Retrospective Case-control Study (retrospective + case-control_study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Differences in End-of-Life Preferences Between Congestive Heart Failure and Dementia in a Medical House Calls Program

Ziad R. Haydar MD
Objectives: To compare end-of-life preferences in elderly individuals with dementia and congestive heart failure (CHF). Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Geriatrician-led interdisciplinary house-call program using an electronic medical record. Participants: Homebound individuals who died while under the care of the house-call program from October 1996 to April 2001. Measurements: Medical records review for demographics, functional status, advance medical planning, hospice use, and place of death. Results: Of 172 patients who died in the program, 29 had CHF, 79 had dementia, 34 had both, and 30 had neither. Patients with CHF were younger (82.6 vs 87.0, P=.011) and less functionally dependent (activities of daily living score 9.1 vs 11.5, P=.001). Time from enrollment to death was not significantly different (mean±standard deviation=444±375 days for CHF vs 325±330 days for dementia, P=.113). A do-not-resuscitate (DNR) directive was given in 62% of patients with CHF and 91% with dementia (P<.001). Advance medical planning discussions were not significantly different (2.10 in CHF vs 1.65 in dementia, P=.100). More patients with CHF participated in their advance medical planning than those with dementia (86% vs 17%, P<.001). Hospice was used in 24% of CHF and 61% of dementia cases (P<.001). Finally, 45% of patients with CHF and 18% of patients with dementia died in the acute hospital (P=.006). Multivariate analysis showed that the fact that more patients with CHF were involved in their medical planning was not significant in predicting end-of-life preferences. Alternatively, Caucasian ethnicity was an independent predictor of having a documented DNR and death outside of the acute hospital. Conclusion: In the months before death, patients with CHF were more likely to have care plans directed at disease modification and treatment, whereas dementia patients were more likely to have care plans that focused on symptom relief and anticipation of dying. Several factors may contribute to this difference. [source]

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Jordanian Women

Wasileh Petro-Nustas
Purpose: To investigate risk factors associated with breast cancer in Jordanian women. Design: Retrospective case-control study based on data from the Jordanian Cancer Registry in 1996. Methods: One hundred women with breast cancer (cases) and 100 women without breast cancer (controls) were interviewed in their homes. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic to investigate the risk factors associated with breast cancer in Jordanian women. Findings: Bivariate analysis indicated significant differences between the cases and controls, including age of menarche and menopause, use of households' pesticides, stressful life events, and direct trauma to the breast. Logistic regression analysis indicated higher odds ratios for breast enlargement, irregular menstruation, use of hair dye, oral contraceptives, and fertility drugs. Conclusions: Significant differences in correlates of breast cancer were found between the cases and the controls. [source]

Melanocytic nevi are associated with neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis, type I, but not sporadic neurofibromas.

A study of 226 cases
Background:, Neurofibromatosis, type 1, is associated with cutaneous melanin pigmentation, but an association with ordinary melanocytic nevi has not been described. Methods:, This retrospective case-control study was designed to see if neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1) differ from sporadic neurofibromas (SN) in their incidence of associated melanocytic nevi and other histologic features. Slides from 114 NF-1 were compared with 112 SN and 300 intradermal melanocytic nevi (IDN). Results:, Small lentiginous melanocytic nevi were identified over 13 NF-1 (11%) but no SN (P = 0.0002). Compared with other NF-1, NF-1 with nevi were more frequently associated with melanocytic hyperplasia, giant melanosomes and diffuse neurofibroma (P < 0.03). Compared with SN, NF-1 were also more frequently associated with melanocytic hyperplasia, lentigo simplex-like changes, diffuse neurofibroma and plexiform neurofibroma (P < 0.001). Sebaceous hyperplasia (14%), dermal elastosis (9%), lipomatous change (8%), epithelial cysts (4%) and keratin granulomas or folliculitis (3%) were not significantly different in prevalence between NF-1, SN and the control group of IDN. Conclusions:, This study suggests that there is a difference in the potential for melanocytic proliferation in NF-1 compared with SN. NF-1, SN and IDN are associated with a similar range of incidental histologic changes. [source]

