Retrospective Analysis (retrospective + analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Sentinel Lymph Node Excision and PET-CT in the Initial Stage of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 61 Patients with Malignant Melanoma in American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages I and II

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) for the detection of regional nodal metastases and staging of malignant melanoma has resulted in some controversies in international discussions. Positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET-CT), a noninvasive imaging procedure for the detection of regional nodal metastases, has increasingly become of interest. Our study is a direct comparison of SLNE and PET-CT in patients with early-stage malignant melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 patients with primary malignant melanoma with a Breslow index greater than 1.0 mm. RESULTS Metastatic SLNs were found in 14 patients (23%); 17 metastatic lymph nodes were detected overall, only one of which was identified preoperatively using PET-CT. Thus, PET-CT showed a sensitivity of 5.9% and a negative predictive value of 78%. CONCLUSION SLNE is much more sensitive than PET-CT in discovering small lymph node metastases. We consider PET-CT unsuitable for the evaluation of early regional lymphatic tumor dissemination in this patient population and recommend that it be limited to malignant melanomas of American Joint Committee on Cancer stages III and IV. We therefore recommend the routine use of SLNE for tumor staging and stratification for adjuvant therapy of patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

Combination Surgical Lifting with Ablative Laser Skin Resurfacing of Facial Skin: A Retrospective Analysis

Tina S. Alster MD
Background. Cutaneous aging is manifested by rhytides, dyschromias, and skin laxity. Ablative laser skin resurfacing can effectively improve many signs of skin aging; however, the photoaged patient with facial laxity often requires a surgical lifting procedure in order to obtain optimal results. Concerns with delayed or impaired wound healing has led to reluctance to perform both procedures simultaneously. Objective. To report the clinical results and side effect profiles after concomitant surgical facial lifting procedures and ablative carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in a series of patients. Methods. A retrospective analysis and chart review was performed in 34 consecutive patients who underwent combination CO2 or erbium:YAG laser skin resurfacing and surgical lifting procedures, including S-lift rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, and brow lift. Side effects and complication rates were tabulated. Results. The side effect profile of the combined surgical-laser procedures was similar to that reported after a laser-only procedure. The most common side effect was transient hyperpigmentation which occurred in 20.6% of treated patients. None of the patients experienced delayed reepithelialization, skin necrosis, or prolonged healing times. Conclusions. Concurrent laser skin resurfacing and surgical lifting of facial skin maximizes aesthetic results without increased incidence of adverse effects. Patients benefit from the consolidation of anesthesia and convalescent times as well as enhanced global clinical outcomes. [source]

Maternal Mortality in Rural India: A Hospital Based, 10 Year Retrospective Analysis

Dr. Kavita Verma
Abstract Objectives: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Ludhiana, a city of Northern India in order to determine the causes associated with MMR and to suggest ways to reduce it. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the mortality records of obstetrics cases in Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India. Results: The mean MMR for the 10 year period was 785 per 100,000 live births. Of the total 116 reported maternal deaths, 44 (41.9%) were due to induced septic abortion. The reasons were unwanted pregnancy in 22 (50%) and 11 (25%) were female feticide. Conclusions: In our hospital based analysis, MMR was very high. Most maternal deaths are preventable by intervention at the appropriate time and it is important for health professionals, policy makers and politicians to implement the introduction of programs for reducing maternal mortality. Special emphasis should be placed on antenatal care, the establishment of a registration system and measures to abolish illegal abortion. [source]

Retrospective Analysis of the Cholera Cases Imported to France From 1973 to 2005

Arnaud Tarantola MD
Background The manners of traveling and travelers' vulnerability to infection are changing: increasing numbers of travelers, travels at the extreme ages of life, "backpacker" tourism in close contact with local populations. What is the epidemiologic situation and what are the trends of imported cholera to Metropolitan France? Method A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken on all the confirmed cases of cholera imported to France, and notified from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2005, using compulsory notification data from local health departments and information from the National Reference Centre. Results A total of 129 imported cases of cholera were notified between 1973 and 2005 (3.9 cases/y on average). The geographical sources of infection have changed with time: in the 1980s, 94% of the patients were infected in Maghreb (Morocco and Algeria) but none were in 2000. On the other hand, Asia and West Africa progressively emerged and now predominate. In spite of certain poorly informed data and possible underdetection, the number of cases of importation appears to be low and falling. Conclusions The patient profile seems to have evolved and increasingly concerns people at the extreme ages of life, living elsewhere than the principal basins of immigration in France, and diagnosis is increasingly made in nonteaching hospitals. The lessons likely to help clinicians will be discussed. [source]

Retrospective Analysis of Spinal Arachnoid Cysts in 14 Dogs

Helena Rylander
Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. [source]

(217) Selective Nerve Root Injections Can Accurately Predict Level of Nerve Impairment and Outcome for Surgical Decompression: A Retrospective Analysis

