Retinoid X Receptor (retinoid + x_receptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


The First Potent Subtype-Selective Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) Agonist Possessing a 3-Isopropoxy-4-isopropylphenylamino Moiety, NEt-3IP (RXR,/,-dual agonist)

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 5 2008
Kayo Takamatsu
Abstract Retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists (rexinoids) are attracting much attention for their use in treatment of cancers, including tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer and taxol-resistant lung cancer, and metabolic disease. However, known RXR agonists have a highly lipophilic character. In addition, no subtype-selective RXR agonists have been found. We previously reported an RXR,-preferential agonist 4-[N -methanesulfonyl- N -(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)amino]benzoic acid (6,a). The RXR agonistic activity is much less than that of well-known RXR agonists. To develop potent, less-lipophilic, and subtype-selective RXR agonists, we created new RXR agonists possessing alkoxy and isopropyl groups as a lipophilic domain of the common structure of well-known RXR agonists. As a result, compounds possessing branched alkoxy groups, 6-[N -ethyl- N -(3-isopropoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)amino]nicotinic acid (NEt-3IP: 7,a) and 6-[N -ethyl- N -(3-isobutoxy-4-isopropylphenyl)amino]nicotinic acid (NEt-3IB: 7,c), showed RXR agonistic activity as potent as, or more potent than, the activities of representative RXR agonists. Moreover, NEt-3IP (7,a) was found to be the first RXR,/,-selective (or RXR,/,-dual) agonist. Being potent, less lipophilic, and having RXR subtype-selective activity, NEt-3IP (7,a) is expected to become a new drug candidate and to be a useful biological tool for clarifying each RXR subtype function. [source]


Properties of ecdysteroid receptors from diverse insect species in a heterologous cell culture system , a basis for screening novel insecticidal candidates

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009
Joshua M. Beatty
Insect development is driven by the action of ecdysteroids on morphogenetic processes. The classic ecdysteroid receptor is a protein heterodimer composed of two nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and Ultraspiracle (USP), the insect ortholog of retinoid X receptor. The functional properties of EcR and USP vary among insect species, and provide a basis for identifying novel and species-specific insecticidal candidates that disrupt this receptor's normal activity. A heterologous mammalian cell culture assay was used to assess the transcriptional activity of the heterodimeric ecdysteroid receptor from species representing two major insect orders: the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera). Several nonsteroidal agonists evoked a strong response with the L. decemlineata heterodimer that was consistent with biochemical and in vivo evidence, whereas the D. melanogaster receptor's response was comparatively modest. Conversely, the phytoecdysteroid muristerone A was more potent with the D. melanogaster heterodimer. The additional presence of juvenile hormone III potentiated the inductive activity of muristerone A in the receptors from both species, but juvenile hormone III was unable to potentiate the inductive activity of the diacylhydrazine methoxyfenozide (RH2485) in the receptor of either species. The effects of USP on ecdysteroid-regulated transcriptional activity also varied between the two species. When it was tested with D. melanogaster EcR isoforms, basal activity was lower and ligand-dependent activity was higher with L. decemlineata USP than with D. melanogaster USP. Generally, the species-based differences validate the use of the cell culture assay screen for novel agonists and potentiators as species-targeted insecticidal candidates. [source]


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ,,retinoid X receptor agonists induce beta-cell protection against palmitate toxicity

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 23 2007
Karine Hellemans
Fatty acids can stimulate the secretory activity of insulin-producing beta-cells. At elevated concentrations, they can also be toxic to isolated beta-cells. This toxicity varies inversely with the cellular ability to accumulate neutral lipids in the cytoplasm. To further examine whether cytoprotection can be achieved by decreasing cytoplasmic levels of free acyl moieties, we investigated whether palmitate toxicity is also lowered by stimulating its ,-oxidation. Lower rates of palmitate-induced beta-cell death were measured in the presence of l -carnitine as well as after addition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,) agonists, conditions leading to increased palmitate oxidation. In contrast, inhibition of mitochondrial ,-oxidation by etomoxir increased palmitate toxicity. A combination of PPAR, and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists acted synergistically and led to complete protection; this was associated with enhanced expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal ,-oxidation, lipid metabolism, and peroxisome proliferation. PPAR,,RXR protection was abolished by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir. These observations indicate that PPAR, and RXR regulate beta-cell susceptibility to long-chain fatty acid toxicity by increasing the rates of ,-oxidation and by involving peroxisomes in fatty acid metabolism. [source]


