Retrospective Questionnaire (retrospective + questionnaire)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

ORIGINAL RESEARCH,EJACULATION DISORDERS: A Multinational Population Survey of Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time

Marcel D. Waldinger MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. Aim., To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. Methods., A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. Main Outcome Measures., The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. Results., The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55,44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18,30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (P < 0.0001). The median IELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9,30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N = 98) and not-circumcised (N = 261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7,44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5,37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men (not significant). The median IELT value was not affected by condom use. Conclusion., The IELT distribution is positively skewed. The overall median value was 5.4 minutes but with differences between countries. For all five countries, median IELT values were independent of condom usage. In countries excluding Turkey, the median IELT values were independent of circumcision status. [source]

The Stages of Group Development: A Retrospective Study of Dynamic Team Processes

Diane L. Miller
The number of organizations using teamwork is increasing. The team phenomenon has heightened our need to better understand what makes these groups more or less effective. Unfortunately, methods of assessing dynamic team processes such as group development have been limited. The purpose of this study was to create a simpler quantitative method of measuring temporal changes in group processes. A retrospective questionnaire was developed to measure the constructs of Tuckman's stage development model. Both the reliability and content validity analyses provided evidence that the retrospective method can be used to evaluate group development stages. Résumé Le nombre d'organisations ayant recours au travail d'équipe est à la hausse. Le phénomène de l'«équipe » accroît la nécessité de mieux comprendre ce qui rend ces groupes plus ou mains performants. Malheureusement, les méthodes d'évaluation du type d'interactions au sein du groupe et de la dynamique qui en résulte, restent limitées. Le but de cette étude est de créer une méthode quantitative plus simple pour mesurer les changements temporels dans la dynamique de groupe. Un questionnaire rétrospectif a été élaboré pour mesurer les facteurs du modèle à phases de Tuckman. Les analyses relatives à la fiabilité et celles relatives à la validité, ont montré que la méthode rétrospective peut servir à évaluer les phases du développement du groupe. [source]

The transient value of classifying preschool wheeze into episodic viral wheeze and multiple trigger wheeze

A Schultz
Abstract Background:, A recently proposed method for classifying preschool wheeze is to describe it as either episodic (viral) wheeze or multiple trigger wheeze. In research studies, phenotype is generally determined by retrospective questionnaire. Aim:, To determine whether recently proposed phenotypes of preschool wheeze are stable over time. Methods:, In all, 132 two to six-year-old children with doctor diagnosed asthma on maintenance inhaled corticosteroids were classified as having episodic (viral) wheeze or multiple trigger wheeze at a screening visit and then followed up at three-monthly intervals for a year. At each follow-up visit, standardized questionnaires were used to determine whether the subjects wheezed only with, or also in the absence of colds. Stability of the phenotypes was assessed at the end of the study. Results:, Phenotype as determined by retrospective parental report at the start of the study was not predictive of phenotype during the study year. Phenotypic classification remained the same in 45.9% of children and altered in 54.1% of children. Conclusion:, When children with preschool wheeze are classified into episodic (viral) wheeze or multiple trigger wheeze based on retrospective questionnaire, the classification is likely to change significantly within a 1-year period. [source]

Loyal but ignored: The benefits and costs of constructive communication behavior

The consequences of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect behavior were examined using retrospective questionnaires (Study 1) and 2 social interaction diary studies (Study 2). Exit and neglect were generally associated with more negative partner responses and reduced feelings of value and closeness, and were reported to be more harmful to the relationship. Voice was associated with more positive partner responses and greater value and intimacy, and was perceived to be most beneficial to the relationship. In contrast, loyalty was perceived to have the same detrimental consequences as destructive behaviors (Study 1) and did not predict more positive outcomes within daily interactions (Study 2). These results indicate that, despite good intentions, loyal intimates are often left feeling ignored and unappreciated. [source]

Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Young Patients: An Exploratory Study

Jean-Paul Tomasi MD
Abstract Objectives P0 protein is expressed exclusively in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. In a previous study from our laboratory, 27% of patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) had antibodies to P0 protein in their serum. The purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the relationship between the clinical presentation of SNHL among children and young adults (age range, 5,30 y) and the presence of serum anti-P0 antibodies. Study Design The data were collected by retrospective questionnaires from Belgian otolaryngologists. Methods Patients were divided for comparison into two groups according to the presence or absence of anti-P0 antibodies. Results Analyses of clinical data and audiometric results indicated that a progressive hearing loss was more frequently recorded in the patients in the anti-P0 antibody,positive group (82% [14 of 17]) than in those in the anti-P0 antibody,negative group (35% [6 of 17]) (P <.005). Conclusions Thus, in the age group in the present study, autoimmune SNHL (as measured in the present study by the presence of anti-P0 antibodies) is more frequently associated with progressive than with sudden hearing loss. The implications of this finding for preventive screening of hearing loss in children and young adults are discussed. [source]