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
Kevin Macadaeg
There remains significant controversy regarding the use of a vertebral selective nerve root injection (SNI) as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In addition, the frequency of use of such procedures in patients with radiculopathy has increased dramatically in the last few years. Based on a Medline review there has been no studies combining cervical and lumbar SNI results and comparing preoperative diagnosis to surgical findings and outcome. The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively examine and compare the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of a good surgical outcome in patients who had an SNI and subsequent surgical intervention. 101 patients from a 1996 thru 1999 database, who were referred to 10 spine surgeons (2 orthopedic and 8 neurosurgeon) for either cervical or lumbar radiculopathy, and had SNI and various imagery studies and subsequent surgery. Patients receive SNIs at our institution if there is a discrepancy between physical exam and radiologic imagery or to confirm a putative pain generator in multilevel pathology. These patients were then retrospectively analyzed with regard to correlation to surgical level and surgical outcome. SNIs were performed by one of three pain specialists in our clinic. Approximation of the appropriate nerve root sleeve was performed using fluoroscopic imagery, a nerve stimulator and contrast. After nerve root stimulation and neurography, 0.5,0.75 cc of lidocaine 2% was injected. Pre- and post-procedural visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores were obtained from the non-sedated patient. A SNI was considered positive or negative if the patient had immediate appendicular pain relief of greater or less then ninety percent respectively. The study was designed to include only those patients that had a SNI, regardless of result, and subsequently had surgical decompression in an attempt to treat the pain that initially prompted the SNI. A statistical analysis was then performed comparing preoperative data to surgical findings and outcome. Overall, 101 patients had SNIs who subsequently underwent surgical decompression. Average duration of symptoms prior to SNI was 1.5,12 months (4 months mean). Fifteen patients presented with cervical and 86 with lumbar radiculopathy. There were a total of 110 procedures performed on these patients. VAS scores of <2 and overall pain reduction openface> 90% with respect to their pre-procedural appendicular were used to determine if a SNI was positive, negative or indeterminate. All of these patients had an MRI or CT with or without a myelogram and all went to surgery. The results yield that SNIs are able to predict surgical findings with 94% and 90% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A good surgical outcome was determined if the patient would do the surgery again, if they were satisfied or very satisfied and had a VAS of <3 at 6- and 12-month intervals. Our data revealed that a positive SNI was able to predict a good 6-month outcome with 95% and 64% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. At 12-months, similar results were obtained of 95% and 56%. Preoperative MRI results were also evaluated and revealed a 92% sensitivity in predicting surgical findings. We had 24 false positive MRI results and 0 true negatives. Interestingly we had 8 diabetic (IDDM or NIDDM) patients or nearly 8% of our total. The odds ratio of a diabetic having a bad outcome at 12 months was 5.4 to 1. Diabetics had a 50% likelihood of having a bad 12-month outcome versus 16% for non-diabetics with a p value of 0.066. We also looked at gender, smoking history and presence of cardiovascular disease and found no significant relationship with outcomes. Our data indicate that SNIs, when performed under rigorous method, is a highly valuable tool that can accurately determine level of nerve root impairment and outcome in patients being considered for surgical decompression. With a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 90%, SNIs offer a major advantage over other diagnostic modalities in patients with difficult-to-diagnose radiculopathies. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A Retrospective Analysis of Fondaparinux Versus Enoxaparin Treatment in Women with Infertility or Pregnancy Loss

Edward E. Winger
Problem, We compared the pregnancy success rates and safety parameters of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin, combined with immunotherapy, in patients with a history of miscarriage and/or infertility and coagulant defects. Method of study, A total of 127 pregnancies in 110 patients with a history of miscarriage and/or infertility were retrospectively evaluated. Of these, 29 pregnancies used fondaparinux 2.5 mg daily and 98 pregnancies used enoxaparin 30 mg twice daily. Results, The pregnancy success rate was 59% (17/29; 95% CI, 41,75%) for patients receiving fondaparinux and 58% (57/98; 95% CI, 48,68%) for patients receiving enoxaparin. No difference was detected in birth weight (2.7 ± 0.8 and 2.9 ± 0.6 kg, respectively) or gestational age at delivery (37.3 ± 2.2 and 37.7 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively). No birth defects, severe bleeding-related complications, or serious allergic reactions were observed. Conclusion, In patients with a history of miscarriage, infertility, and coagulant defects receiving immunotherapy, fondaparinux resulted in successful pregnancy outcomes comparable with enoxaparin therapy. Although no difference in outcome was observed in our analysis, a much larger study is required to achieve statistical power. [source]

Quinidine for Pharmacological Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation: A Retrospective Analysis in 501 Consecutive Patients

Bernhard Schwaab M.D.
Background: Although quinidine has been used to terminate atrial fibrillation (AFib) for a long time, it has been recently classified to be used as a third-line-drug for cardioversion. However, these recommendations are based on a few small studies, and there are no data available of a larger modern patient population undergoing pharmacological cardioversion of AFib. Therefore, we evaluated the safety of quinidine for cardioversion of paroxysmal AFib in patients after cardiac surgery and coronary intervention. Methods: In 501 consecutive patients (66 ± 9 years, 32% women), 200,400 mg of quinidine were administered every 6 hours until cardioversion or for a maximum of 48 hours. Patients were included with QT interval ,450 ms, ejection fraction (EF) ,35%, and plasma potassium >4.3 mEq/L. Exclusion criteria were: unstable angina, myocardial infarction <3 months, and advanced congestive heart failure. Patients received verapamil, beta-blockers, or digitalis to slow down ventricular rate <100 bpm. Results: Quinidine therapy did not have to be stopped due to adverse drug reactions (ADR), and no significant QTc interval prolongation (Bazett and Fridericia correction) and no life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia occurred. Mean quinidine dose was 617 ± 520 mg and 92% of the patients received verapamil or beta-blocker to decrease ventricular rate. Cardioversion was successful in 84% of patients. All ADRs were minor and transient. Multivariate analysis revealed female gender (OR 2.62, CI 1.61,4.26, P < 0.001) and EF 45,54% (OR 1.97, CI 1.15,3.36, P = 0.013) as independent risk factors for ADRs. Conclusions: Quinidine for pharmacological cardioversion of AFib is safe and well tolerated in this subset of patients. [source]

