Retirement Communities (retirement + community)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Retirement Communities

  • care retirement community
  • continuing care retirement community

  • Selected Abstracts

    Efficacy and Feasibility of a Novel Tri-Modal Robust Exercise Prescription in a Retirement Community: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Michael K. Baker BAppSc
    OBJECTIVES: To test the feasibility and efficacy of current guidelines for multimodal exercise programs in older adults. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Retirement village. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight subjects (14 men and 24 women) aged 76.6 6.1. INTERVENTION: A wait list control or 10 weeks of supervised exercise consisting of high-intensity (80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)) progressive resistance training (PRT) 3 days per week, moderate-intensity (rating of perceived exertion 11 to 14/20) aerobic training 2 days per week, and progressive balance training 1 day per week. MEASUREMENTS: Blinded assessments of dynamic muscle strength (1RM), balance, 6-minute walk, gait velocity, chair stand, stair climb, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and habitual physical activity level. RESULTS: Higher baseline strength and psychological well-being were associated with better functional performance. Strength gains over 10 weeks averaged 3931% in exercise, versus 2124% in controls (P=.10), with greater improvements in hip flexion (P=.01), hip abduction (P=.02), and chest press (P=.04) in the exercise group. Strength adaptations were greatest in exercises in which the intended continuous progressive overload was achieved. Stair climb power (12.315%, P=.002) and chair stand time (,7.115%, P=.006) improved significantly and similarly in both groups. Reduction in depressive symptoms was significantly related to compliance (attendance rate r=,0.568, P=.009, PRT progression in loading r=,0.587, P=.02, and total volume of aerobic training r=,0.541, P=.01), as well as improvements in muscle strength (r=,0.498, P=.002). CONCLUSION: Robust physical and psychological adaptations to exercise are linked, although volumes and intensities of multiple exercise modalities sufficient to cause significant adaptation appear difficult to prescribe and adhere to simultaneously in older adults. [source]

    The Effects of Pain and Depression on Physical Functioning in Elderly Residents of a Continuing Care Retirement Community

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 4 2000
    Jana M. Mossey PhD
    Objective., Explore the relationships between pain, depression, and functional disability in elderly persons. Design.,A cross-sectional, observational study of 228 independently living retirement community residents. Methods., Self-report measures of pain (adaptation of McGill Pain Questionnaire), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and physical functioning (Physical performance difficulties, activities of daily living [ADL], independent activities of daily living [IADL], and 3-meter walking speed) were employed. Outcome Measures.,Physical functioning variables were dichotomized. Individuals in the lowest quartiles of functional performance and of walking speed were contrasted to all others; for ADL and IADL, those needing some help were compared with those independent in activities. Results., Pain and depression levels were strongly related to physical performance; depression levels were related to ADL and walking speed. In multivariate analyses, an interaction effect was observed where the effects of pain were a function of level of depression. Individuals reporting activity-limiting pain and slightly elevated depressive symptom levels, sub-threshold depression, or major depression were significantly more likely (AOR 7.8; 95% CI, 3.07,20.03) than non-depressed persons to be in the lowest quartile of self-reported physical performance. Conclusions., While both pain and depression level affect physical performance, depressive symptoms rather than pain appear the more influential factor. When seeing elderly patients, identifying, evaluating, and treating both pain complaints and depressive symptoms and disorders may reduce functional impairment. [source]

    Change in Motor Function and Risk of Mortality in Older Persons

    Aron S. Buchman MD
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between change in motor function and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Approximately 40 retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred thirty-seven community-based older persons without dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Change in composite measures of motor performance and muscle strength. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 2.2 years, 81 persons died. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, education, and body mass index, each 1-unit increase in the level of baseline motor performance was associated with an approximately 10% decrease in risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.901, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.863,0.941), and each unit of annual increase in motor performance was associated with an approximately 11% decrease in the risk of mortality (HR=0.887, 95% CI=0.835,0.942). In a similar model, each 1-unit increase in the level of baseline strength was associated with an approximately 9% decrease in the risk of mortality (HR=0.906, 95% CI=0.859,0.957), and each 1-unit annual increase in strength was associated with an approximately 10% decrease in the risk of mortality (HR=0.898, 95% CI=0.809,0.996). These results were similar when men and women were analyzed separately and after controlling for physical activity, cognition, and chronic disorders. When motor performance and muscle strength were examined in a single model, only baseline and annual change in motor performance were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Level and rate of change in strength and motor performance are associated with mortality. The attenuation of the association between strength and mortality by motor performance suggests that motor function is not a unitary process and that its components may vary in their associations with adverse health consequences in older persons. [source]

    Psychometric Properties of Commonly Used Low Back Disability Questionnaires: Are They Useful for Older Adults with Low Back Pain?

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    Gregory E. Hicks PT
    ABSTRACT Objectives., To evaluate the psychometric properties of two commonly used low back pain (LBP) disability questionnaires in a sample solely comprising community-dwelling older adults. Design., Single-group repeated measures design. Setting., Four continuing care retirement communities in Maryland and in Virginia. Participants., Convenience sample of 107 community-dwelling men and women (71.9%) aged 62 years or older with current LBP. Outcome Measures., All participants completed modified Oswestry Disability (mOSW) and Quebec Back Pain Disability (QUE) questionnaires, as well as the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 questionnaire at baseline. At follow-up, 56 participants completed the mOSW and the QUE for reliability assessment. Results., Test,retest reliability of the mOSW and QUE were excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.97), respectively. Participants with high pain severity and high levels of functional limitation had higher scores on the mOSW (P < 0.0001) and QUE (P < 0.001) scales than other participants, which represents good construct validity for both scales. The threshold for minimum detectable change is 10.66 points for the mOSW and 11.04 points for the QUE. Both questionnaires had sufficient scale width to accurately measure changes in patient status. Conclusions., It appears that both questionnaires have excellent test,retest reliability and good construct validity when used to evaluate LBP-related disability for older adults with varying degrees of LBP. Neither questionnaire appears to have superior psychometric properties; therefore, both the Oswestry and Quebec can be recommended for use among geriatric patients with LBP. [source]

