Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Revenue

  • export revenue
  • government revenue
  • net revenue
  • own-source revenue
  • seller revenue
  • tax revenue
  • total revenue
  • unit revenue

  • Terms modified by Revenue

  • revenue collection
  • revenue diversification
  • revenue generation
  • revenue growth
  • revenue loss
  • revenue performance
  • revenue potential
  • revenue source
  • revenue stream

  • Selected Abstracts


    Jeremy M. Jacobs MBBS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Wen Shwo Fang
    Depreciation is found to stimulate export revenue in domestic currency, but the quantitative impact is small and any associated increase in exchange risk has a negative impact. Implications for economic policy are discussed. [source]


    This paper measures the efficiency and revenue properties of the two most popular formats for divisible goods auctions: the uniform-price and discriminatory auction. We analyze bids into the Korean Treasury auctions which have used both formats. We find that the discriminatory auction yields statistically higher revenue. Unlike previous work that uses data from only one format, we are able to compare the efficiency properties of the two formats. We find that the discriminatory auction better allocates treasury bills to the highest value financial institutions. However, the differences in revenue and efficiency are not large because the auctions are very competitive. [source]

    Financing Decentralized Development in a Low-Income Country: Raising Revenue for Local Government in Uganda

    Ian Livingstone
    Uganda has been engaged for a number of years in an ambitious programme of political and financial decentralization involving significantly expanded expenditure and service delivery responsibilities for local governments in what are now forty-five districts. Fiscal decentralization has involved allocation of block grants from the centre to complement increased local tax revenue-raising efforts by districts and municipalities. This article is concerned with the financial side of decentralization and in particular with an examination of district government efforts to raise revenue with the tax instruments which have been assigned to them. These are found to be deficient in a number of ways and their tax raising potential not to be commensurate with the responsibilities being devolved. Achievement of the decentralization aims laid down, therefore, must depend either on the identification of new or modified methods of raising revenue locally, or increased commitment to transfer of financial resources from the centre, or both. [source]

    Automating hierarchical environmentally-conscious design using integrated software: VOC recovery case study

    Hui Chen
    Traditionally, chemical process design and optimization has mainly been based on economic considerations. Currently, the scope is being extended to include environmentally-conscious process design (ECD). ECD will be facilitated by the emergence of integrated design methodologies and tools. The objectives of this paper are to present a hierarchical design methodology for environmentally-conscious process design, and an integrated assessment and optimization software. An application for the recycle of VOCs from a gaseous waste stream is presented using this design methodology and software. Revenue increased and environmental impacts were reduced. The net present value for the optimum design is approximately $900,000, which is much higher than the base case design, ,$2,498,200. A composite environmental index decreases from 1.19 × 10,4 in the base case to about 1.30 × 10,5 in the optimum case. This automated tool along with the embedded design methodology provides an effective and efficient way to perform environmentally-conscious chemical process design and optimization. [source]

    Does Germany Collect Revenue from Taxing the Normal Return to Capital?,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2005
    Johannes Becker
    Abstract A widespread objection to the introduction of consumption tax systems claims that this would lead to high tax revenue losses. This paper investigates the revenue effects of a consumption tax reform in Germany. Our results suggest that the revenue losses would be surprisingly low. We find a maximum revenue loss of 1.6 per cent of annual GDP. In some years, we even find tax revenue gains. This implies that the current tax system collects little revenue from taxing the normal return to capital. Based on these results, we calculate a macroeconomic measure of the effective tax rate on capital income. [source]

    On the Market Reaction to Revenue and Earnings Surprises

    Itay Kama
    Abstract:, This study extends Ertimur et al. (2003) and Jegadeesh and Livnat (2006a) by providing a contextual framework for the information content of revenue and earnings surprises. I find that the influence of earnings surprises (revenue surprises) on stock returns is lower (higher) in R&D intensive companies. Also, market reaction to earnings surprises is lower in the fourth quarter, and to revenue surprises it is higher in industries with oligopolistic competition. A comprehensive analysis indicates that, in contrast to previous studies for the full sample, in several contexts market reaction to earnings surprises is not higher than to revenue surprises. [source]

    ZIMBABWE: Budget Revenue Down

    Article first published online: 1 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    BURUNDI: Internal Revenue Up

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Equalization and the Decentralization of Revenue,Raising in a Federation