Molecular cloning of the ecdysone receptor and the retinoid X receptor from the scorpion Liocheles australasiae

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 23 2007
Yoshiaki Nakagawa
cDNAs of the ecdysone receptor and the retinoid X receptor were cloned from the Japanese scorpion Liocheles australasiae, and the amino acid sequences were deduced. The full-length cDNA sequences of the L. australasiae ecdysone receptor and the L. australasiae retinoid X receptor were 2881 and 1977 bp in length, respectively, and the open reading frames encoded proteins of 560 and 414 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the L. australasiae ecdysone receptor was similar to that of the ecdysone receptor-A of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata (68%) and to that of the ecdysone receptor-A1 of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (66%), but showed lower similarity to the ecdysone receptors of Orthoptera and Coleoptera (53,57%). The primary sequence of the ligand-binding region of the L. australasiae ecdysone receptor was highly homologous to that of ticks (85,86%). The amino acid sequence of the L. australasiae retinoid X receptor was also homologous to the amino acid sequence of ultraspiracles of ticks (63%) and insects belonging to the orders Orthoptera and Coleoptera (60,64%). The identity of both the L. australasiae ecdysone receptor and the L. australasiae retinoid X receptor to their lepidopteran and dipteran orthologs was less than 50%. The cDNAs of both the L. australasiae ecdysone receptor (L. australasiae ecdysone receptor-A) and the L. australasiae retinoid X receptor were successfully translated in vitro using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. An ecdysone analog, ponasterone A, bound to L. australasiae ecdysone receptor-A (KD = 4.2 nm), but not to L. australasiae retinoid X receptor. The L. australasiae retinoid X receptor did not enhance the binding of ponasterone A to L. australasiae ecdysone receptor-A, although L. australasiae retinoid X receptor was necessary for the binding of L. australasiae ecdysone receptor-A to ecdysone response elements. [source]


Vitamin D Receptor: Key Roles in Bone Mineral Pathophysiology, Molecular Mechanism of Action, and Novel Nutritional Ligands,

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue S2 2007
Peter W Jurutka
Abstract The vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], binds with high affinity to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recruits its retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimeric partner to recognize vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in target genes. 1,25(OH)2D3 is known primarily as a regulator of calcium, but it also controls phosphate (re)absorption at the intestine and kidney. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone produced in osteoblasts that, like PTH, lowers serum phosphate by inhibiting renal reabsorption through Npt2a/Npt2c. Real-time PCR and reporter gene transfection assays were used to probe VDR-mediated transcriptional control by 1,25(OH)2D3. Reporter gene and mammalian two-hybrid transfections, plus competitive receptor binding assays, were used to discover novel VDR ligands. 1,25(OH)2D3 induces FGF23 78-fold in osteoblasts, and because FGF23 in turn represses 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis, a reciprocal relationship is established, with FGF23 indirectly curtailing 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated intestinal absorption and counterbalancing renal reabsorption of phosphate, thereby reversing hyperphosphatemia and preventing ectopic calcification. Therefore, a 1,25(OH)2D3,FGF23 axis regulating phosphate is comparable in importance to the 1,25(OH)2D3,PTH axis that regulates calcium. 1,25(OH)2D3 also elicits regulation of LRP5, Runx2, PHEX, TRPV6, and Npt2c, all anabolic toward bone, and RANKL, which is catabolic. Regulation of mouse RANKL by 1,25(OH)2D3 supports a cloverleaf model, whereby VDR-RXR heterodimers bound to multiple VDREs are juxtapositioned through chromatin looping to form a supercomplex, potentially allowing simultaneous interactions with multiple co-modulators and chromatin remodeling enzymes. VDR also selectively binds certain ,3/,6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with low affinity, leading to transcriptionally active VDR-RXR complexes. Moreover, the turmeric-derived polyphenol, curcumin, activates transcription of a VDRE reporter construct in human colon cancer cells. Activation of VDR by PUFAs and curcumin may elicit unique, 1,25(OH)2D3 -independent signaling pathways to orchestrate the bioeffects of these lipids in intestine, bone, skin/hair follicle, and other VDR-containing tissues. [source]


Constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway impairs vitamin D signaling in human prostate epithelial cells

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Zhentao Zhang
We studied the effect of prolonged activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) action in the immortalized human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE1 and its Ki-Ras transformed clone RWPE2. 1,25(OH)2D3 -treatment caused growth arrest and induced gene expression in both cell lines but the response was blunted in RWPE2 cells. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels were lower in RWPE2 cells but VDR over-expression did not increase vitamin-D-mediated gene transcription in either cell line. In contrast, MAPK inhibition restored normal vitamin D transcriptional responses in RWPE2 cells and MAPK activation with constitutively active MEK1R4F reduced vitamin-D-regulated transcription in RWPE1 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transcription depends upon the VDR and its heterodimeric partner the retinoid X receptor (RXR) so we studied whether changes in the VDR,RXR transcription complex occur in response to MAPK activation. Mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the activation function 1 (AF-1) domain (S32A, T82A) of RXR, restored 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transactivation in RWPE2 cells. Mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a vitamin-D-independent interaction between steroid receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1) and RXR, that was reduced by MAPK activation and was restored in RWPE2 cells by mutating S32 and T82 in the RXR, AF-1 domain. Our data show that a common contributor to cancer development, prolonged activation of MAPK signaling, impairs 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transcription in prostate epithelial cells. This is due in part to the phosphorylation of critical amino acids in the RXR, AF-1 domain and impaired co-activator recruitment. J. Cell. Physiol. 224: 433,442, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells

LIVER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2009
Jiayi Huang
Abstract Background: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) can be isolated from fetal liver and extrahepatic tissues. Retinoic acid (RA) signalling plays an important role in development, although the role of RA signalling in liver-specific progenitors is poorly understood. Aims: We sought to determine the role of RA in regulating hepatic differentiation. Methods: RNA was isolated from liver tissues of various developmental stages. Liver marker expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Reversibly immortalized HPCs derived from mouse embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) liver (aka, HP14.5) were established. Albumin promoter-driven reporter (Alb-GLuc) was used to monitor hepatic differentiation. Glycogen synthesis was assayed as a marker for terminal hepatic differentiation. Results: Retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-,, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-, and RXR-, expressed in E12.5 to postnatal day 28 liver samples. Expression of RAR-, and RXR-, was low perinatally, whereas RAR-, was undetectable in prenatal tissues and increased postnatally. Retinal dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (Raldh1 and Raldh2) were expressed in all tissues, while Raldh3 was weakly expressed in prenatal samples but was readily detected postnatally. Nuclear receptor corepressors were highly expressed in all tissues, while expression of nuclear co-activators decreased in perinatal tissues and increased after birth. HP14.5 cells expressed high levels of early liver stem cell markers. Expression of RA signalling components and coregulators was readily detected in HP14.5. RA was shown to induce Alb-GLuc activity and late hepatocyte markers. RA was further shown to induce glycogen synthesis in HP14.5 cells, an important function of mature hepatocytes. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that RA signalling may play an important role in regulating hepatic differentiation. [source]


Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in breast cancer cell growth

MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 1 2002
Lynette J. Schedlich
Abstract The mitogenic effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are regulated by a family of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). One member of this family, IGFBP-3, mediates the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of a number of growth factors and hormones such as transforming growth factor-,, retinoic acid, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. IGFBP-3 may act in an IGF-dependent manner by attenuating the interaction of pericellular IGFs with the type-I IGF receptor. It may also act in an IGF-independent manner by initiating intracellular signaling from a cell surface receptor, or by direct nuclear action, or both. The possibility of a membrane-bound receptor is strengthened by recent studies which have identified members of the transforming growth factor-, receptor family as having a role, either directly or indirectly, in signaling from the cell surface by IGFBP-3. A number of growth factors and hormones stimulate the expression and secretion of cellular IGFBP-3, which then signals from the cell surface to bring about some of the effects attributed to the primary agents. Within the cell, the apoptosis-inducing tumor suppressor, p53, can also induce IGFBP-3 expression and secretion. Since IGFBP-3 upregulates the cell cycle inhibitor, p21Waf1, and increases the ratio of proapoptotic to antiapoptotic members of the Bcl family, it appears to exert the same effects on major downstream targets of cell signaling as p53 does. The nuclear localization of IGFBP-3 has been described in a number of cell types. IGFBP-3 may act to import IGFs or other nuclear localization signal-deficient signaling molecules into the nucleus. It may also act directly in the nucleus by enhancing the activity of retinoid X receptor-, and thereby promote apoptosis. All of the above phenomena will be discussed with particular emphasis on the growth of breast cancer cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 59:12,22, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes on Chromosome 1q21,24

