Retinal Response (retinal + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The effect of light scattering on multifocal electroretinography

H. L. Chan
Purpose:,Unclear ocular media is a very common condition of older eyes characterized by significant light scattering and image degradation. The multifocal electroretinography (MERG) is a useful objective technique to measure retinal activity but its validity in the presence of cloudy ocular media remains unclear. We tested the MERG under controlled light scattering conditions using a liquid crystal diffuser (LCD) that simulated different degrees of image degradation. Methods:,The MERG were taken from 13 normal young subjects seated behind a LCD set under two conditions: scatter (visual acuity ,6/18) and non-scatter (visual acuity ,6/6). The pupils had been dilated and the eyes were optically corrected for the working distance. The first-order kernel MERG response was analysed. Three subjects underwent MERG measurement with two additional intermediate light scattering levels (i.e. visual acuity ,6/9 and 6/12). Results:,The macular MERG response density was reduced (p < 0.001), but the peripheral MERG response densities were increased (p < 0.001) under the scattering condition. A similar trend was also observed with intermediate degrees of light scattering. Comparing the MERG waveforms without light scattering, a new retinal response was identified with a characteristic latency of about 60 ms (P60), but it was diminished in size under the scattering conditions. Conclusions:,The veiling luminance might have caused the reduction in the macular MERG response and an elevation in the peripheral retina with light scatter. The functional suppression of P60 observed under the influence of light scatter may be related to retinal adaptation. Unclear optical media will affect the interpretation of MERG results. [source]

Response of retinal arteriole diameter to increased blood pressure during acute hyperglycaemia

Peter Jeppesen
Abstract. Purpose:, To study retinal response in terms of arteriole diameter and retinal thickness secondary to an increase in arterial blood pressure during acute hyperglycaemia. Methods:, In a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study, nine healthy persons were subjected to clamping of blood glucose to either 5 mmol/l or 15 mmol/l using somatostatin to control endogenous insulin secretion. The response of retinal arterioles in terms of diameter as determined with the retinal vessel analyser (RVA) and retinal thickness as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured after an increase in arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Arterial feeding pressure in the eye was assessed from the ophthalmic artery pressure and pulse amplitude measured by ophthalmodynamometry. Results:, Isometric exercise induced a significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure and a significant contraction of the retinal arterioles. An acute increase in blood glucose from 5 mmol/l to 15 mmol/l did not affect either the diameter of retinal vessels or retinal thickness. Conclusions:, Acute hyperglycaemia per se does not change isometric exercise-induced retinal arteriolar contraction. Metabolic factors other than blood glucose are suspected to be involved in the impairment of retinal autoregulation as seen in hyperglycaemia induced by oral glucose intake. [source]

Randomised controlled trial of the effects of two rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens materials and two surface cleaners on straylight values

Marten F. Fortuin
Abstract Purpose:, In a double-masked randomized controlled crossover study we investigated both the retinal responses to straylight, and the effects of lens cleaners on straylight values, in two different RGP contact lens materials. Methods:, Thirty patients (20,59 years) wearing RGP lenses were refitted with new lenses made of Boston XO material in one eye and made of Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) material in the other eye. Reported wetting angles for the Boston XO material (103) and for the ONSI-56 material (7.2) were obtained by sessile drop measurements. After refitting, the study comprised three 5-week trial periods. In Period 1 half of the participants (Group A) wore Boston XO lenses in their right eye and Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) lenses in their left eye, and the other half (Group B) vice versa. In Period 2 Group A wore Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) lenses in their right eye and Boston XO lenses in their left, and Group B vice versa. All participants used Miraflow cleaner during periods 1 and 2. In Period 3, during which all participants used Boston cleaner, Group A wore Boston XO lenses in their right eye and Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) lenses in their left eye and Group B vice versa. Straylight data (log S) were obtained with and without contact lenses using the Oculus C-Quant straylight meter in all three periods. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in the second and third periods. Results:, When not wearing lenses (n = 60 eyes) at the end of the second 5 week trial period straylight was measured twice with averages of 1.07 log S, and the corrected CCT measurements averaged 546 ,m. Straylight values with Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) reached 1.15 log S at the end of both the second (n = 25 eyes) and third periods (n = 23 eyes). Straylight values with Boston XO were 1.17 log S (n = 26 eyes) at the end of the second period, and 1.16 log S (n = 25 eyes) at the end of the third period. Conclusions:, Existing RGP lens wearers refitted with new lenses with different contact angles, made of Boston XO and Comfort O2 (ONSI-56) showed, over three 5 week periods, relatively small increases in straylight, which were functionally comparable, irrespective of the type of lens material or lens cleaner used. At every visit, straylight values and CCTs returned to baseline levels after RGP lens removal, confirming that the straylight fluctuations were mainly due to scattering from the RGP lenses; or tear film interaction; or a combination of both. [source]

Detection of glaucomatous damage using multifocal ERG

Henry Ho-Lung Chan PhD FAAO
The first-order kernel analysis in multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) using low contrast stimulation is suggested as a way to detect the inner retinal responses in animal studies. In this case report, this protocol is applied to human patients with glaucoma to demonstrate the possibility of using mfERG as a tool to detect glaucomatous damage. Two patients with glaucoma were recruited and had mfERG measurements with the 103-scaled hexagonal stimulus pattern at low (50 per cent) contrast. Their responses were analysed and compared with those from normal subjects with the mfERG measured under the same condition. In the normal subjects, there were obvious oscillatory components on the ascending and descending limbs of the first-order kernel response to 50 per cent contrast. In the glaucomatous patients, the oscillatory component on the descending limb was obviously diminished. In addition, this component was significantly diminished in the quadrant with a glaucomatous visual field defect. This suggests that the low-contrast stimulation condition in mERG measurement may provide a good way to detect glaucomatous damage and this may help in clinical diagnosis of glaucoma. [source]