    Robin Boadway
    We study federal economies in which regional governments have responsibility for delivering public services and redistributive objectives apply. The implications of these for the assignment of revenue,raising instruments and fiscal transfers, both vertical and horizontal, are considered. Models of heterogeneous regions of varying degrees of complexity and generality are constructed. For each case, we determine what fiscal instruments must be given to the regions and what intergovernmental transfers must be made in order that the social optimum is achieved. With heterogenous households and regions, the social optimum can be decentralized by making regions responsible for redistribution and implementing equalization transfers that depend on the number of households of each type. [source]

    Changing Nutrition Standards in Schools: The Emerging Impact on School Revenue

    Christopher M. Wharton PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Although great focus has been placed on nutritional and other consequences of changes in food-related policies within schools, few reports exist describing the impact of such changes on school revenue. This review provides an overview of the few revenue-related studies published recently, as well as information from a sampling of state reports on the subject. Methods:, A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Four peer-reviewed papers and 3 state-based reports were identified that assessed the impact on revenues of either targeted policy changes or overarching, district-wide changes in food-related policies. Results:, Thus far, few data exist to substantiate the concern that changes in nutrition standards in schools lead to a loss in total revenue. An interesting phenomenon of increased participation in the National School Lunch Program was noted in a number of reports and might play a role in buffering financial losses. Conclusions:, A renewed focus on school policies related to health provides the opportunity for researchers to investigate how nutrition-related policy change can affect, if at all, food service and overall school revenues. [source]

    Personal Income Tax Policy in China and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    Hua Xu
    Personal income tax has grown in importance in China's revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 2 trillion RMB yuan for the first half of 2008, a 27 percent increase from the previous year. And while similarities exist between China and the United States, distinctive features separate the two. Hua Xu of Auburn University at Montgomery and Huiyu Cui of Dongbei University of Finance and Economics underscore the need for equitable personal income tax reform in China. Using lessons from the United States, an agenda for future research on tax policy is outlined. [source]

    Economic Conditions and State and Local Education Revenue

    This article uses information on state and local education spending from 1989,1990 through 2005,2006 to examine the impact of economic conditions on the pattern of real revenue per student. We find that typical economic and other observable education demand determinants are significant in explaining the pattern of real revenue per student before and after the 2001 recession. We also find that there is no economically significant change in how governments responded to economic conditions after the 2001 recession. Finally, our results provide strong evidence that local governments attempted to offset state declines in revenues by increases in local revenues. [source]

    Does Earmarked Revenue Provide Property Tax Relief?

    Long-Term Budgetary Effects of Georgia's Local Option Sales Tax
    This study examines the long-term effects of the 1% General-purpose Local Option Sales Tax (LOST) on the level of property tax in Georgia counties with a pooled interrupted time-series analysis. The LOST has been earmarked for property tax relief in Georgia counties since 1976, but debates remain on whether the proceeds have been used as additional revenues. We find that the adoption of LOST brought short-term property tax relief but not long-term property tax reduction. The result suggests that long-term property tax relief would not be realized by earmarked revenue without careful policy design to safeguard fungibility. [source]

    The Proportion of Gaming Revenue Derived from Problem Gamblers: Examining the Issues in a Canadian Context

    Robert J. Williams
    The legitimacy of government-sponsored gambling and its continued expansion depends in part on the impact that gambling has on society and the extent to which gambling revenue is derived from vulnerable individuals. The purpose of the present article is to try to establish a valid estimate of the proportion of gaming revenue derived from problem gamblers in Canada. Using recent secondary data collected in eight Canadian provinces, we estimate this proportion to be 23.1%, compared to a problem gambling prevalence rate of 4.2%. This estimate must be seen as tentative, however, as self-reported expenditures are 2.1 times higher than actual provincial gaming revenues. [source]

    The Influence of Nonaudit Service Revenues and Client Pressure on External Auditors' Decisions to Rely on Internal Audit,

