to address more closely homologous behaviours, even if those processes are only partly able to isolate ,reward' from other factors contributing to behavioural output. [source]


    REVIEW: Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: are they linked?

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Markus Heilig
    ABSTRACT The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A ,self-medication' framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol-dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3,6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: (1) are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence?; (2) is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal?; and (3) to what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? [source]


    REVIEW: A comparison of selected quantitative trait loci associated with alcohol use phenotypes in humans and mouse models

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Cindy L. Ehlers
    ABSTRACT Evidence for genetic linkage to alcohol and other substance dependence phenotypes in areas of the human and mouse genome have now been reported with some consistency across studies. However, the question remains as to whether the genes that underlie the alcohol-related behaviors seen in mice are the same as those that underlie the behaviors observed in human alcoholics. The aims of the current set of analyses were to identify a small set of alcohol-related phenotypes in human and in mouse by which to compare quantitative trait locus (QTL) data between the species using syntenic mapping. These analyses identified that QTLs for alcohol consumption and acute and chronic alcohol withdrawal on distal mouse chromosome 1 are syntenic to a region on human chromosome 1q where a number of studies have identified QTLs for alcohol-related phenotypes. Additionally, a QTL on human chromosome 15 for alcohol dependence severity/withdrawal identified in two human studies was found to be largely syntenic with a region on mouse chromosome 9, where two groups have found QTLs for alcohol preference. In both of these cases, while the QTLs were found to be syntenic, the exact phenotypes between humans and mice did not necessarily overlap. These studies demonstrate how this technique might be useful in the search for genes underlying alcohol-related phenotypes in multiple species. However, these findings also suggest that trying to match exact phenotypes in humans and mice may not be necessary or even optimal for determining whether similar genes influence a range of alcohol-related behaviors between the two species. [source]


    REVIEW: Consilient research approaches in studying gene environment interactions in alcohol research

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Kenneth J. Sher
    ABSTRACT This review article discusses the importance of identifying gene-environment interactions for understanding the etiology and course of alcohol use disorders and related conditions. A number of critical challenges are discussed, including the fact that there is no organizing typology for classifying different types of environmental exposures, many key human environmental risk factors for alcohol dependence have no clear equivalents in other species, much of the genetic variance of alcohol dependence in human is not ,alcohol specific', and the potential range of gene-environment interactions that could be considered is so vast that maintaining statistical control of Type 1 errors is a daunting task. Despite these and other challenges, there appears to be a number of promising approaches that could be taken in order to achieve consilience and ecologically valid translation between human alcohol dependence and animal models. Foremost among these is to distinguish environmental exposures that are thought to have enduring effects on alcohol use motivation (and self-regulation) from situational environmental exposures that facilitate the expression of such motivations but do not, by themselves, have enduring effects. In order to enhance consilience, various domains of human approach motivation should be considered so that relevant environmental exposures can be sampled, as well as the appropriate species to study them in (i.e. where such motivations are ecologically relevant). Foremost among these are social environments, which are central to the initiation and escalation of human alcohol consumption. The value of twin studies, human laboratory studies and pharmacogenetic studies is also highlighted. [source]


    REVIEW: Understanding the construct of impulsivity and its relationship to alcohol use disorders

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Danielle M. Dick
    ABSTRACT There are well-established links between impulsivity and alcohol use in humans and other model organisms; however, the etiological nature of these associations remains unclear. This is likely due, in part, to the heterogeneous nature of the construct of impulsivity. Many different measures of impulsivity have been employed in human studies, using both questionnaire and laboratory-based tasks. Animal studies also use multiple tasks to assess the construct of impulsivity. In both human and animal studies, different measures of impulsivity often show little correlation and are differentially related to outcome, suggesting that the impulsivity construct may actually consist of a number of more homogeneous (and potentially more meaningful) subfacets. Here, we provide an overview of the different measures of impulsivity used across human and animal studies, evidence that the construct of impulsivity may be better studied in the context of more meaningful subfacets, and recommendations for how research in this direction may provide for better consilience between human and animal studies of the connection between impulsivity and alcohol use. [source]