Possible Role of Artificial Oxygen Carriers in Transfusion Medicine: A Retrospective Analysis on the Current Transfusion Practice

Fumiaki Yoshiba
Abstract Artificial oxygen carriers (AOC) are under development as a substitute for red blood cells (RBC) in homologous transfusion (Tx). The lack of surface antigen in AOC makes ABO-typing and antibody-screening (T/S) unnecessary. Pathogen elimination renders it much safer, and long-term stability allows ubiquitous storage for emergency use. To delineate the utility of AOC, we retrospectively examined current Tx practices in Tokai University and the Japanese Red Cross Society. The emergency department of Tokai University Hospital has been using O(+)Rh(+) RBC in patients with hemorrhagic shock before Tx becomes available. Those who received the RBCs within 60 min of injury had a significantly higher survival rate than those who received it later (,60 min). The Red Cross Blood Center provided 411 units of RBC for 138 urgent requests for rare blood types. Our analysis suggests that if an AOC were available for the initial six units, 96% of such requests could have been covered to avoid urgent donor allocation, preparation, and Tx. Among 2079 surgical cases who ordered T/S, only 29% actually required Tx, rendering >70% of the T/S unnecessary. Because only 7.4% required nine units or more, more than 92% of T/S and Tx could have been avoided in retrospect if an AOC were available for the initial eight units. The results suggest that an AOC might be useful in various situations to alleviate problems, concerns, and technical burden in the current Tx practices. Because the expected utility is based mainly on physical characteristics, AOC may remain advantageous even when biogenetically derived RBC becomes available. [source]

Cesarean Delivery in Shantou, China: A Retrospective Analysis of 1922 Women

BIRTH, Issue 2 2000
Wang-ling Wu MD
Background:In China the cesarean section rate increased significantly during the past four decades. This study examined the frequency and indications of cesarean birth in Shantou, a southern city in China.Methods:An analysis was conducted of the medical records of 1922 women who had cesarean deliveries at Shantou City 2nd People's Hospital between January 1990 and December 1997. The medical records of 10,490 women who gave birth during this period were examined.Results:The average rate of cesarean delivery during the 8-year period was 19.4 ± 2.3 percent (means ± standard error). From 1990 to 1997 the cesarean delivery rates ranged from 11.05 to 29.9 percent, respectively, although during this period the total annual number of deliveries decreased significantly from 1683 to 951. The rates of the most common indications per 100 women for cesarean delivery were failure to progress (23%), premature rupture of membranes (20%), fetal distress (19.4%), breech presentation (18.1%), uterine scar (14.6%), and prolonged pregnancy (11.3%).Conclusion:The cesarean delivery rate in Shantou, China, has increased steadily and significantly between 1990 and 1997, despite a decrease in the total number of births during the same period. This study showed that on an individual basis vaginal delivery was often possible and reduction of the cesarean delivery rate could be achieved safely by paying greater heed to appropriate indications. [source]

Patent Foramen Ovale and Migraine,Bringing Closure to the Subject

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2006
Todd J. Schwedt MD
There is increasing interest in the relationship between migraine and patent foramen ovale (PFO). PFO is more common in migraineurs with aura, and migraine with aura is more prevalent in patients with PFO. Retrospective analyses of PFO closure for stroke prevention and decompression illness in divers have suggested that migraineurs with and without aura may derive significant benefit from PFO closure, but to date no prospective, randomized, sham-controlled study to confirm this has been completed. Herein we review published data regarding the relationship between migraine and PFO and discuss the rationale, justification, and important factors to consider in the conduct of prospective, controlled, clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous device closure of PFO for migraine prevention. [source]

The ,oestrogen hypothesis', where do we stand now?,

Richard M. Sharpe
Summary The original ,oestrogen hypothesis' postulated that the apparent increase in human male reproductive developmental disorders (testis cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts) might have occurred because of increased oestrogen exposure of the human foetus/neonate; five potential routes of exposure were considered. This review revisits this hypothesis in the light of the data to have emerged since 1993. It addresses whether there is a secular increasing trend in the listed disorders and highlights the limitations of available data and how these are being addressed. It considers whether new data has emerged to support the suggestion that increased oestrogen exposure could cause these abnormalities and reviews new data on potential routes via which such increased exposure could have occurred. Secular trends: The disorders listed above are now considered to represent a syndrome of disorders (testicular dysgenesis syndrome, TDS) with a common origin in foetal life. Testicular cancer has increased in incidence in Caucasian men worldwide and lifetime risk is 0.3,0.8%. Secular trends in cryptorchidism are unclear but it is by far the commonest (2,4% at birth) congenital abnormality in either sex. Secular trends for hypospadias are not robust, although most studies suggest a progressive increase; registry data probably under-estimates incidence, but based on this data hypospadias is the second most common (0.3,0.7% at birth) congenital malformation. Retrospective analyses of sperm count data show a global downward trend but this is inconclusive , prospective studies using standardized methodology show significant differences between countries and very low sperm counts in the youngest cohort of men. For all disorders, other then testis cancer, standardized prospective studies are the best way forward and are in progress across Europe. Oestrogen effects: Evidence that foetal exposure to oestrogens can induce the above disorders has strengthened. New pathways via which such changes could be induced have been identified, including suppression of testosterone production by the foetal testis, suppression of androgen receptor expression and suppression of insulin-like factor-3 (InsL3) production by foetal Leydig cells. Other evidence suggests that the balance between androgen and oestrogen action may be important in induction of reproductive tract abnormalities. Oestrogen exposure: Although many new environmental oestrogens have been identified, their uniformly weak oestrogenicity excludes the possibility that they could induce the above disorders. However, emerging data implicates various environmental chemicals in being able to alter endogenous levels of androgens (certain phthalates) and oestrogens (polychlorinated biphenyls, polyhalogenated hydrocarbons), and the former have been shown to induce a similar collection of disorders to TDS. Other mechanisms via which increased fetal exposure to pregnancy oestrogens might occur (increasing trend in obesity, dietary changes) are also discussed. [source]