    Abstract This paper investigates how external auditor provision of significant nonaudit services and client pressure to use the work of internal audit influence external auditors' use of internal auditors' work. More specifically, we study how external audit evidence gathering choices are influenced by nonaudit fees and client pressure. Our research is motivated by an observation that the magnitude of nonaudit services provided to audit clients introduces the risk that client management may leverage its position with the external auditor and potentially affect the audit process. We address this issue by extending prior research and focusing on the importance of various explanatory variables, including nonaudit service revenues, client pressure, internal audit quality, and coordination, to the external auditor's decision to rely on the work of internal audit. We use data primarily obtained through surveys completed by internal and external auditors. The survey responses represent 74 separate audit engagements. Our findings reveal that when significant nonaudit services are not provided to a client, internal audit quality and the level of internal-external auditor coordination positively affect auditors' internal audit reliance decisions. However, when the auditor provides significant nonaudit services to the client, internal audit quality and the extent of internal - external auditor coordination do not significantly affect auditors' reliance decisions. Furthermore, when significant nonaudit services are provided, client pressure significantly increases the extent of internal audit reliance. Thus, external auditors appear to be more affected by client pressure and less concerned about internal audit quality and coordination when making internal audit reliance decisions at clients for whom significant nonaudit services are also provided. [source]

    The expansion of the south-western fisheries in late medieval England

    Maryanne Kowaleski
    This article argues that the expansion of marine fishing in south-western England from the late fourteenth century to the early sixteenth was part of the maritime sector's critical, but unappreciated, contribution to the rising prosperity of the region. Revenues from fishing represented a substantial supplement to the income of the fisher-farmers who dominated the industry; promoted employment in ancillary industries such as fish curing; improved the seasonal distribution of maritime work; and stimulated capital investment in ships, nets, and other equipment because of the share system that characterized the division of profits within fishing enterprises. In offering what was probably the chief source of employment within the maritime sector, fishing also provided the ,nursery of seamen' so prized by the Tudor navy, and built the navigational experience that underpinned later voyages of exploration. [source]

    Cities, Tax Revenues, and a State's Fiscal Future: The Value of Major Urban Centers

    Competition among core cities or urban centers and suburban and rural areas besets numerous states. The competition often occurs amid a political environment in which suburban and rural areas enjoy a political majority in the state legislature, a majority that directs state investments to their areas. With Ohio as a case study, the issues that have created the urban,suburban,rural trichotomy are reviewed and an analysis of the tax returns, by area, to state investments is presented. The findings illustrate that urban centers produce more tax dollars per dollar of state investment than other areas, implying that state underinvestment in urban areas harms overall state tax revenues. [source]

    The Financial Impact of Ambulance Diversion on Inpatient Hospital Revenues and Profits

    Daniel A. Handel MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to study the association between ambulance diversion and weekly inpatient hospital revenues and profits. Methods:, This was a retrospective review of administrative data from one academic medical center from July 1, 2003, to December 31, 2006. Given the high amount of daily variability, inpatient hospital revenues and profits were collapsed by week and evaluated in four categories: no diversion, mild diversion (from >0 and <10 hours), moderate diversion (>10 and <20 hours), and high diversion (>20 hours). Revenues and profits for two categories of patients admitted to the hospital were calculated: 1) patients admitted from the emergency department (ED; i.e., those arriving by ambulance and by other means) and 2) electively admitted patients. Results:, A total of 166,460 ED patients were included in the analysis. Inpatient hospital revenues were included from 85,111 patients, 28,665 of which were admissions from the ED (33.7%). For patients admitted from the ED, the average weekly revenues during periods of high diversion were $265K higher than periods of no diversion. For patients admitted on an elective basis, revenues were significantly higher when comparing periods of mild divert to high diversion (an additional $415K weekly). The overall increase in profitability was significant for periods of severe divert compared to no divert ($119K per week). Conclusions:, Periods of greater diversion are associated with higher inpatient revenues and profits for ED, electively admitted patients, and the overall inpatient hospital population. Therefore, no financial disincentive exists from an inpatient perspective for the boarding of admitted patients in the ED and increasing periods of diversion. Efforts to decrease ambulance diversion must therefore be based on other rationales, like patient safety, quality of care, and improving access to care, or new models of reimbursement that reward hospitals for reducing ambulance diversion. [source]