    Generational consciousness and retirement communities

    Kevin E. McHugh
    Abstract Time and collective historical experience loom large in the formation of generations. I argue that spatial proximity cements generational consciousness among seniors in Arizona retirement communities who identify themselves as members of the Second World War generation. The argument twins Karl Mannheim's social-historical conception of generations and Hannah Arendt's political philosophy which underscores the space of appearance in the public realm in identity formation. It is through congregating, interacting and conversing on a daily basis that seniors in retirement enclaves affirm and reaffirm who they are, both to themselves and outsiders. I draw upon a suite of Arizona case studies, 1988,2000, in revealing ,voices' for a slice of the Second World War generation. Discussions revolving around family, community and national life reveal beliefs and values coalescing around four themes: (1) splendid isolation; (2) dissolution of values; (3) absence of children; and (4) fraying the social compact. The space of appearance within retirement enclaves engenders a strong sense of collective identity and belonging in ageing and, simultaneously, leads to questions about implications and consequences of intergenerational separation. I conclude with a poignant multigenerational experience as suggestive of the potency of intergenerational contact and exchange. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Path analysis of efficacy expectations and exercise behaviour in older adults

    Barbara Resnick PhD CRNP
    Path analysis of efficacy expectations and exercise behaviour in older adults The benefits of regular exercise for older adults are well documented and include improvements in physical, functional, as well as psychological, health. The purpose of this descriptive study was to test a theoretically and empirically based model describing the factors that influence exercise behaviour of older adults in the United States of America. The hypothesized model suggested that age, gender, and mental and physical health have an effect on self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and that all these variables influence exercise behaviour. Exercise behaviour was hypothesized to have a reciprocal relationship with self-efficacy expectations and mental and physical health. The convenience sample was 187 older adults living in a continuing care retirement community (CCRC) in Baltimore, Maryland. A one-time health interview was conducted which included a measure of self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, a measure of health status (SF-12), and gathering of information from participants about their actual exercise behaviour. Of the 187, 71 (38%) reported participating in 20 minutes of continuous aerobic exercise at least three times per week over the previous 3 months. Six hypothesized paths were significant. The model fitted the data and accounted for 32% of the variance in exercise behaviour. Interventions that focus on strengthening self-efficacy and outcome expectations can improve exercise behaviour in older adults. [source]

    Home Again: Environmental Predictors of Place Attachment and Self-esteem for New Retirement Community Residents

    Paul E. Eshelman M.F.A.
    ABSTRACT This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of interior features functional and personal meaning,as predictors of place attachment and self-esteem for ninety-two new retirement community residents housed in independent living apartments or cottages of a recently opened continuing care retirement community (CCRC). Residents were interviewed and facilities observed as part of a multi-disciplinary, collaborative study. Stepwise regression determined which subsets of function and meaning variables respectively operated as the most important, independent predictors for place attachment and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression equations then examined the relationship between function and meaning variables in predicting place attachment and self-esteem, asking: exceeding the effects of function, does meaning add to a feeling of place attachment and self-esteem? For both place attachment and self-esteem, significantly more variance is accounted for when meaning variables are added to function variables. Once functional needs are met, both place attachment and self-esteem are elevated by interior features that have personal meaning. These findings expand the concept of hominess widely used in the design of residential caregiving settings. [source]

    Promoting Health in Older Adults: A Four-Year Analysis

    Barbara Resnick PhD, FAANP
    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of selected health promotion and disease prevention interventions in elderly residents of a continuing care retirement community (CCRC) over a four-year period by comparing actual health promotion practices of the residents. DATA SOURCES Original research using a descriptive design, face-to-face interviews of residents (N=176-200), chart reviews, and administration of a minimental state exam (MMSE) and health survey administered annually. CONCLUSIONS In each year the mean age of the residents was at least 85, the majority were female, Caucasian, and unmarried. With the exception of checking stools for occult blood, there was a statistically significant change in all health promotion behaviors over the four-year period. The most significant change was in the area of exercise behavior, which increased from 24% of the residents participating in regular exercise in year one to 61% by year four. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE The purpose of health promotion and disease prevention in older adults is to reduce the potential years of life lost in premature mortality and ensure better quality of remaining life. In addition to regularly scheduled interventions (group education, on-site administration of pneumonia and flu vaccines, on-site exercise room and walking group), individualized counseling regarding the pros and cons of health-promotion activities was provided to help residents make an educated decision about engaging in these activities. These interventions can be used to help facilitate participation in health promotion activities as appropriate and desired for each older adult. [source]

    Testing a model of exercise behavior in older adults

    Barbara Resnick
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to test a model of exercise behavior in older adults. It was hypothesized that (a) mental and physical health directly influence self-efficacy expectations; (b) mental and physical health, age, and self-efficacy expectations influence outcome expectations; and (c) all these variables directly and/or indirectly influence exercise behavior. The sample was composed of 175 older adults living in a continuing-care retirement community, each of whom was interviewed once. Seven of the 10 hypothesized paths were significant. Physical health, self-efficacy expectations, and outcome expectations directly influenced exercise behavior, and age and mental health indirectly influenced exercise through self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations. Combined these variables accounted for 30% of the variance in exercise behavior. To improve exercise behavior in older adults, health care providers should focus on developing interventions to strengthen self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Res Nurs Health 24: 83,92, 2001 [source]