Evaluation of the Personal Dental Services (Wave 1) for Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Primary Care Trusts , Part 1: Retrospective analyses of registration data and access issues

Helen Best BDS MDS PhD
Abstract Aim/objective, The purpose of the study was to undertake analyses of registration data for the personal dental services (PDS) of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham primary care trusts and relate the analyses to the PDS goal ,of ,increasing ,uptake ,of ,dental services. Method, Secondary analyses of registration statistics provided by the Dental Practice Board were undertaken for both 1 years pre-PDS (October 1997 to September 1998) and post-PDS (October 1998 to March 2003) periods. Three sets of analyses were undertaken to consider different aspects of changing registrations: (1) Absolute numbers of patients registered at each time interval; (2) Rates of change in numbers of patients registered for the entire period after the introduction of PDS; and (3) Rates of change in numbers of patients registered ,for ,the ,most recent 3 years of available data. Results, There was a significant increase in the numbers of children registered under capitation, post-PDS as compared to the pre-PDS level (all ages and both genders combined). Post-PDS, the rate of increase for the children was approximately one additional child per practice per month (0.96, 95% CI 0.41,1.52). Similarly there was a significant trend for increasing adults registrations over time of about two and a half adults per practice per month (2.42, 95% CI 0.90,3.95). There was no evidence of a change in registrations for children or adults in total over the most recent period of 3 years. Conclusions, The analysis of the absolute numbers of registered patients each month indicated that the PDS practices had more children registered than before the implementation of the PDS scheme, but not adults. Overall post-implementation there was a trend for increasing registrations in both children and adults, but the most recent data indicated a plateau effect. Further consideration of facilitators to achieve PDS goals of improved uptake of services is required, particularly as they relate to local contexts. [source]

Evaluation of the Personal Dental Services (Wave 1) for Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Primary Care Trusts , Part 2: Retrospective analyses of treatment and other dental record data

Helen Best BDS MDS PhD
Abstract Aim/Objective, The purpose of the study was to undertake analyses of treatment data for the Personal Dental Services (PDS) of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Primary Care Trusts and relate the analyses to the PDS goals of supporting practitioners deliver appropriate quality dental care and ensuring that appropriate quality safety net services are available for all residents. Method, Analyses of treatment data provided by the Dental Practice Board were undertaken for the post-PDS period (February 1999,March 2003, based on data availability). Analyses of the clinic notes for 1500 patients were also undertaken for the 1 year pre-PDS period (October 1997,September 1998) and post-introduction of the PDS (October 1998,June 2003). Two sets of analyses were undertaken to evaluate trends in treatment claims for the Dental Practice Board data, absolute numbers of each type of treatment claimed each month and change in numbers of types of treatments claimed over time. The clinic notes were used to undertake post-PDS, pre-PDS comparisons of the number of treatment items and grouped treatment item categories undertaken and the number of courses and percentages of private treatment items provided. The following sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were also analysed, age, gender, exemption ,status ,and ,attendance ,status. Results, Overall it was identified that the percentage reduction in the number of treatment items undertaken was 13% (95% CI ,19%, ,7%), post- as compared to the pre-PDS introduction period. On an annual basis it was identified that the percentage reduction in the number of treatment items undertaken per year per patient post-PDS was 4% (95% CI ,6%, ,2%). There were significant variations in the impact of the PDS on the number of treatment items undertaken for different types of patients. A limited number of treatment types changed significantly post- as compared to pre-PDS. The proportion of exempt patients treated did not increase ,post-PDS. Conclusions, It is possible that a less, invasive style of dental treatment was provided during the course of the PDS, however, there was only limited evidence to indicate that dentists practice style changed based on types of treatment categories provided. The PDS provided a limited safety net service for local residents. In setting program goals the nature of quality dental practice requires definition and evaluation should be undertaken on a prospective basis. [source]