Metabolic risk factors associated with erosive esophagitis

Chian-Sem Chua
Abstract Background and Aim:, Our aim was to determine associations between metabolic risk factors and erosive esophagitis. Methods:, In this retrospective case-control study, diagnosis of erosive esophagitis was based on the Los Angeles classification. Endoscopic findings in subjects with erosive esophagitis were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists and those with agreement of diagnosis were enrolled for study. Body mass index (BMI), abdominal girdle, blood pressure, and serum triglyceride, glucose, and ,-lipoprotein levels were compared between individuals with and without erosive esophagitis. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent metabolic risk factors associated with erosive esophagitis. Results:, Between October 2004 and April 2006, 518 of 4206 subjects who underwent endoscopic examination were diagnosed as having erosive esophagitis. After expert review, 427 (male : female = 365:62) individuals met the study criteria of having erosive esophagitis (10.5%). Compared with age- and gender-matched controls, patients with erosive esophagitis had significantly higher BMI, abdominal girdle, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < 0.05). More subjects with metabolic syndrome had erosive esophagitis than without metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.27,2.44, P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that central obesity (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 05-1.89, P = 0.023) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19,2.13, P = 0.004) were significantly associated with erosive esophagitis. Conclusions:, Obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are key components of metabolic syndrome, are moderate independent risk factors for erosive esophagitis. [source]

Risk factors and ultrasonographic profile of posterior fossa haemorrhages in preterm infants

Arvind Sehgal
Aims: While preterm infants are known to be at risk of intracranial haemorrhages, advances in ultrasound imaging of preterm babies have facilitated recognition of presence of haemorrhages in the posterior fossa, which include cerebellar and Cisterna Magna haemorrhages. There are limited data on the profile and predisposing risk factors. The objective was to identify antenatal, intrapartum and post-natal risk factors for and to define the clinical spectrum. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study in the setting of a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm babies ,30 weeks gestation age admitted between January 2005 and December 2006, with an ultrasound diagnosis of posterior fossa haemorrhage and an equal number of controls matched for gestation age, gender and month of birth with normal cranial scans were selected. Systematic chart and radiographic review was done. All cranial ultrasounds in both groups were reviewed. Results: Eighteen babies had documented posterior fossa haemorrhage (13 cerebellar, 5 isolated Cisterna Magna, 10 both), the median time of detection being 2.5 days. Eleven babies had either no or grade I/II supratentorial bleeds, while half of all cerebellar bleeds were bilateral. All haemorrhages were visualised from mastoid view and none from anterior fontanel. On univariate analysis, multiple gestations, lack of antenatal steroids, foetal heart rate abnormalities, need for volume expanders and cardiotrophins and sepsis were associated with a higher risk for having posterior fossa bleeds. Conclusions: Posterior fossa haemorrhages in preterm babies are being increasingly recognised. Antenatal, intrapartum and post-natal factors may predispose towards haemorrhages in the cerebellum or Cisterna Magna. [source]

Gall bladder mucoceles and their association with endocrinopathies in dogs: a retrospective case-control study

M. L. L. Mesich
Objective: To investigate the relationship between endocrinopathies and diagnosis of gall bladder mucocele in dogs via a retrospective case-control study. Methods: Records of 78 dogs with a surgical or ultrasonographic diagnosis of gall bladder mucocele were examined for the presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. Two age- and breed-matched controls for each gall bladder mucocele dog (156 total control dogs) were examined for the same concurrent diseases. A matched case-control analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. Results: The odds of mucocele in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were 29 times that of dogs without hyperadrenocorticism (P=0·001; 95 per cent CI 3·8, 219·9). No difference was found between dogs with and without diabetes mellitus. Although a significant association was found between gall bladder mucocele and hypothyroidism, potential observation bias was also identifi ed. Clinical Significance: Hyperadrenocorticoid dogs that were presented for acute illness with laboratory evidence of hepatobiliary disease should undergo evaluation for the presence of a biliary mucocele. Dogs diagnosed with a gall bladder mucocele should be screened for concurrent hyperadrenocorticism if clinical suspicion exists. [source]

