Retinal Vascular Disease (retinal + vascular_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Retinopathy of prematurity: Mutations in the Norrie disease gene and the risk of progression to advanced stages

Mohammad Z Haider
AbstractBackground: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vascular disease that occurs in infants with short gestational age and low birth weight and may lead to retinal detachment and blindness. Missense mutations in the Norrie disease (ND) gene have been associated with the risk of progression to advanced stages in cases of ROP from the US and also in clinically similar ND and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Methods: We have screened two ND gene mutations, namely A105T and Val60Glu, by polymerase chain reaction,restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele-specific PCR methods, respectively, in 210 Kuwaiti premature newborns to replicate these findings in a different ethnic group. Results: In the Kuwaiti premature newborn cohort, 115 of 210 babies had no eye problems and served as controls, while 95 were cases of ROP. In 71 of 95 ROP cases, the disease regressed spontaneously on or before stage 3, while in 24 of 95 ROP cases the disease progressed to advanced stages 4 and 5. In case of missense mutation (A105T), the AA genotype was detected in 96% of controls compared with 87% of ROP cases (NS); similarly no significant difference was found between spontaneously regressed ROP cases and those who progressed to advanced stages. For the Val60Glu mutation, no significant association was detected between the genotype and progression of ROP to advanced stages. Conclusions: Unlike data from the US, our findings from a Kuwaiti cohort of ROP cases and controls suggest a lack of association between the two ND gene mutations (A105T and Val60Glu) and ROP and the risk of progression of the disease to advanced stages. [source]

Retinal vascular findings and penile cavernosal artery blood flow

Y. Kawanishi
Authors from Japan attempt to correlate retinal vascular changes with cavernosal arterial blood flow. They studied patients with erectile dysfunction, but excluded patients with previous pelvic surgery, pelvic injury or diabetes. They found that penile changes can be anticipated from retinal vascular changes seen on fundoscopy. OBJECTIVE To assess the correlation between retinal vascular findings and penile cavernosal arterial blood flow, as it is probable that systemic atherosclerotic vascular disease is important in male erectile dysfunction (ED), and being systemic, it might be possible to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis from retinal vascular findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 75 patients with ED; any with a history of pelvic injury, pelvic surgery, or diabetes mellitus were excluded. All patients gave fully informed consent. Ocular fundus photographs were taken with an automatic-focus fundus camera under amydriatic conditions. Three ophthalmologists, unaware of the patients' detailed data, evaluated the photographs using Hyman's classification to evaluate retinal vascular findings. Blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery was measured with colour Doppler ultrasonography, and the peak systolic velocity used as a haemodynamic variable. Correlations among the peak systolic velocity, retinal vascular findings and vascular risk factors (including hypertension, age, cigarette smoking, and hyperlipidaemia) were investigated using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Of the 75 patients, 72 (96%) had both right and left retinal vascular images of sufficient quality for evaluation; 37 were classified as normal and 35 as Grade I, while no patient was Grade II. From a logistic regression multivariate analysis, the peak systolic velocity was the only significant factor correlating with retinal vascular findings, with an odds ratio of 3.34. In contrast, hypertension, age, cigarette smoking and hyperlipidaemia did not correlate significantly with the retinal vascular findings. Similarly, the retinal vascular finding was the only significant factor correlating with the peak systolic velocity of cavernosal blood flow (odds ratio 3.28) and again hypertension, age, cigarette smoking and hyperlipidaemia were not significant factors. CONCLUSIONS These findings support the assumption that penile erectile function is one of the diseases of atherosclerosis, and emerges nearly simultaneously with retinal vascular disease. It is possible to predict penile arterial conditions in patients with ED from their retinal vascular findings. Thus, amydriatic fundoscopy, a simple practical examination, may be helpful for primary physicians in diagnosing and treating ED. [source]

Role of NO in retinal vascular disease

Purpose Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of vascular tone in all vascular beds including the eye. Hence, inhibition of NO synthase with L-arginine analogues leads to a reduction of blood flow to all ocular tissues. This enables the investigation of the role of NO in the physiology of blood flow regulation, but also abnormalities of the vascular L-arginine/NO system in ocular vascular disease. Methods A variety of studies investigating the role of NO in healthy humans but also in patients with vascular disease is summarized. Results Inhibition of NO synthase reduces retinal, choroidal and optic nerve head blood. A variety of studies also indicate that NO plays a role in the ocular vasodilator effects of numerous agonists including acetylcholine, bradykinin, carbon dioxide, histamine and insulin. In addition, NO appears to modulate the autoregulatory behavior of ocular vascular beds and is involved in retinal neurovascular coupling. In several ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or open angle glaucoma abnormalities in the NO system can be observed. Conclusion NO is a major regulator of ocular blood flow in humans. The existence of different NO synthase isoforms makes it, however, difficult to therapeutically intervent via the L-arginine/NO pathway. Further studies are required to characterize the role of the NO synthase isoforms in the control of ocular blood flow in more detail and to allow for therapeutic interventions in ischemic ocular eye disease via this attractive pathway. [source]

Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases

Eyal Margalit
Abstract:, A variety of disease processes can affect the retina and/or the optic nerve, including vascular or ischemic disease, inflammatory or infectious disease, and degenerative disease. These disease processes may selectively damage certain parts of the retina or optic nerve, and the specific areas that are damaged may have implications for the design of potential therapeutic visual prosthetic devices. Outer retinal diseases include age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and retinitis pigmentosa. Although the retinal photoreceptors may be lost, the inner retina is relatively well-preserved in these diseases and may be a target for retinal prosthetic devices. Inner retinal diseases include retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous occlusive disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Other retinal diseases such as ocular infections (retinitis, endophthalmitis) may affect all retinal layers. Because the inner retinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cells, may be destroyed in these diseases (inner retinal or whole retinal), prosthetic devices that stimulate the inner retina may not be effective. Common optic nerve diseases include glaucoma, optic neuritis, and ischemic optic neuropathy. Because the ganglion cell nerve fibers themselves are damaged, visual prosthetics for these diseases will need to target more distal portions of the visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. Clearly, a sound understanding of retinal and optic nerve disease pathophysiology is critical for designing and choosing the optimal visual prosthetic device. [source]

Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy with bevacizumab for tuberous sclerosis with macular oedema

Wataru Saito
Abstract. Purpose:, To describe two patients with macular oedema secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Methods:, Interventional case reports. Bevacizumab 1.25 mg was injected into the vitreous of two patients with TSC-associated macular oedema / exudative retinal detachment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in the vitreous fluid was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in one of these patients. Results:, Patient 1: a 22-year-old woman with TSC was diagnosed as having multiple retinal hamartomas in both eyes. Eleven years later, the patient developed macular oedema with epiretinal membrane formation in the right eye. The patient underwent pars-plana vitrectomy with retinal photocoagulation for retinal tumours. VEGF concentration in the vitreous fluid was high compared to that in patients without retinal vascular diseases. Recurrent macular oedema disappeared by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Patient 2: a 32-year-old woman with TSC-associated retinal hamartoma, temporally showing macular exudative retinal detachment, developed neovascularization originated from the tumour. By intravitreal bevacizumab injection, the tumour size reduced markedly with regression of neovascularization. Conclusion:, These results suggest that VEGF derived from retinal hamartomas causes macular oedema associated with TSC. Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab may be a useful therapeutic option for macular oedema secondary to TSC. [source]