Clinical features of Japanese patients with colonic angiodysplasia

Satoru Ueno
Abstract Background and Aim:, With improvements in endoscopic resolution, angiodysplasia (AGD) has become an increasingly recognized disorder. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features of Japanese patients with colonic AGD and compare them to the clinical features of Western patients. Methods:, Retrospective analyses were performed in all patients who had undergone colonoscopical examination from March 2003 to October 2005 at the Kyoto University Hospital. Four independent literature searches were performed to document the characteristics of colonic AGD in Western countries. The characteristics of 41 Japanese patients diagnosed as having colonic AGD were compared with those of Western patients. Results:, The incidence of colonic AGD increased with age, and the most prevalent underlying disease in patients with colonic AGD was cardiovascular disease (56.1%). These tendencies were similar in the Japanese and Western data. Colonic AGD in Japanese patients was predominantly located in the left colon (41.7%), whereas in Western patients, it was mainly located in the right colon (54%,81.9%). The percentage of colonic AGD with a size of more than 5 mm or elevated type detected in Japanese patients was significantly higher than that in Western patients. Conclusion:, The characteristics of Japanese patients with colonic AGD were similar to those of Western patients, except for its localization, size, and type. [source]

Comparison of 1 month with 3 months of anticoagulation for a first episode of venous thromboembolism associated with a transient risk factor

C. Kearon
Summary.,Background: The risk of recurrence is lower after treatment of an episode of venous thromboembolism associated with a transient risk factor, such as recent surgery, than after an episode associated with a permanent, or no, risk factor. Retrospective analyses suggest that 1 month of anticoagulation is adequate for patients whose venous thromboembolic event was provoked by a transient risk factor. Methods: In this double-blind study, patients who had completed 1 month of anticoagulant therapy for a first episode of venous thromboembolism provoked by a transient risk factor were randomly assigned to continue warfarin or to placebo for an additional 2 months. Our goal was to determine if the duration of treatment could be reduced without increasing the rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism during 11 months of follow-up. Results: Of 84 patients assigned to placebo, five (6.0%) had recurrent venous thromboembolism, compared with three of 81 (3.7%) assigned to warfarin, resulting in an absolute risk difference of 2.3%[95% confidence interval (CI) ,,5.2, 10.0]. The incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism after discontinuation of warfarin was 6.8% per patient-year in those who received warfarin for 1 month and 3.2% per patient-year in those who received warfarin for 3 months (rate difference of 3.6% per patient-year; 95% CI ,,3.8, 11.0). There were no major bleeds in either group. Conclusion: Duration of anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism provoked by a transient risk factor should not be reduced from 3 months to 1 month as this is likely to increase recurrent venous thromboembolism without achieving a clinically important decrease in bleeding. [source]

Evidence for shutter-speed variation in CR bolus-tracking studies of human pathology

Thomas E. Yankeelov
Abstract The standard pharmacokinetic model for the analysis of MRI contrast reagent (CR) bolus-tracking (B-T) data assumes that the mean intracellular water molecule lifetime (,i) is effectively zero. This assertion is inconsistent with a considerable body of physiological measurements. Furthermore, theory and simulation show the B-T time-course shape to be very sensitive to the ,i magnitude in the physiological range (hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds). Consequently, this standard model aspect can cause significant underestimations (factors of 2 or 3) of the two parameters usually determined: Ktrans, the vascular wall CR transfer rate constant, and ve, the CR distribution volume (the extracellular, extravascular space fraction). Analyses of animal model data confirmed two predicted behaviors indicative of this standard model inadequacy: (1) a specific temporal pattern for the mismatch between the best-fitted curve and data; and (2) an inverse dependence of the curve's Ktrans and ve magnitudes on the CR dose. These parameters should be CR dose-independent. The most parsimonious analysis allowing for realistic ,i values is the ,shutter-speed' model. Its application to the experimental animal data essentially eliminated the two standard model signature inadequacies. This paper reports the first survey for the extent of this ,shutter-speed effect' in human data. Retrospective analyses are made of clinical data chosen from a range of pathology (the active multiple sclerosis lesion, the invasive ductal carcinoma breast tumor, and osteosarcoma in the leg) that provides a wide variation, particularly of Ktrans. The signature temporal mismatch of the standard model is observed in all cases, and is essentially eliminated by use of the shutter-speed model. Pixel-by-pixel maps show that parameter values from the shutter-speed analysis are increased by more than a factor of 3 for some lesion regions. This endows the lesions with very high contrast, and reveals heterogeneities that are often not seen in the standard model maps. Normal muscle regions in the leg allow validation of the shutter-speed model Ktrans, ve, and ,i magnitudes, by comparison with results of previous careful rat leg studies not possible for human subjects. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Essential versus reactive thrombocythemia in children: Retrospective analyses of 12 cases

Abeer Abd El-Moneim
Abstract Background Essential thrombocythemia (ET) rarely occurs in the pediatric population and little is known about the clinical course and the molecular characteristics. Procedure In this retrospective multi-institutional study we examine the clinical, hematological, and molecular features of 12 children aged 5,16 years with thrombocytosis and a suspected diagnosis of ET. Results Median follow-up was 59 months (range 10,72). Seven patients presented with clinical symptoms potentially related to thrombocytosis. The remaining five patients were diagnosed incidentally. Median platelet count at diagnosis was 1,325,×,109/L (range 600,3,050). In 11 out of 12 cases bone marrow morphology was consistent with ET, the remaining patient had chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. Cytogenetic analyses were normal in all studied cases and only one out of nine analyzed cases harbored a JAKV617F allele. Within 6 months after initial presentation one patient who was initially asymptomatic developed thrombosis and another patient had mild bleeding. Eight patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, one patient received hydroxyurea, and two patients received anagrelide. At last follow-up, all patients were alive and none had developed leukemia. Five patients experienced hematological remission. Two children had not received any therapy. During the course of their disease, nine patients developed symptoms possibly attributable to an elevated platelet count. Conclusions In JAK2 mutation negative cases, long-term follow-up is helpful to distinguish between primary and secondary thrombocytosis. Secondary cases are not associated with organomegaly but may present with unspecific symptoms. Indications for treatment in children remain unclear. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:52,55. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Relationship between formaldehyde and quaternium-15 contact allergy.