    REVIEW: Norepinephrine and stimulant addiction

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Mehmet Sofuoglu
    ABSTRACT No pharmacotherapies are approved for stimulant use disorders, which are an important public health problem. Stimulants increase synaptic levels of the monoamines dopamine (DA), serotonin and norepinephrine (NE). Stimulant reward is attributable mostly to increased DA in the reward circuitry, although DA stimulation alone cannot explain the rewarding effects of stimulants. The noradrenergic system, which uses NE as the main chemical messenger, serves multiple brain functions including arousal, attention, mood, learning, memory and stress response. In pre-clinical models of addiction, NE is critically involved in mediating stimulant effects including sensitization, drug discrimination and reinstatement of drug seeking. In clinical studies, adrenergic blockers have shown promise as treatments for cocaine abuse and dependence, especially in patients experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms. Disulfiram, which blocks NE synthesis, increased the number of cocaine-negative urines in five randomized clinical trials. Lofexidine, an ,2 -adrenergic agonist, reduces the craving induced by stress and drug cues in drug users. In addition, the NE transporter (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine attenuates some of d-amphetamine's subjective and physiological effects in humans. These findings warrant further studies evaluating noradrenergic medications as treatments for stimulant addiction. [source]


    REVIEW: Self-administration of cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory: benefits and pitfalls

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Margaret Haney
    ABSTRACT The objective of this review is to describe self-administration procedures for modeling addiction to cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory, the benefits and pitfalls of the approach, and the methodological issues unique to each drug. In addition, the predictive validity of the model for testing treatment medications will be addressed. The results show that all three drugs of abuse are reliably and robustly self-administered by non-treatment-seeking research volunteers. In terms of pharmacotherapies, cocaine use is extraordinarily difficult to disrupt either in the laboratory or in the clinic. A range of medications has been shown to significantly decrease cocaine's subjective effects and craving without decreasing either cocaine self-administration or cocaine abuse by patients. These negative data combined with recent positive findings with modafinil suggest that self-administration procedures are an important intermediary step between pre-clinical and clinical studies. In terms of cannabis, a recent study suggests that medications that improve sleep and mood during cannabis withdrawal decrease the resumption of marijuana self-administration in abstinent volunteers. Clinical data on patients seeking treatment for their marijuana use are needed to validate these laboratory findings. Finally, in contrast to cannabis or cocaine dependence, there are three efficacious Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat opioid dependence, all of which decrease both heroin self-administration and subjective effects in the human laboratory. In summary, self-administration procedures provide meaningful behavioral data in a small number of individuals. These studies contribute to our understanding of the variables maintaining cocaine, marijuana and heroin intake, and are important in guiding the development of more effective drug treatment programs. [source]


    REVIEW: Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Harriet De Wit
    ABSTRACT Impulsive behaviors are closely linked to drug use and abuse, both as contributors to use and as consequences of use. Trait impulsivity is an important determinant of drug use during development, and in adults momentary ,state' increases in impulsive behavior may increase the likelihood of drug use, especially in individuals attempting to abstain. Conversely, acute and chronic effects of drug use may increase impulsive behaviors, which may in turn facilitate further drug use. However, these effects depend on the behavioral measure used to assess impulsivity. This article reviews data from controlled studies investigating different measures of impulsive behaviors, including delay discounting, behavioral inhibition and a newly proposed measure of inattention. Our findings support the hypothesis that drugs of abuse alter performance across independent behavioral measures of impulsivity. The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use. [source]


    REVIEW: Nicotine self-medication of cognitive-attentional processing

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    David E. Evans
    ABSTRACT This article selectively reviews research concerning nicotine's effects on cognition, including the neurobiological mechanism for these effects, task and experimental features that may be important for elucidating these effects, and why these effects may have amplified motivational significance among smokers with cognitive deficit. Nicotine has effects on various cognitive processes, though most studies in humans have focused on the amelioration of cognitive deficits experienced during drug withdrawal. The direct cognitive-enhancing effect of nicotine remains a controversial topic. The relationship between attentional and non-attentional cognitive effects of nicotine is discussed in the context of cognitive self-medication. Further research should include theory-driven examination of cognitive effects of nicotine, and develop targeted smoking cessation programs based on an improved understanding of the role of cognitive self-medication in high-risk individuals. [source]