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2008
S. J. Hasstedt
Summary Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked to chromosome 1q21,24 in multiple samples, including a Utah family sample. Variants in 13 of the numerous candidate genes in the 1q region were tested for association with T2D in a Utah case-control sample. The most promising, 19 variants in 6 candidates, were genotyped on the Utah family sample. Herein, we tested the 19 variants individually and in pairs for an effect on T2D risk in family members using a logistic regression model that accounted for gender, age, and BMI and attributed residual genetic effects to a polygenic component. Seven variants increased risk significantly through 5 pairs of interactions. The significant variant pairs were apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) rs6413453 interacting with calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) rs617698, dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12) rs1503814, and retinoid X receptor , (RXRG) rs10918169, a poly-T insertion-deletion polymorphism in liver pyruvate kinase (PKLR) interacting with APOA2 rs12143180, and DUSP12 rs1027702 interacting with RXRG rs10918169. Genotypes of these 5 variant pairs accounted for 25.8% of the genetic variance in T2D in these pedigrees. [source]


A multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of the effect of bexarotene on the epidermis of the psoriatic lesion

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
M.E.J. Franssen
Summary Background A new retinoid, bexarotene (Targretin®), was recently investigated in a large multicentre trial for its efficacy and safety in psoriasis. Bexarotene is a novel retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligand. Objectives The aim was to study the effect of bexarotene in psoriasis by analysing markers for epidermal differentiation, proliferation and inflammation in epidermal single cell suspensions from lesions of patients with psoriasis treated with various doses of bexarotene. Methods Thirty-four patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis participated in this study and were assigned in sequence to four different dose regimens: 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 mg kg,1 once daily. Before and after 12 weeks of bexarotene treatment, punch biopsies were taken from lesional skin from which epidermal single cell suspensions were prepared using an optimized thermolysin protocol. A sum of scores was determined for each biopsy site, based on a four-point scale for erythema, induration and desquamation. An improved multiparameter flow cytometric assay was used that enabled simultaneous assessment of epidermal proliferation, various aspects of differentiation and epidermal inflammation. The following variables were measured simultaneously: relative DNA content, relative cell size, keratin (K) 10, K6 and vimentin expression. Results The psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and sum of scores for the individual psoriatic lesion each showed a statistically significant decrease of 28% after 12 weeks of bexarotene treatment (P < 0·001). However, no significant dose,response effect was found. The total percentage of K10+ cells showed a significant increase of 43% (P < 0·01). The total population of K6 expressing cells did not show significant changes. Regarding the subpopulations of K6 single, K10 single and K6 and 10 co-expressing cells, a significant increase of 77% was seen in the K10+ K6, cells (P < 0·05), a significant decrease of 33% in K10, K6+ cells (P < 0·01), and no significant changes in the remaining population of K10+ K6+ cells. After 12 weeks of treatment with bexarotene no significant changes in epidermal proliferation and inflammation were shown. Conclusions The present study indicates a direct effect of RXR activation by bexarotene on the transition of proliferation-associated keratinization into normal keratinization. Although no direct effect of bexarotene on DNA content in the total K10, cells was shown, further studies on subpopulations within the germinative layer such as stem cells and transit amplifying cells might be worthwhile. [source]


Strategy and mechanism for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Phosphorylated retinoid X receptor , is a critical target for hepatocellular carcinoma chemoprevention