    The Financial Impact of Ambulance Diversions and Patient Elopements

    Thomas Falvo DO
    Abstract Objectives Admission process delays and other throughput inefficiencies are a leading cause of emergency department (ED) overcrowding, ambulance diversion, and patient elopements. Hospital capacity constraints reduce the number of treatment beds available to provide revenue-generating patient services. The objective of this study was to develop a practical method for quantifying the revenues that are potentially lost as a result of patient elopements and ambulance diversion. Methods Historical data from 62,588 patient visits to the ED of a 450-bed nonprofit community teaching hospital in central Pennsylvania between July 2004 and June 2005 were used to estimate the value of potential patient visits foregone as a result of ambulance diversion and patients leaving the ED without treatment. Results The study hospital may have lost $3,881,506 in net revenue as a result of ambulance diversions and patient elopements from the ED during a 12-month period. Conclusions Significant revenue may be foregone as a result of throughput delays that prevent the ED from utilizing its existing bed capacity for additional patient visits. [source]

    Maximizing revenue in Grid markets using an economically enhanced resource manager

    M. Macías
    Abstract Traditional resource management has had as its main objective the optimization of throughput, based on parameters such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth. With the appearance of Grid markets, new variables that determine economic expenditure, benefit and opportunity must be taken into account. The Self-organizing ICT Resource Management (SORMA) project aims at allowing resource owners and consumers to exploit market mechanisms to sell and buy resources across the Grid. SORMA's motivation is to achieve efficient resource utilization by maximizing revenue for resource providers and minimizing the cost of resource consumption within a market environment. An overriding factor in Grid markets is the need to ensure that the desired quality of service levels meet the expectations of market participants. This paper explains the proposed use of an economically enhanced resource manager (EERM) for resource provisioning based on economic models. In particular, this paper describes techniques used by the EERM to support revenue maximization across multiple service level agreements and provides an application scenario to demonstrate its usefulness and effectiveness. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exceptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.(JEL I18, H75) [source]


    When retailers must commit to shipment quantities prior to resolution of demand uncertainty, manufacturer stipulation of a minimum retail price is likely to be profitable for the manufacturer and not damaging to the retailers. The reason is simple: if demand turns out to be low, the unfettered market-clearing price can lie below the price that maximizes total sales revenue. A minimum retail price that is binding in the low-demand state can thus increase total revenue even though it saddles retailers with unsold merchandise. The ubiquity of full reimbursement for returns in Japan, even though it is in theory merely a second-best way of achieving minimum retail price stipulations, reveals important aspects of manufacturer maintenance of retail prices having to do with enforcement problems, the allocation of risk-bearing, and economic incentives. These aspects of resale price maintenance (RPM) are relevant to the normative evaluation of the special exemptions for RPM that Japan's Fair Trade Commission has long maintained but is now phasing out. [source]

    Financing Decentralized Development in a Low-Income Country: Raising Revenue for Local Government in Uganda

    Ian Livingstone
    Uganda has been engaged for a number of years in an ambitious programme of political and financial decentralization involving significantly expanded expenditure and service delivery responsibilities for local governments in what are now forty-five districts. Fiscal decentralization has involved allocation of block grants from the centre to complement increased local tax revenue-raising efforts by districts and municipalities. This article is concerned with the financial side of decentralization and in particular with an examination of district government efforts to raise revenue with the tax instruments which have been assigned to them. These are found to be deficient in a number of ways and their tax raising potential not to be commensurate with the responsibilities being devolved. Achievement of the decentralization aims laid down, therefore, must depend either on the identification of new or modified methods of raising revenue locally, or increased commitment to transfer of financial resources from the centre, or both. [source]

    Revenue Mobilisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges from Globalisation I , Trade Reform

    Michael Keen
    This is the first of two articles evaluating the nature and extent of, and possible responses to, two of the central challenges that globalisation poses for revenue mobilisation in sub-Saharan Africa: trade liberalisation, and corporate tax competition. Both articles use a new dataset with the features needed to address these issues meaningfully: a disentangling of tariff from commodity tax revenue, and a distinction between resource-related and other revenues. This first article describes that dataset, and provides a broad picture of revenue developments in the region between 1980 and 2005. Countries' experiences have varied, but the overall picture is of non-resource revenues having been essentially stagnant. Within this, however, and with exceptions, reductions in trade tax revenue have been largely offset by increased revenue from domestic sources. [source]

    Revenue Mobilisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges from Globalisation II , Corporate Taxation