    REVIEW: Stress, alcohol and drug interaction: an update of human research

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Magdalena Uhart
    ABSTRACT A challenging question that continues unanswered in the field of addiction is why some individuals are more vulnerable to substance use disorders than others. Numerous risk factors for alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including exposure to various forms of stress, have been identified in clinical studies. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this relationship remain unclear. Critical neurotransmitters, hormones and neurobiological sites have been recognized, which may provide the substrates that convey individual differences in vulnerability to addiction. With the advent of more sophisticated measures of brain function in humans, such as functional imaging technology, the mechanisms and neural pathways involved in the interactions between drugs of abuse, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and stress systems are beginning to be characterized. This review provides a neuroadaptive perspective regarding the role of the hormonal and brain stress systems in drug addiction with a focus on the changes that occur during the transition from occasional drug use to drug dependence. We also review factors that contribute to different levels of hormonal/brain stress activation, which has implications for understanding individual vulnerability to drug dependence. Ultimately, these efforts may improve our chances of designing treatment strategies that target addiction at the core of the disorder. [source]


    REVIEW: Modeling stress and drug craving in the laboratory: implications for addiction treatment development

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Rajita Sinha
    ABSTRACT Addition is a chronic relapsing illness affected by multiple social, individual and biological factors that significantly impact course and recovery of the illness. Stress interacts with these factors and increases addiction vulnerability and relapse risk, thereby playing a significant role in the course of the illness. This paper reviews our efforts in developing and validating laboratory models of stress and drug cue-related provocation to assess stress responses and stress-related adaptation in addicted individuals compared with healthy controls. Empirical findings from human laboratory and brain imaging studies are presented to show the specific stress-related dysregulation that accompanies the drug-craving state in addicted individuals. In order to adequately validate our laboratory model, we have also carefully examined relapse susceptibility in the addicted individuals and these data are reviewed. The overarching goal of these efforts is to develop a valid laboratory model to identify the stress-related pathophysiology in addiction with specific regard to persistent craving and compulsive seeking. Finally, the significant implications of these findings for the development of novel treatment interventions that target stress processes and drug craving to improve addiction relapse outcomes are discussed. [source]


    REVIEW: Developing human laboratory models of smoking lapse behavior for medication screening

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Sherry A. McKee
    ABSTRACT Use of human laboratory analogues of smoking behavior can provide an efficient, cost-effective mechanistic evaluation of a medication signal on smoking behavior, with the result of facilitating translational work in medications development. Although a number of human laboratory models exist to investigate various aspects of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence phenomena, none have yet modeled smoking lapse behavior. The first instance of smoking during a quit attempt (i.e. smoking lapse) is highly predictive of relapse and represents an important target for medications development. Focusing on an abstinence outcome is critical for medication screening as the US Food and Drug Administration approval for cessation medications is contingent on demonstrating effects on smoking abstinence. This paper outlines a three-stage process for the development of a smoking lapse model for the purpose of medication screening. The smoking lapse paradigm models two critical features of lapse behavior: the ability to resist the first cigarette and subsequent ad libitum smoking. Within the context of the model, smokers are first exposed to known precipitants of smoking relapse (e.g. nicotine deprivation, alcohol, stress), and then presented their preferred brand of cigarettes. Their ability to resist smoking is then modeled and once smokers ,give in' and decide to smoke, they participate in a tobacco self-administration session. Ongoing and completed work developing and validating these models for the purpose of medication screening is discussed. [source]


    REVIEW: Identifying the neural circuitry of alcohol craving and relapse vulnerability

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Andreas Heinz
    ABSTRACT With no further intervention, relapse rates in detoxified alcoholics are high and usually exceed 80% of all detoxified patients. It has been suggested that stress and exposure to priming doses of alcohol and to alcohol-associated stimuli (cues) contribute to the relapse risk after detoxification. This article focuses on neuronal correlates of cue responses in detoxified alcoholics. Current brain imaging studies indicate that dysfunction of dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic neurotransmission in the brain reward system (ventral striatum including the nucleus accumbens) can be associated with alcohol craving and functional brain activation in neuronal systems that process attentional relevant stimuli, reward expectancy and experience. Increased functional brain activation elicited by such alcohol-associated cues predicted an increased relapse risk, whereas high brain activity elicited by affectively positive stimuli may represent a protective factor and was correlated with a decreased prospective relapse risk. These findings are discussed with respect to psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment options. [source]