Influence of strength of patch test reactions
Background: In groups of patients with formaldehyde allergy, many have positive patch tests to quaternium-15. Conversely, of patients allergic to quaternium-15, over half also react to formaldehyde. Objectives: To test our hypothesis that patients with stronger patch test reactions to formaldehyde are more likely to react to quaternium-15, attesting to the aetiological role for formaldehyde in such co-reactivity. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients patch tested with formaldehyde and quaternium-15 in the European baseline series between 1994 and 2009 (TRUE test®). Results: In a group of 86 patients allergic to formaldehyde, 73% co-reacted to quaternium-15; in the subgroup of 70 women, the percentage was 83. In both groups, more reactions were observed to quaternium-15 in the patients with a ++ reaction compared to the patients with a + reaction to formaldehyde. Conversely, stronger reactions to quaternium-15 were significantly more often associated with formaldehyde sensitivity in a group of 107 patients reacting to quaternium-15 and a subgroup of 88 women. In men, such effects were not observed and only 5 of 16 (31%) men allergic to formaldehyde also reacted to quaternium-15. Conclusions: In women, but not in men, stronger reactions to formaldehyde lead to more positive quaternium-15 patch tests. [source]

A Risk Scale for Predicting Extensive Subclinical Spread of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

R. Sonia Batra MD
background. The clinical appearance of nonmelanoma skin cancer may represent only a portion of microscopic tumor invasion. objective. To develop a scale based on high-risk characteristics for predicting the probability of extensive subclinical spread of nonmelanoma skin cancer. methods. Retrospective analysis of 1095 Mohs micrographic surgical cases (MMS) yielded high-risk factors for extensive tumor spread, defined as requirement of ,3 MMS layers. Predictive characteristics included: any BCC on the nose, morpheaform BCC on the cheek, neck tumors and recurrent BCC in men, location on the eyelid, temple, or ear helix, and size>10 mm. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to develop a risk index. results. Tumor characteristics were assigned point values calculated from the respective odds of extension and categorized into six risk classes with probabilities of extensive subclinical spread ranging from 10% to 56%. conclusion. A risk scale simplifies and enhances prediction of extensive tumors. The associated probabilities can help to guide patient preparation and appropriate therapy. [source]

Retrospective Review of Reconstructive Methods of Conchal Bowl Defects Following Mohs Micrographic Surgery

Nina Wines BSc
Background. Mohs micrographic surgery has consistently been demonstrated to be the most effective method for excision of potentially aggressive lesions of the conchal bowl. A variety of techniques are employed to reconstruct the conchal bowl following surgery. Objective. To explore the type and frequency of reconstruction techniques used and the factors influencing the surgeons choice of reconstruction method. Method. Retrospective analysis of 272 patients with conchal bowl tumors. Results. Split thickness skin grafting was the preferred method of reconstruction. The histopathology of the lesions and the size of the post-Mohs defect did not influence the choice of technique, except for lesions less than 1 cm in which healing by secondary intention was favored. Conclusion. Tumor size, type, and aggressiveness did not influence repair technique choice. Surgeon preference was therefore the principle factor dictating method of reconstructive technique following Mohs micrographic surgery. [source]

Memory, Emotional and Vocational Impairments before and after Anterior Temporal Lobectomy for Complex Partial Seizures

EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2006
Mario F. Dulay
Summary:,Purpose: To assess the pre- and postsurgical frequency of memory, emotional, and vocational impairments in patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), and to assess the relationship between emotional disturbance and memory abilities after ATL. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data was performed on 90 patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures who underwent ATL between 1981 and 2003. Patients were evaluated an average of 5 months before surgery and 11.3 months after surgery. Results: A moderate to high frequency of memory impairment (44.4%; verbal or nonverbal), emotional disturbance (38.9%) and unemployment (27.8%) existed in the same individuals both before and after surgery. There were small to moderate rates of new onset memory (18.9%), emotional (11.1%), and vocational (7.8%) difficulties after surgery often regardless of seizure control outcome. Patients who underwent left-ATL and had emotional disturbance after surgery had the lowest verbal memory test scores. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of taking into account emotional status when assessing memory abilities after ATL. Results replicate the finding of moderate to high frequencies of memory impairment, emotional disturbance, and unemployment both before and after ATL. Results provide support for the rationale that cognitive, psychiatric and vocational interventions are indicated to mitigate the problems that exist before and persist after ATL. [source]

Erythropoietin-induced, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia,

The Pure Red Cell Aplasia Global Scientific Advisory Board (GSAB)
Abstract Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare haematological condition that is characterized by severe aregenerative anaemia due to an almost complete cessation of red blood cell production. While antibody-mediated PRCA was extremely rare before 1998, the incidence of this disorder increased sharply after 1998 in patients receiving subcutaneous epoetin alfa produced by Ortho-Biotech and marketed outside the USA. The diagnosis of antibody-mediated PRCA relies mostly on the results of bone marrow biopsy or aspirate, which shows an absence of erythroid precursors and/or red cell maturation arrest while counts of white cell and platelet precursors are normal, and on the identification of circulating anti-erythropoietin antibodies. Retrospective analysis of PRCA cases has shown that immunosuppressive therapy can induce a disappearance of anti-erythropoietin antibodies in most patients. [source]