    Michael Keen
    This second article evaluates and discusses the challenges to government revenue in sub-Saharan Africa posed by developments in corporate taxation. Using the dataset described in the first article, it shows that, in broad terms, corporate tax revenues in the region have held up, despite a reduction in rates and evidence of substantial base-narrowing (mainly through the provision of tax holidays in Investment Codes and Free Zones). This is something of a puzzle. Options for dealing with the continuation and intensification of the challenges to these revenues, including through regional co-operation, are discussed. [source]

    Plebiscites, Fiscal Policy and the Poor: Learning from US Experience with Direct Democracy

    Arthur A. Goldsmith
    Many countries are contemplating direct political participation as a way of giving marginalised people more say in national fiscal policies. The United States is a natural laboratory for studying how large-scale direct democracy actually works in this regard. Every state allows voters to decide certain ballot questions about how to raise and spend public revenue. The 100-year record shows, however, that state-wide plebiscites fail to produce uniformly equitable or financially sustainable government budgets, or to mobilise low-income groups to defend their economic interests. When called upon to make decisions about state government spending, the electorate is apt to disregard any hardship for poor people. Traditional political parties and advocacy organisations are usually a more promising avenue for promoting anti-poverty budgets. [source]

    Pathological gambling: an increasing public health problem

    Article first published online: 7 JUL 200
    Gambling has always existed, but only recently has it taken on the endlessly variable and accessible forms we know today. Gambling takes place when something valuable , usually money , is staked on the outcome of an event that is entirely unpredictable. It was only two decades ago that pathological gambling was formally recognized as a mental disorder, when it was included in the DSM-III in 1980. For most people, gambling is a relaxing activity with no negative consequences. For others, however, gambling becomes excessive. Pathological gambling is a disorder that manifests itself through the irrepressible urge to wager money. This disorder ultimately dominates the gambler's life, and has a multitude of negative consequences for both the gambler and the people they interact with, i.e. friends, family members, employers. In many ways, gambling might seem a harmless activity. In fact, it is not the act of gambling itself that is harmful, but the vicious cycle that can begin when a gambler wagers money they cannot afford to lose, and then continues to gamble in order to recuperate their losses. The gambler's ,tragic flaw' of logic lies in their failure to understand that gambling is governed solely by random, chance events. Gamblers fail to recognize this and continue to gamble, attempting to control outcomes by concocting strategies to ,beat the game'. Most, if not all, gamblers try in some way to predict the outcome of a game when they are gambling. A detailed analysis of gamblers' selfverbalizations reveals that most of them behave as though the outcome of the game relied on their personal ,skills'. From the gambler's perspective, skill can influence chance , but in reality, the random nature of chance events is the only determinant of the outcome of the game. The gambler, however, either ignores or simply denies this fundamental rule (1). Experts agree that the social costs of pathological gambling are enormous. Changes in gaming legislation have led to a substantial expansion of gambling opportunities in most industrialized countries around the world, mainly in Europe, America and Australia. Figures for the United States' leisure economy in 1996 show gross gambling revenues of $47.6 billion, which was greater than the combined revenue of $40.8 billion from film box offices, recorded music, cruise ships, spectator sports and live entertainment (2). Several factors appear to be motivating this growth: the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (3). As a consequence, prevalence studies have shown increased gambling rates among adults. It is currently estimated that 1,2% of the adult population gambles excessively (4, 5). Given that the prevalence of gambling is related to the accessibility of gambling activities, and that new forms of gambling are constantly being legalized throughout most western countries, this figure is expected to rise. Consequently, physicians and mental health professionals will need to know more about the diagnosis and treatment of pathological gamblers. This disorder may be under-diagnosed because, clinically, pathological gamblers usually seek help for the problems associated with gambling such as depression, anxiety or substance abuse, rather than for the excessive gambling itself. This issue of Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica includes the first national survey of problem gambling completed in Sweden, conducted by Volberg et al. (6). This paper is based on a large sample (N=9917) with an impressively high response rate (89%). Two instruments were used to assess gambling activities: the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R) and an instrument derived from the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Current (1 year) and lifetime prevalence rates were collected. Results show that 0.6% of the respondents were classified as probable pathological gamblers, and 1.4% as problem gamblers. These data reveal that the prevalence of pathological gamblers in Sweden is significantly less than what has been observed in many western countries. The authors have pooled the rates of problem (1.4%) and probable pathological gamblers (0.6%), to provide a total of 2.0% for the current prevalence. This 2% should be interpreted with caution, however, as we do not have information on the long-term evolution of these subgroups of gamblers; for example, we do not know how many of each subgroup will become pathological gamblers, and how many will decrease their gambling or stop gambling altogether. Until this information is known, it would be preferable to keep in mind that only 0.6% of the Swedish population has been identified as pathological gamblers. In addition, recent studies show that the SOGS-R may be producing inflated estimates of pathological gambling (7). Thus, future research in this area might benefit from the use of an instrument based on DSM criteria for pathological gambling, rather than the SOGS-R only. Finally, the authors suggest in their discussion that the lower rate of pathological gamblers obtained in Sweden compared to many other jurisdictions may be explained by the greater availability of games based on chance rather than games based on skill or a mix of skill and luck. Before accepting this interpretation, researchers will need to demonstrate that the outcomes of all games are determined by other factor than chance and randomness. Many studies have shown that the notion of randomness is the only determinant of gambling (1). Inferring that skill is an important issue in gambling may be misleading. While these are important issues to consider, the Volberg et al. survey nevertheless provides crucial information about gambling in a Scandinavian country. Gambling will be an important issue over the next few years in Sweden, and the publication of the Volberg et al. study is a landmark for the Swedish community (scientists, industry, policy makers, etc.). This paper should stimulate interesting discussions and inspire new, much-needed scientific investigations of pathological gambling. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Guido Bondolfi and Robert Ladouceur Invited Guest Editors References 1.,LadouceurR & WalkerM. The cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. In: BellackAS, HersenM, eds. Comprehensive clinical psychology. New York: Pergamon, 1998:588 , 601. 2.,ChristiansenEM. Gambling and the American economy. In: FreyJH, ed. Gambling: socioeconomic impacts and public policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998:556:36 , 52. 3.,KornDA & ShafferHJ. Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. J Gambling Stud2000;15:289 , 365. 4.,VolbergRA. Problem gambling in the United States. J Gambling Stud1996;12:111 , 128. 5.,BondolfiG, OsiekC, FerreroF. Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland. Acta Psychiatr Scand2000;101:473 , 475. 6.,VolbergRA, AbbottMW, RönnbergS, MunckIM. Prev-alence and risks of pathological gambling in Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand2001;104:250 , 256. 7.,LadouceurR, BouchardC, RhéaumeNet al. Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults?J Gambling Stud2000;16:1 , 24. [source]