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
Masahito Shimizu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health care problem worldwide. The prognosis of patients with HCC is poor because even in the early stages when surgical treatment might be expected to be curative, the incidence of recurrence in patients with underlying cirrhosis is very high due to multicentric carcinogenesis. Therefore, strategies to prevent recurrence and second primary HCC are required to improve the prognosis. One of the most practical approaches to prevent the multicentric development of HCC is ,clonal deletion' therapy, which is defined as the removal of latent (i.e. invisible) (pre)malignant clones from the liver in a hypercarcinogenic state. Retinoids, a group of structural and functional analogs of vitamin A, exert their biological function primarily through two distinct nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors (RXR), and abnormalities in the expression and function of these receptors are highly associated with the development of various cancers, including HCC. In particular, a malfunction of RXR, due to phosphorylation by the Ras,mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is profoundly associated with the development of HCC and thus may be a critical target for HCC chemoprevention. Acyclic retinoid, which has been clinically shown to reduce the incidence of a post-therapeutic recurrence of HCC, can inhibit Ras activity and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and RXR, proteins. In conclusion, the inhibition of RXR, phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function as a master regulator for nuclear receptors may be a potentially effective strategy for HCC chemoprevention and clonal deletion. Acyclic retinoid, which targets phosphorylated RXR,, may thus play a critical role in preventing the development of multicentric HCC. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 369,374) [source]


Effects of retinoids and thiazolidinediones on proliferation, insulin release, insulin mRNA, GLUT 2 transporter protein and mRNA of INS-1 cells

CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, Issue 3 2001
J. Blumentrath
Abstract Both 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol). There exists an interaction between retinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR,). To define their functions in an insulin secreting system the effects of ATRA, 9cRA and the PPAR, agonist rosiglitazone on cell proliferation, insulin release and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 of INS-1 cells were tested. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR-, and -,) and retinoid X receptor (RXR-, and -,) proteins are present (immunoblots). Both 9cRA and ATRA inhibit INS-1 cell proliferation ([3H]-thymidine assay) in a concentration dependent manner. Both 9cRA and ATRA increased insulin release, but only ATRA ralsed the GLUT 2 mRNA in a bell-shaped concentration response curve after 48,h. The insulinotropic effect of one compound is not significantly superimposed by the other indicating that the same binding sites are used by 9cRA and ATRA. The acute and chronic effects of the PPAR, agonist rosiglitazone on insulin release were additionally determined since glitazones act as transcription factors together with RXR agonists. At high concentrations (100,,m) rosiglitazone inhibited glucose (8.3,mm) stimulated insulin secretion (acute experiment over 60,min). Insulin secretion, however, was increased during a 24,h treatment at a concentration of 10,,m and again inhibited at 100,,m. Changes in preproinsulin mRNA expression were not observed. Rosiglitazone (100,,m) increased GLUT 2 mRNA paralleled by an increase of GLUT 2 protein, but only after 24,h of treatment. This data indicate that RAR and RXR mediate insulin release. The changes in GLUT 2 have no direct impact on insulin release; the inhibition seen at high concentrations of either compound is possibly the result of the observed inhibition of cell proliferation. Effects of rosiglitazone on preproinsulin mRNA and GLUT 2 (mRNA and protein) do not play a role in modulating insulin secretion. With the presence of an RXR receptor agonist the effect of rosiglitazone on insulin release becomes stimulatory. Thus the effects of RAR-, RXR agonists and rosiglitazone depend on their concentrations, the duration of their presence and are due to specific interactions. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Pyrazine Arotinoids with Inverse Agonist Activities on the Retinoid and Rexinoid Receptors

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 7 2009
José García
Abstract RAR and RXR agonists: A collection of pyrazine-based RAR/RXR ligands were prepared by a series of palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and characterized. Structure,activity relationships were elucidated. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ,/,-subtype-selective and retinoid X receptor (RXR) inverse agonist activities are described for pyrazine acrylic acid arotinoid, 14,d. Heterocyclic arotinoids derived from central-region dihalogenated pyrazine scaffolds have been synthesized by consecutive halogen and/or position-selective palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Pyrazines were further functionalized as alkyl ethers or methylamines prior to the last Pd-catalyzed reactions. Transient transactivation studies with the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ,, ,, and , subtypes and with retinoid X receptor (RXR) , revealed distinct agonist, antagonist, and inverse agonist activities for these compounds. Of interest are the RAR,,,-selective inverse agonists with pyrazine acrylic acid structures, in particular 14,c, which is RAR,-selective, and 14,d, a pan-RAR/RXR inverse agonist with more affinity for the RAR subtypes that enhance the interaction of RAR with cognate corepressors. [source]