Abnormal cardiovascular responses to carotid sinus massage also occur in vasovagal syncope , implications for diagnosis and treatment

A. M. Humm
Background and purpose:, Carotid sinus massage (CSM) is commonly used to identify carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) as a possible cause for syncope, especially in older patients. However, CSM itself could provoke classical vasovagal syncope (VVS) in pre disposed subjects. Methods:, Retrospective analysis of CSM, cardiovascular autonomic function tests (including tilt table testing) and medical history in 388 patients with recurrent syncope to identify and characterize patients in whom an abnormal response to CSM was more likely to reflect VVS than CSH. Results:, CSM was abnormal in 79 patients. In 53 patients (77.2 ± 8.7 years), CSH was the likely cause of syncope. VVS was the more likely diagnosis in 26 younger patients (59.7 ± 12.6 years) with longstanding syncope from youth, in whom fear or pain was as a trigger; 7/26 suffered from intense chronic or intermittent neck pain and one exacerbation of syncopal attacks followed a physical and emotional trauma to the neck. In VVS, 4/26 had spontaneous VVS during head-up tilt, another six after venepuncture (performed in 17/26). In 6/26, the abnormal response to CSM was delayed, occurring 62.8 ± 28.4 s after completion of CSM. The response to CSM was predominantly of the mixed type (20/26) and abnormal on both sides in 14/26. Conclusions:, An abnormal response to CSM may not indicate syncope caused by CSH and needs to be considered in the light of the patient's age, duration of syncopal episodes and detailed history of provocative stimuli. Differentiating CSH from VVS with an abnormal response to CSM has various implications from advice on driving to treatment strategies. [source]

Unusual presentation of large B cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature

Summary Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the largest subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and is characterized by relatively frequent extranodal presentation. In these cases, the most common extranodal localizations are stomach, CNS, bone, testis and liver. Simultaneous detection of multiple extranodal involvement at presentation is quite uncommon, with the majority of these cases characterized by gastric or intestinal disease localization. Retrospective analysis concerning multifocal extranodal NHLs never pointed out disease features such as those described here. We report a patient with an unusual presentation of DLBCL, characterized by adrenal and renal involvement, associated with symptoms and signs of the cold agglutinin disease and a hypercoagulable state. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning disclosed a rapidly extensive spread to nodes and bones. Cytofluorimetric analysis of a renal specimen showed medium-to-large lympho-monocytoid elements positive for CD20 with monoclonal expression of immunoglobulin kappa light chain. Histopathological examination confirmed a renal CD20 positive DLBCL localization. [source]

The Oldest Old in the Last Year of Life: Population-Based Findings from Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study Participants Aged 85 and Older at Death

Jun Zhao MSc
OBJECTIVES: To characterize people of advanced old age in their last year of life and compare those dying in their late 80s with those dying aged 90 and older to inform policy and planning. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected population-based data from the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) Study, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 85 and older at death who died less than 1 year after taking part in any CC75C survey (N=321). MEASUREMENTS: Physical health, functional disability, self-rated health, cognitive status. RESULTS: Functional and cognitive impairments were markedly higher for those who died aged 90 and older, predominantly women,than for those who died aged 85 to 89. At least half (49.4,93.6%) of subjects aged 90 and older needed maximum assistance in virtually every daily activity; those aged 85 to 89 needed this only for shopping and laundry. Disability in basic and instrumental activities rose from 59.1% before to 85.4% after the age of 90 and cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score ,21) from 41.7% to 69.4%. Despite this and proximity to death, 60.5% and 67.0%, respectively, rated their health positively. Only one in five reported needing more help. CONCLUSION: This study provides new data identifying high levels of physical and cognitive disability in very old people in the year before death. As the very old population rises, so will support needs for people dying in extreme old age. The mismatch between health perceptions and functional limitations suggests that these vulnerable older adults may not seek help from which they could benefit. These findings have major policy and planning implications for end-of-life care for the oldest old. [source]

Pneumonia and Influenza Hospitalizations in Elderly People with Dementia

Elena N. Naumova PhD
OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographic and geographic patterns of pneumonia and influenza (P&I) hospitalizations in older adults with dementia with those of the U.S. population and to examine the relationship between healthcare accessibility and P&I. DESIGN: Observational study using historical medical claims from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and CMS records supplemented with information derived from other large national sources. SETTING: Retrospective analysis of medical records uniformly collected over a 5-year period with comprehensive national coverage. PARTICIPANTS: A study population representative of more than 95% of all people aged 65 and older residing in the continental United States. MEASUREMENTS: Six million two hundred seventy-seven thousand six hundred eighty-four records of P&I between 1998 and 2002 were abstracted, and county-specific outcomes for hospitalization rates of P&I, mean length of hospital stay, and percentage of deaths occurring in a hospital setting were estimated. Associations with county-specific elderly population density, percentage of nursing home residents, median household income per capita, and rurality index were assessed. RESULTS: Rural and poor counties had the highest rate of P&I and percentage of influenza. Patients with dementia had a lower frequency of influenza diagnosis, a shorter length of hospital stay, and 1.5 times as high a rate of death as the national average. CONCLUSION: The results suggest strong disparities in healthcare practices in rural locations and vulnerable populations; infrastructure, proximity, and access to healthcare are significant predictors of influenza morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for influenza vaccination, testing, and treatment policies and practices targeting the growing fraction of patients with cognitive impairment. [source]