    The impact of eliminating the global illicit cigarette trade on health and revenue

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Luk Joossens
    ABSTRACT Aims The purpose of this study was to update global estimates of the illicit cigarette trade, based on recent data, and estimate how many lives could be saved by eliminating it and how much revenue governments would gain. Data sources and methods Our estimates of illicit market share are based on formal and informal sources. Our method for estimating the effect of eliminating the illicit trade on tobacco related deaths is based on West et al. with some minor modifications, and involves calculating the size of the illicit cigarette trade; the effect of eliminating it on the price of cigarettes and thus on consumption; the revenue governments are losing because of it; and the number of tobacco-related premature deaths that would be avoided if this illicit trade were eliminated. Results According to available estimates, the size of the illicit trade varies between countries from 1% to about 40,50% of the market, 11.6% globally, 16.8% in low-income and 9.8% in high-income countries. The total lost revenue is about $40.5 billion a year. If this illicit trade were eliminated governments would gain at least $31.3 billion a year, and from 2030 onwards more than 164 000 premature deaths a year would be avoided, the vast majority in middle- and low-income countries. Conclusions The burden of deaths and lost revenue caused by the illicit cigarette trade falls disproportionately on low- and middle-income countries. Eliminating this trade would avoid millions of premature deaths, and recover billions of dollars for governments. [source]

    State Capacity, Conflict, and Development

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 1 2010
    Timothy Besley
    The absence of state capacities to raise revenue and to support markets is a key factor in explaining the persistence of weak states. This paper reports on an ongoing project to investigate the incentive to invest in such capacities. The paper sets out a simple analytical structure in which state capacities are modeled as forward looking investments by government. The approach highlights some determinants of state building including the risk of external or internal conflict, the degree of political instability, and dependence on natural resources. Throughout, we link these state capacity investments to patterns of development and growth. [source]