Interpreting Urine Drug Tests: Prevalence of Morphine Metabolism to Hydromorphone in Chronic Pain Patients Treated with Morphine

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
Ajay D. Wasan MD
ABSTRACT Objective., Pain medicine practitioners frequently use urine drug testing (UDT) to monitor adherence to opioid therapy. It can be difficult to interpret a result as normal or abnormal in relation to which opioid compounds are expected to be found in the urine. We investigated whether hydromorphone may be a metabolite of morphine normally appearing in UDT of patients prescribed morphine. Design., This is a retrospective case-control study of urine toxicology results in pain patients taking only morphine. Inclusion criteria included urine results positive for morphine only (controls) or morphine and hydromorphone (cases). Demographic and medical history variables, and any history of aberrant drug behavior were recorded and related to the presence or absence of hydromorphone in the urine. Results., Hydromorphone was present in 21 of 32 cases (66%), none of whom had a history of aberrant drug behavior. Positive cases occurred more frequently in women, in those taking higher daily doses of morphine, and in those with higher urine morphine concentrations (P < 0.05). Only morphine urine concentration was a significant predictor of the hydromorphone metabolite in a logistic regression model (P < 0.05). Conclusions., Hydromorphone is likely a minor metabolite of morphine, normally appearing in the UDT of patients taking morphine. This finding assists in determining whether a UDT result is normal or abnormal, and subsequently whether a patient is compliant with opioid therapy. This observation should be confirmed by a prospective study in a controlled environment. Variables such as gender, morphine dose, morphine urine concentration, and genetic determinants of morphine metabolism should be investigated further. [source]

Emergency Department Tachypnea Predicts Transfer to a Higher Level of Care in the First 24 hours After ED Admission

Heather Farley MD
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:718,722 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The authors hypothesized that vital sign abnormalities detected in the emergency department (ED) can be used to forecast clinical deterioration occurring within 24 hours of hospital admission. Methods:, This was a retrospective case-control study performed after implementation of a hospitalwide rapid response team (RRT) system. Inclusion criteria for study patients consisted of age , 18 years, admission to the general floor though the ED, and RRT activation and subsequent transfer to a higher level of care in the first 24 hours. Control patients were ,18 years, were admitted to the floor though the ED, never required RRT or transfer to a higher level of care, and were matched to cases by risk of mortality. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the odds of an adverse outcome as a function of race and sex, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and systolic (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) at time of transfer from the ED. Results:, A total of 74 cases and 246 controls were used. RR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79 per 10-point change, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41 to 5.51) and to a lesser extent dBP (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.97) contributed significantly to the odds of intensive care unit (ICU) or intermediate care transfer within 24 hours of admission; HR (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.37) did not. Conclusions:, Emergency department RR preceding floor transfer appears to have a significant relationship to the need for ICU or intermediate care transfer in the first 24 hours of hospital admission. [source]