Accuracy of Spirometry in Diagnosing Pulmonary Restriction in Elderly People

Simone Scarlata MD
OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of a diagnosis of pulmonary restriction made using forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) with the criterion standard diagnosis made using total lung capacity (TLC) less than the LLN in an elderly population. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: A teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred sixty-four ambulatory and acute care hospital patients aged 65 to 96 underwent complete pulmonary function evaluation. MEASUREMENTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of diagnosis of pulmonary restriction defined as FVC less than the LLN were calculated in the overall sample and after stratification according to bronchial obstruction. Expected PPV and NPV at different background prevalence of true pulmonary restriction (5% and 15%) were calculated using the Bayes theorem. RESULTS: Low sensitivity (0.32) and high specificity (0.95) were found, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89. In participants without bronchial obstruction, specificity was even higher, although sensitivity decreased to 0.28 (AUC=0.92). The PPV was good (0.81), whereas with a low to moderate a priori probability (prevalence from 5% to 15%) the NPV was fair (,0.89). CONCLUSION: A reduction in FVC below LLN cannot reliably identify true pulmonary restriction in elderly people, confirming previous findings in the adult population. Normal FVC, instead, can effectively exclude pulmonary restriction regardless of the presence of bronchial obstruction when the a priori probability is low or moderately high. [source]

Hospital Charges Attributable to a Primary Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Older Adults in the United States, 1998 to 2004

Aaron T. Curns MPH
OBJECTIVES: To describe total and average hospital charges associated with infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations and specific ID categories and to estimate ID hospitalization rates in adults aged 65 and older in the United States from 1998 through 2004. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of hospital discharge data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1998 through 2004. SETTING: United States. PATIENTS: Older adults hospitalized in the United States from 1998 through 2004. MEASUREMENTS: Hospital charges and hospitalization rates for IDs described according to year, age group, sex, U.S. Census region, and ID category. Charges for non-ID hospitalizations were also described. Hospital charges were adjusted for inflation. RESULTS: From 1998 through 2004, total charges for ID hospitalizations exceeded $261 billion and accounted for 13% of all hospital charges for older adults. Total charges for ID hospitalizations increased from $31.4 billion in 1998 to $45.7 billion in 2004. The average annual ID hospital charge was lower than the average annual non-ID hospital charge during the study period ($21,342 vs $22,787, P<.001). The average annual rate for ID hospitalizations was 503 per 10,000 older adults, which remained stable during the study period. CONCLUSION: The total charges for ID hospitalizations and for all hospitalizations in older adults in the United States increased 45% and nearly 40%, respectively, during the 7-year study period, whereas the population of older adults grew by only 5%. Sustained increases of such magnitude will have major implications for the U.S. healthcare system as it prepares for the more than doubling of the older U.S. adult population during the first 30 years of this century. [source]

Are Aggressive Treatment Strategies Less Cost-Effective for Older Patients?

Aggressive Care for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure, The Case of Ventilator Support
OBJECTIVES: A common assumption is that life-sustaining treatments are much less cost-effective for older patients than for younger patients. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing mechanical ventilation and intensive care for patients of various ages who had acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data on acute respiratory failure from Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT). SETTING: Acute hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 1,005 with acute respiratory failure; 963 received ventilator support and 42 had ventilator support withheld. MEASUREMENTS: We studied 1,005 patients enrolled in a five-center study of seriously ill patients (SUPPORT) with acute respiratory failure (pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome and an Acute Physiology Score ,10) requiring ventilator support. For cost-effectiveness analyses, we estimated life expectancy based on long-term follow-up of SUPPORT patients and estimated utilities (quality-of-life weights) using time-tradeoff questions. We used hospital fiscal data and Medicare data to estimate healthcare costs. We divided patients into three age groups (<65, 65,74, and ,75 years); for each age group, we performed separate analyses for patients with a ,50% probability of surviving at least 2 months (high-risk group) and those with a> 50% probability of surviving at least 2 months (low-risk group). RESULTS: Of the 963 patients who received ventilator support, 44% were female; 48% survived 6 months; and the median (25th, 75th percentile) age was 63 (46, 75) years. For the 42 patients for whom ventilator support was withheld, the median survival was 3 days. For low-risk patients (>50% estimated 2-month survival), the incremental cost (1998 dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved by providing ventilator support and aggressive care increased across the three age groups ($32,000 for patients age <65, $44,000 for those age 65,74, and $46,000 for those age ,75). For high-risk patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness was much less favorable and was least favorable for younger patients ($130,000 for patients age <65, $100,000 for those age 65,74, and $96,000 for those age ,75). When we varied our assumptions from 50% to 200% of our baseline estimates in sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to the costs of the index hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with relatively good short-term prognoses, we found that ventilator support and aggressive care were economically worthwhile, even for patients 75 years and older. For patients with poor short-term prognoses, ventilator support and aggressive care were much less cost-effective for adults of all ages. [source]