    REVIEW FOR SPECIAL ISSUE ON CANNABINOIDS: Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Roger G. Pertwee
    ABSTRACT A major finding,that (,)- trans -,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (,9 -THC) is largely responsible for the psychotropic effects of cannabis,prompted research in the 1970s and 1980s that led to the discovery that this plant cannabinoid acts through at least two types of cannabinoid receptor, CB1 and CB2, and that ,9 -THC and other compounds that target either or both of these receptors as agonists or antagonists have important therapeutic applications. It also led to the discovery that mammalian tissues can themselves synthesize and release agonists for cannabinoid receptors, the first of these to be discovered being arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. These ,endocannabinoids' are released onto their receptors in a manner that appears to maintain homeostasis within the central nervous system and sometimes either to oppose or to mediate or exacerbate the unwanted effects of certain disorders. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands. It also describes actual and potential clinical uses both for cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists and for compounds that affect the activation of cannabinoid receptors less directly, for example by inhibiting the enzymatic hydrolysis of endocannabinoids following their release. [source]


    REVIEW: Alcohol-related genes: contributions from studies with genetically engineered mice

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2006
    John C. Crabbe
    ABSTRACT Since 1996, nearly 100 genes have been studied for their effects related to ethanol in mice using genetic modifications including gene deletion, gene overexpression, gene knock-in, and occasionally by studying existing mutants. Nearly all such studies have concentrated on genes expressed in brain, and the targeted genes range widely in their function, including most of the principal neurotransmitter systems, several neurohormones, and a number of signaling molecules. We review 141 published reports of effects (or lack thereof) of 93 genes on responses to ethanol. While most studies have focused on ethanol self-administration and reward, and/or sedative effects, other responses studied include locomotor stimulation, anxiolytic effects, and neuroadaptation (tolerance, sensitization, withdrawal). About 1/4 of the engineered mutations increase self-administration, 1/3 decrease it, and about 40% have no significant effect. In many cases, the effects on self-administration are rather modest and/or depend on the specific experimental procedures. In some cases, genes in the background strains on which the mutant is placed are important for results. Not surprisingly, review of the systems affected further supports roles for serotonin, ,-aminobutyric acid, opioids and dopamine, all of which have long been foci of alcohol research. Novel modulatory effects of protein kinase C and G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels are also suggested. Some newer research with cannabinoid systems is promising, and has led to ongoing clinical trials. [source]


    REVIEW: The alcohol-preferring P rat and animal models of excessive alcohol drinking

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2006
    Richard L. Bell
    ABSTRACT The alcohol-preferring, P, rat was developed by selective breeding to study ethanol drinking behavior and its consequences. Characterization of this line indicates the P rat meets all of the criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism, and displays, relative to their alcohol-non-preferring, NP, counterparts, a number of phenotypic traits associated with alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Behaviorally, compared with NP rats, P rats are less sensitive to the sedative and aversive effects of ethanol and more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of ethanol. Neurochemically, research with the P line indicates the endogenous dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic, opiodergic, and peptidergic systems may be involved in a predisposition for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Paralleling the clinical literature, genetically selected P rats display levels of ethanol intake during adolescence comparable to that seen during adulthood. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk for health and other problems associated with ethanol abuse. A model of binge-like drinking during the dark cycle indicates that P rats will consume 6 g/kg/day of ethanol in as little as three 1-hour access periods/day, which approximates the 24-hour intake of P rats with free-choice access to a single concentration of ethanol. The alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) is a transient increase in ethanol intake above baseline values upon re-exposure to ethanol access after an extended period of deprivation. The ADE has been proposed to be an animal model of relapse behavior, with the adult P rat displaying a robust ADE after prolonged abstinence. Overall, these findings indicate that the P rat can be effectively used in models assessing alcohol-preference, a genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse and/or alcoholism, and excessive drinking using protocols of binge-like or relapse-like drinking. [source]


