Retrospective Interview (retrospective + interview)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Childhood risk factors for offending before first psychiatric admission for people with schizophrenia: a case,control study of high security hospital admissions

B.Sc., Ch.B., M.Sc., Roland M. Jones M.B.
Background People with schizophrenia who offend do not constitute a homogenous population. Pre-illness characteristics may distinguish groups. Aims To test for differences in prevalence of childhood risk factors for offending between serious offenders with schizophrenia who had started offending before their first ever psychiatric admission (pre-admission offenders) and those who had started after it (post-admission offenders). Our hypothesis was that such adverse childhood factors would be more prevalent in the pre-admission offenders. Method Retrospective interview and records case,control study of all first high security hospital admissions diagnosed with schizophrenia in England 1972,2000. Risk factors were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Results 853 patients were pre- and 741 post-admission offenders. Our hypothesis was confirmed in that factors associated with pre-admission offending were paternal criminal convictions, larger family size, and younger age at first use of illicit drugs, on first smoking cigarettes, and at maternal separation. There were differences too in pre-high security hospital treatment: pre-admission offenders had been younger at first court appearance and had more criminal justice system disposals, post-admission offenders were younger at first ever psychiatric hospital admission and more often hospitalized. Conclusions While early offending among people with schizophrenia may delay treatment, making the distinction between pre-admission and post-admission offending may be useful in understanding the aetiology of the offending, and establishment of such a history may help in targeting interventions supplementary to treatment specific for the psychosis. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fostering self-esteem: exploring adult recollections on the influence of foster parents

Nikki Luke
ABSTRACT Foster parents are in a unique position to improve the self-esteem of children in their care, which may be lower than that of their non-fostered peers. According to Harter's dual-influence model, both general support or attachment and domain-specific support contribute to self-esteem. The current study used this model to explore the ways in which foster parents had influenced the self-esteem of a sample of five adults with differing foster care experiences. Retrospective interviews were used to gather memories of high self-esteem from time spent in foster care. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts supported Harter's model, and provided a number of examples of ways in which foster parents could boost children's self-esteem. The model was further extended to show the importance of ,normality' and inclusion for this sample of fostered adults. Further research on this topic is recommended with a view to widening the scope of foster carer training beyond attachment theory. [source]

Parabens, oestrogenicity, underarm cosmetics and breast cancer: a perspective on a hypothesis

Philip W. Harvey
Abstract A recent review by Darbre (2003) published in this journal (J. Appi. Toxicol. 23: 89,95) has attracted public and scienti,c interest that requires perspective, particularly on the use of esters of p -hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as preservatives in underarm cosmetics. Although parabens are generally regarded as safe, recent reports suggest that they are oestrogenic in a variety of in vitro (including MCF7 and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell lines) and in vivo tests for oestrogenicity (uterotrophic assays in both rat and mouse). There are also recent reports of adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes in rodent toxicity studies. Of interest is the lack of activity by the oral route but clear activity by the subcutaneous and topical routes, which is of some relevance to the use of underarm cosmetics. There would seem to be a case now to supplement these emerging toxicity data with longer term regulatory standard tests examining other oestrogenic endpoints and at least to consider these ,ndings in more up-to-date risk assessments speci,c for cosmetic use. Further, there are few data on the use of underarm cosmetics and the risk of breast cancer, and although one recent retrospective interview-based study found no association there is a need for more thorough investigation taking into account the type of chemicals used. Darbre has forwarded a hypothesis and called for further work to establish whether or not the use of underarm cosmetics (particularly containing oestrogenic formulants) contributes to the rising incidence of breast cancer. It would seem prudent to conduct this work because the current database is sparse and the effects of long-term low-level exposures to weakly oestrogenic chemicals on human health, particularly their application to the underarm and the risks of breast cancer, are unknown. The role of oestrogens in breast cancer, however, is undisputed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Facilitative Role of L1 Influence in Tense,Aspect Marking: A Comparison of Hispanophone and Anglophone Learners of French

English learners of French whose first language (L1) does not mark the perfective/imperfective distinction have shown verb semantic influence and an overall preference for perfective over imperfective in their use of second language (L2) tense,aspect markers. This study investigated whether learners whose L1 marks the perfective/imperfective distinction would exhibit similar acquisition profiles. Hispanophones (n= 17) and Anglophones (n= 15) at similar levels of French L2 proficiency completed a 68-item cloze task with equal numbers of perfective and imperfective contexts distributed across 4 semantic categories: stative, activity, accomplishment, and achievements. In a 20-minute retrospective interview, a subsample of the participants (8 Hispanophones, 11 Anglophones) commented on factors influencing their tense,aspect choices. An ANOVA of 1,012 predicates revealed that unlike the Anglophones, the Hispanophones did not prefer perfective over imperfective, and they were also less influenced by verb semantics. The learners' comments suggest that the Hispanophones made effective use of L1,L2 similarities, whereas the Anglophones appealed to verb semantics and partially understood pedagogical rules, which were frequently associated with inappropriate uses of the forms. [source]

Familial aggregation of postpartum mood symptoms in bipolar disorder pedigrees

Jennifer L Payne
Objectives:, We sought to determine if postpartum mood symptoms and depressive episodes exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar I pedigrees. Methods:, A total of 1,130 women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative Study and were asked whether they had ever experienced mood symptoms within four weeks postpartum. Women were also asked whether either of two major depressive episodes described in detail occurred postpartum. We examined the odds of postpartum mood symptoms in female siblings, who had previously been pregnant and had a diagnosis of bipolar I, bipolar II, or schizoaffective (bipolar type) disorders (n = 303), given one or more relatives with postpartum mood symptoms. Results:, The odds ratio for familial aggregation of postpartum mood symptoms was 2.31 (p = 0.011) in an Any Mood Symptoms analysis (n = 304) and increased to 2.71 (p = 0.005) when manic symptoms were excluded, though this was not significantly different from the Any Mood Symptoms analysis. We also examined familial aggregation of postpartum major depressive episodes; however, the number of subjects was small. Conclusions:, Limitations of the study include the retrospective interview, the fact that the data were collected for other purposes and the inability to control for such factors as medication use. Taken together with previous studies, these data provide support for the hypothesis that there may be a genetic basis for the trait of postpartum mood symptoms generally and postpartum depressive symptoms in particular in women with bipolar disorder. Genetic linkage and association studies incorporating this trait are warranted. [source]

Hereditary angioedema and pregnancy

Niranthari CHINNIAH
Background:, Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a quantitative or functional defect in C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Patients with this deficiency present with episodes of angioedema which can be life-threatening. Studies examining HAE and pregnancy are scarce with little known about the interrelationship between the two. Objective:, To examine the effect, and evaluate the clinical manifestations of HAE in pregnancy using retrospective interviews of affected women. Methods:, Women with HAE who have undergone one of more pregnancies were identified throughout Australia using the national Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy immunodeficiency database. Following informed consent, identified women were interviewed regarding their HAE status during pregnancy and the perinatal period using a questionnaire. Results:, Seven women with a total of 16 pregnancies were identified. During the first trimester of pregnancy, more than ten attacks of angioedema were experienced in six of 16 pregnancies. During the second trimester only in three of 16 pregnancies did women experience greater than ten attacks. During the post-partum period, four of seven women experienced increased frequency and severity of attacks as compared to the pre-pregnancy state. For two of four patients, this impacted on their breast-feeding routine. Conclusion:, Our study showed that women with HAE have greatly reduced or absent attacks in the last two trimesters of pregnancy, although, during the post-partum period, the majority of women experienced increased frequency and severity of attacks. [source]