Endophthalmitis in the western Sydney region: a case-control study

Somsak Lertsumitkul FRACO
ABSTRACT Background: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for endophthalmitis following routine intraocular surgery. Methods: A review was performed of consecutive cases of endophthalmitis from three teaching hospitals in the western Sydney region and matched controls from the same institutions between 1996 and 1998. Results: There were 31 cases and 66 controls. Eighty procedures were phacoemulsification, 15 conventional extracapsular cataract extraction, and two were penetrating keratoplasties. Of the 80 patients who had phacoemulsification surgery, 50 had a clear corneal incision, and 26 had a scleral incision (four were unknown). Logistic regression showed an increased risk of endophthalmitis with surgical complications (P = 0.002) and clear cornea temporal incisions (P = 0.007). Risk of endophthalmitis was reduced with use of subconjunctival injections (P = 0.008). The yield for the Gram stain was 47% and for culture was 67%. Anterior chamber tap in addition to vitreous biopsy alone did not increase the yield for microorganism (P = 0.78). Mean visual acuity on presentation was hand movement with 13 patients (50%) showing visual improvement following intravitreal injections of antibiotics (P = 0.003). Visual prognosis did not correlate with presenting visual acuity but appeared to be better in those who grew Staphylococcus epidermidis or were culture negative. Conclusions: Although this study is unable to draw definite conclusions regarding risk of endophthalmitis in clear corneal temporal cataract surgery, sufficient data suggest the importance of incision type and location. Surgical complication is an important risk factor for endophthalmitis. Use of subconjunctival antibiotic injections at the conclusion of the procedure is recommended. [source]

Validation of MCADD newborn screening

EM Maier
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) represents a potentially fatal fatty acid ,-oxidation disorder. Newborn screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been implemented worldwide, but is associated with unresolved questions regarding population heterogeneity, burden on healthy carriers, cut-off policies, false-positive and negative rates. In a retrospective case-control study, 333 NBS samples showing borderline acylcarnitine patterns but not reaching recall criteria were genotyped for the two most common mutations (c.985A>G/c.199C>T) and compared with genotypes and acylcarnitines of 333 controls, 68 false-positives, and 34 patients. c.985A>G was more frequently identified in the study group and false-positives compared to controls (1:4.3/1:2.3 vs. 1:42), whereas c.199C>T was found more frequently only within the false-positives (1:23). Biochemical criteria were devised to differentiate homozygous (c.985A>G), compound heterozygous (c.985A>G/c.199C>T), and heterozygous individuals. Four false-negatives were identified because our initial algorithm required an elevation of octanoylcarnitine (C8) and three secondary markers in the initial and follow-up sample. The new approach allowed a reduction of false-positives (by defining high cut-offs: 1.4 ,mol/l for C8; 7 for C8/C12) and false-negatives (by sequencing the ACADM gene of few suspicious samples). Our validation strategy is able to differentiate healthy carriers from patients doubling the positive predictive value (42,88%) and to target NBS to MCADD-subsets with potentially higher risk of adverse outcome. It remains controversial, if NBS programs should aim at identifying all subsets of all diseases included. Because the natural course of milder variants cannot be assessed by observational studies, our strategy could serve as a general model for evaluation of MS/MS-based NBS. [source]

Vaccination rate and age of premature infants weighing <1500 g: a pilot study in north-western Switzerland

BU Tillmann
In Switzerland, there are no special vaccination recommendations for premature and low-birthweight infants with respect to a particular target vaccination age. Incomplete and delayed vaccination bears the inherent risk of preventable infections. Therefore, the vaccination rate and age of 60 premature infants in north-western Switzerland born in 1994/95 were investigated in a retrospective case-control study. For this group of patients these are the first data ever available for this region. At the age of 4,5 y, the vaccination rates for polio and diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP acellular) as well as Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) were similar in both preterm and full-term infants. In both groups, the fourth dose of vaccine against DTP, Hib and polio was far less frequently administered than the first three. The vaccination age in preterm infants for most vaccinations was significantly higher than in age-matched full-term controls. This was particularly obvious for the first dose of vaccine against polio and DTP. In preterm infants, the median age (5th; 95th percentile) at the date of the first polio vaccination was 131 (89; 270) d and 82 (60; 182) in full-term controls (p < 0.00001). The age difference was even larger for the first DTP vaccination (62 d, p < 0.00001). The main reasons for delayed vaccination may include insufficient information given to parents as well as prolonged hospitalization. Conclusion: Vaccination of preterm infants should be discussed in every discharge communication, with emphasis on vaccine administration at the appropriate chronological age. [source]