Pre-activation of retinoid signaling facilitates neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 5 2010
Yang Bi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neurons in an appropriate cellular environment. Retinoid signaling pathway is required in neural development. However, the effect and mechanism through retinoid signaling regulates neuronal differentiation of MSCs are still poorly understood. Here, we report that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) pre-induction improved neuronal differentiation of rat MSCs. We found that, when MSCs were exposed to different concentrations of ATRA (0.01,100 ,mol/L) for 24 h and then cultured with modified neuronal induction medium (MNM), 1 ,mol/L ATRA pre-induction significantly improved neuronal differentiation efficiency and neural-cell survival. Compared with MNM alone induced neural-like cells, ATRA/MNM induced cells expressed higher levels of Nestin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), but lower levels of CD68, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF), also exhibited higher resting membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration, supporting that ATRA pre-induction promotes maturation and function of derived neurons but not neuroglia cells from MSCs. Endogenous retinoid X receptors (RXR) RXR, and RXR, (and to a lesser extent, RXR,) were weakly expressed in MSCs. But the expression of RAR, and RAR, was readily detectable, whereas RAR, was undetectable. However, at 24 h after ATRA treatment, the expression of RAR,, not RAR, or RAR,, increased significantly. We further found the subnuclear redistribution of RAR, in differentiated neurons, suggesting that RAR, may function as a major mediator of retinoid signaling during neuronal differentiation from MSCs. ATRA treatment upregulated the expression of Vimentin and Stra13, while it downregulated the expression of Brachyury in MSCs. Thus, our results demonstrate that pre-activation of retinoid signaling by ATRA facilitates neuronal differentiation of MSCs. [source]


Functional retinoid receptors in budding ascidians

DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 1 2000
Mika Kamimura
A homolog of retinoid X receptors (RXR), named PmRXR, was cloned from the budding ascidian, Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. Gel-shift assays revealed that PmRXR and a previously identified P. misakiensis retinoic acid receptor (PmRAR) formed a complex to bind vertebrate-type retinoic acid response element (RARE). Transfection assays were carried out using a reporter gene containing a RARE upstream of lacZ. Two chimeric effector genes were constructed by placing PmRXR and PmRAR cDNA fragments (containing the DNA-binding, ligand-binding and ligand-dependent transactivation domains) downstream of the human RXR, and RAR, cDNA (covering the N-terminal coding region), respectively. Each chimeric cDNA was ligated to a notochord-specific enhancer. In case the embryos were transfected with all three transgenes and treated with retinoic acid (RA), the reporter gene was activated in the notochord cells. The result suggests that the PmRXR/PmRAR complex functions as an RA-dependent transcriptional activator. The PmRXR mRNA was detected in a mesenchymal cell type, called glomerulocyte, in the developing Polyandrocarpa bud. As this cell type has been shown to express PmRAR mRNA, it seems possible that the PmRXR/PmRAR complex mediates RA signaling in this cell type to induce the expression of genes involved in the morphogenesis of the developing bud. [source]


Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
Kirsten Schrage
Abstract The physiological reactions after spinal cord injury are accompanied by local synthesis of the transcriptional activator retinoic acid (RA). RA exerts its effects by binding to retinoic acid receptors (RAR) which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXR) and then act as ligand-activated transcription factors. To identify possible cellular targets of RA we investigated protein levels and cellular distribution of retinoid receptors in the rat spinal cord at 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after a contusion injury. In the nonlesioned spinal cord, immunoreactivity for RAR,, RXR,, RXR, and RXR, was localized in the cytosol of neurons, that of RXR, and RXR, in astrocytes and that of RAR,, RXR, and RXR, in some oligodendrocytes. After contusion injury RAR, and all RXRs appeared in the cell nuclei of reactive microglia and macrophages. This nuclear staining began at 4 days, was most prominent at 7 and 14 days and had decreased at 21 days after injury. A similar nuclear translocation was also observed for the RAR,, RXR, and RXR, staining in neurons situated around the border of the contusion. These observations suggest that RA participates as a signal for the physiological responses of microglia and neurons after CNS injury. [source]


Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity is induced by phytanic acid

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2000
Anna W. M. Zomer
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid present in various dietary products such as milk, cheese and fish. In patients with Refsum disease, accumulation of phytanic acid occurs due to a deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, a peroxisomal enzyme containing a peroxisomal targeting signal 2. Recently, phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase cDNA has been isolated and functional mutations have been identified. As it has been shown that phytanic acid activates the nuclear hormone receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and all three retinoid X receptors (RXRs), the intracellular concentration of this fatty acid should be tightly regulated. When various cell lines were grown in the presence of phytanic acid, the activity of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase increased up to four times, depending on the particular cell type. In one cell line, HepG2, no induction of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity was observed. After addition of phytanic acid to COS-1 cells, an increase in phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity was observed within 2 h, indicating a quick cell response. No stimulation of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase was observed when COS-1 cells were grown in the presence of clofibric acid, 9- cis -retinoic acid or both ligands together. This indicates that the activation of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase is not regulated via PPAR, or RXR. However, stimulation of PPAR, and all RXRs by clofibric acid and 9- cis -retinoic acid was observed in transient transfection assays. These results suggest that the induction of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase by phytanic acid does not proceed via one of the nuclear hormone receptors, RXR or PPAR,. [source]


Differential modulation of rat hepatic stellate phenotype by natural and synthetic retinoids

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
Karine Hellemans
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is a central event in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis during chronic liver injury. We examined the expression of retinoic acid (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) during HSC activation and evaluated the influence of natural and synthetic retinoic acids (RA) on the phenotype of culture-activated HSC. The expression of the major RAR/RXR subtypes and isoforms was analyzed by Northern hybridization. Presence of functional receptor proteins was established by gel shift analysis. Retinoic acids, RAR, and RXR selective agonists and an RAR antagonist were used to evaluate the effects of retinoid signalling on matrix synthesis by Northern blotting and immunoprecipitation, and on cell proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The 9- cisRA and synthetic RXR agonists reduced HSC proliferation and synthesis of collagen I and fibronectin. All- trans RA and RAR agonists both reduced the synthesis of collagen I, collagen III, and fibronectin, but showed a different effect on cell proliferation. Synthetic RAR agonists did not affect HSC proliferation, indicating that ATRA inhibits cell growth independent of its interaction with RARs. In contrast, RAR specific antagonists enhance HSC proliferation and demonstrate that RARs control proliferation in a negative way. In conclusion, natural RAs and synthetic RAR or RXR specific ligands exert differential effects on activated HSC. Our observations may explain prior divergent results obtained following retinoid administration to cultured stellate cells or to animals subjected to fibrogenic stimuli. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;39:97,108.) [source]


Molecular cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor ultraspiracle during metamorphosis and in vivo induction of its phosphorylation by 20-hydroxyecdysone

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
M. Nicolaï
Abstract Using a RT-PCR approach, the Tenebrio molitor homologue of Drosophila Ultraspiracle (TmUSP) was characterized. Its DNA binding domain shows a degree of identity with those of the other insect USPs. However, the ligand binding domain is closer to those of retinoid X receptors. Using an antibody raised against DmUSP, Western blot analysis of proteins from epidermis and other tissues revealed five immunoreactive bands, corresponding to different phosphorylated forms of a unique polypeptide, as shown by ,-phosphatase treatment. The nuclear form of TmUSP seems unphosphorylated. An in vivo 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment increases considerably and rapidly the phosphorylated forms of TmUSP. This post-translational modification may play a role in the 20-hydroxyecdysone response. [source]