    REVIEW: Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Carles Sanchis-Segura
    ABSTRACT Some psychoactive drugs are abused because of their ability to act as reinforcers. As a consequence behavioural patterns (such as drug-seeking/drug-taking behaviours) are promoted that ensure further drug consumption. After prolonged drug self-administration, some individuals lose control over their behaviour so that these drug-seeking/taking behaviours become compulsive, pervading almost all life activities and precipitating the loss of social compatibility. Thus, the syndrome of addictive behaviour is qualitatively different from controlled drug consumption. Drug-induced reinforcement can be assessed directly in laboratory animals by either operant or non-operant self-administration methods, by classical conditioning-based paradigms such as conditioned place preference or sign tracking, by facilitation of intracranial electric self-stimulation, or, alternatively by drug-induced memory enhancement. In contrast, addiction cannot be modelled in animals, at least as a whole, within the constraints of the laboratory. However, various procedures have been proposed as possible rodent analogues of addiction's major elements including compulsive drug seeking, relapse, loss of control/impulsivity, and continued drug consumption despite negative consequences. This review provides an extensive overview and a critical evaluation of the methods currently used for studying drug-induced reinforcement as well as specific features of addictive behaviour. In addition, comic strips that illustrate behavioural methods used in the drug abuse field are provided given for free download under http://www.zi-mannheim/psychopharmacology.de [source]


    A TEST AND REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE ON EXPERIMENTAL SEXUAL SELECTION PATTERNS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2009
    Rhonda R. Snook
    Experimental evolution, particularly experimental sexual selection in which sexual selection strength is manipulated by altering the mating system, is an increasingly popular method for testing evolutionary theory. Concerns have arisen regarding genetic diversity variation across experimental treatments: differences in the number and sex ratio of breeders (effective population size; Ne) and the potential for genetic hitchhiking, both of which may cause different levels of genetic variation between treatments. Such differences may affect the selection response and confound interpretation of results. Here we use both census-based estimators and molecular marker-based estimates to empirically test how experimental evolution of sexual selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura impacts Ne and autosomal genetic diversity. We also consider effects of treatment on X-linked Nes, which have previously been ignored. Molecular autosomal marker-based estimators indicate that neither Ne nor genetic diversity differs between treatments experiencing different sexual selection intensities; thus observed evolutionary responses reflect selection rather than any confounding effects of experimental design. Given the increasing number of studies on experimental sexual selection, we also review the census Nes of other experimental systems, calculate X-linked Ne, and compare how different studies have dealt with the issues of inbreeding, genetic drift, and genetic hitchhiking to help inform future designs. [source]


    PERSPECTIVE: PURGING THE GENETIC LOAD: A REVIEW OF THE EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2002
    Peter Crnokrak
    Abstract., Inbreeding depression, the reduction in fitness that accompanies inbreeding, is one of the most important topics of research in evolutionary and conservation genetics. In the recent literature, much attention has been paid to the possibility of purging the genetic load. If inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles, whose effect on fitness are negative when in a homozygous state, then successive generations of inbreeding may result in a rebound in fitness due to the selective decrease in frequency of deleterious alleles. Here we examine the experimental evidence for purging of the genetic load by collating empirical tests of rebounds in fitness-related traits with inbreeding in animals and plants. We gathered data from 28 studies including five mammal, three insect, one mollusc, and 13 plant species. We tested for purging by examining three measures of fitness-component variation with serial generations of inbreeding: (1) changes in inbreeding depression, (2) changes in fitness components of inbred lines relative to the original outbred line, and (3) purged population (outcrossed inbred lines) trait means as a function of ancestral outbred trait means. Frequent and substantial purging was found using all three measures, but was particularly pronounced when tracking changes in inbreeding depression. Despite this, we found little correspondence between the three measures of purging within individual studies, indicating that the manner in which a researcher chooses to estimate purging will affect interpretation of the results obtained. The discrepancy suggests an alternative hypothesis: rebounds in fitness with inbreeding may have resulted from adaptation to laboratory conditions and not to purging when using outcrossed inbred lines. However, the pronounced reduction in inbreeding depression for a number of studies provides evidence for purging, as the measure is likely less affected by selection for laboratory conditions. Unlike other taxon-specific reviews on this topic, our results provide support for the purging hypothesis, but firm predictions about the situations in which purging is likely or the magnitude of fitness rebound possible when populations are inbred remain difficult. Further research is required to resolve the discrepancy between the results obtained using different experimental approaches. [source]


    BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS: A REVIEW OF THE FIELD OF BIOMECHANICS AND THE ROLE OF THE SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 2 2006
    E.N. Brown
    First page of article [source]