Expression of retinoid receptors in sebaceous cell carcinoma

JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Nitin Chakravarti
Purpose:, The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are any abnormalities in the in vivo expression of retinoid acid receptors (RAR-,, RAR-, and RAR-,) and retinoid X receptors (RXR-,, RXR-, and RXR-,) in sebaceous cell carcinoma. Methods:, Expression of retinoid receptors in paired specimens of cancerous tissues (n = 10) and adjacent normal tissues (n = 10) from 10 patients with sebaceous cell carcinoma was studied immunohistochemically by using anti-retinoid receptor antibodies. Results:, In eight of the 10 normal tissue samples, all six receptors were expressed. In the other two samples, all receptors were expressed except RAR-, (one sample) or RXR-, (two samples). Five tumours (50%) lacked RAR-,; RAR-, expression was lower in tumours than in normal tissues in eight of 10 cases. RAR-, was expressed in the cytoplasm of nine of 10 tumours; RAR-, expression was at least as high in tumours as in normal tissue in eight of 10 cases. Two tumours lacked RAR-,; three tumours had lower RAR-, expression than paired normal epithelium; four had the same RAR-, expression, and one had higher RAR-, expression. RXR-, expression was strong in all normal tissues and tumour samples. Ten tumours lacked RXR-, and all 10 tumours lacked RXR-, expression. Conclusions:, Diminished RXR-, and RXR-, expression might be related to the development of sebaceous cell carcinoma. Additional studies are required to establish whether the defects in RAR expression in sebaceous cell carcinoma might affect the potential response of this tumour to treatment with retinoids. [source]


Differentiation, proliferation and retinoid receptor status of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2003
Weihua Tang
Messenger RNA expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR,, RAR, and RAR,) and retinoid X receptors (RXR,, RXR, and RXR,) was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 42 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). A loss of mRNA expression was observed in 18 cases of the 42 PTCs, including three cases for RAR,, 14 cases for RAR,, six cases for RXR, and five cases for RXR,. The expressions of RAR, and RXR, were found in all 42 PTCs. Based on Ki 67/MIB1 labeling index (LI), the 42 PTCs were classified into Group A (20 cases; LI = 0,2%), Group B (17 cases; LI = 2,5%) and Group C (5 cases; LI > 5%). The PTCs of groups B and C showed solid, trabecular or scirrhous arrangements, infiltrative growth, loss of cellular polarity and cohesiveness more frequently, but capsulated growth pattern less frequently, when compared with PTCs of Group A. They also showed more frequent extrathyroidal extension than Group A. However, no significant differences were identified in sex, age, nodal status and tumor size. Loss of expression for one or more retinoid receptors frequently occurred in groups B and C. These results suggest that the loss of retinoid receptors might occur during the loss of differentiation and tumor progression of PTC. [source]


Strategy and mechanism for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Phosphorylated retinoid X receptor , is a critical target for hepatocellular carcinoma chemoprevention

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
Masahito Shimizu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health care problem worldwide. The prognosis of patients with HCC is poor because even in the early stages when surgical treatment might be expected to be curative, the incidence of recurrence in patients with underlying cirrhosis is very high due to multicentric carcinogenesis. Therefore, strategies to prevent recurrence and second primary HCC are required to improve the prognosis. One of the most practical approaches to prevent the multicentric development of HCC is ,clonal deletion' therapy, which is defined as the removal of latent (i.e. invisible) (pre)malignant clones from the liver in a hypercarcinogenic state. Retinoids, a group of structural and functional analogs of vitamin A, exert their biological function primarily through two distinct nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors (RXR), and abnormalities in the expression and function of these receptors are highly associated with the development of various cancers, including HCC. In particular, a malfunction of RXR, due to phosphorylation by the Ras,mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is profoundly associated with the development of HCC and thus may be a critical target for HCC chemoprevention. Acyclic retinoid, which has been clinically shown to reduce the incidence of a post-therapeutic recurrence of HCC, can inhibit Ras activity and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and RXR, proteins. In conclusion, the inhibition of RXR, phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function as a master regulator for nuclear receptors may be a potentially effective strategy for HCC chemoprevention and clonal deletion. Acyclic retinoid, which targets phosphorylated RXR,, may thus play a critical role in preventing the development of multicentric HCC. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 369,374) [source]