Retinal Photoreceptors (retinal + photoreceptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Absence of phosphoglucose isomerase-1 in retinal photoreceptor, pigment epithelium and Muller cells

Simon N. Archer
Abstract Macroarray analysis was used to compare equal amounts of cDNA from wild-type and rd/rd (retinal degeneration) mice, collected at P90 when photoreceptor degeneration is virtually complete. A stronger signal for the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Gpi1) was observed in the rd/rd sample. Extracellularly, Gpi1 may act as a cytokine, independently described as neuroleukin and autocrine motility factor. Retinal Gpi1 expression was investigated by Northern and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Double-labelling was performed with antibodies against Gpi1 and calbindin-D, glutamine synthetase, RPE65, calretinin and ultraviolet opsin in order to provide positive cell type identification. Northern and Western blots showed double expression levels per microgram of RNA and protein, respectively, in the rd/rd retina compared with wild-type. However, the total amount of Gpi1 protein per retina was indistinguishable. Gpi1 immunoreactivity was found in ganglion, amacrine, horizontal and bipolar cells, but not in rods, cones, pigment epithelium and Muller cells. This distribution explains why the absolute amounts of Gpi1 protein were not appreciably different between wild-type and the rd/rd phenotype, where rods and cones are absent, whilst the relative contribution of Gpi1 to the total protein and RNA pools differed. Some extracellular immunoreactivity was observed in the photoreceptor matrix around cones in freshly fixed tissue only, which could possibly reflect a role as a cytokine. We propose that glycolysis in Gpi1-negative cells proceeds entirely through the pentose phosphate pathway, creating NADPH at the cost of organic carbon. We hypothesize that the unique metabolic needs of photoreceptors justify this trade-off. [source]

Retinal Evaluation After 810 nm Dioderm Laser Removal of Eyelashes

Randal T. H. Pham MD
background. When operating hair removal lasers on the face or in the periorbital region, even with an ocular shield in place, patients often report seeing "flashing lights" each time the laser is fired. This phenomenon suggests stimulation of retinal photoreceptors and raises laser safety issues. objective. To perform retinal electrophysiologic studies to evaluate the safety of hair removal lasers in the periorbital region. methods. Five patients with severe trichiasis secondary to trachoma were studied. The 810 nm Dioderm laser (Cynosure, Inc., Chelmsford, MA) was used to treat the eyelash follicles on the lower eyelid of each patient. Cox III metal eye shields (Oculo-Plastik, Inc., Montreal, Canada) were placed behind the eyelids of both eyes during the laser procedure. Prior to irradiation, a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including pupillary and slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, and full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) was performed. A comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation including ERG testing was repeated 30 minutes and 3,6 months after completion of treatment. An independent blinded assessor evaluated the ERG studies. Subjective reports of laser light sensation, pain, and discomfort during and after the laser procedure were also assessed. results. There was no detectable change in slit-lamp, pupillary, or funduscopic evaluations after periorbital laser irradiation. Similarly the pre- and posttreatment ERGs were unchanged. Three patients reported seeing flashing lights during the procedure. conclusion. We found no ERG evidence of retinal damage after laser hair removal in the periorbital region, with Cox III-type ocular shields over the eyes, even when patients subjectively reported "flashing lights" during laser irradiation. [source]

Loss of photic entrainment at low illuminances in rats with acute photoreceptor degeneration

Domitille L. Boudard
Abstract In several species, an acute injection of N -methyl- N -nitrosourea (MNU) induces a retinal degeneration characterized principally by a rapid loss of the outer nuclear layer, the other layers remaining structurally intact. It has, however, also been reported that down-regulation of melanopsin gene expression is associated with the degeneration and is detectable soon after injection. Melanopsin is expressed by a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and plays an important role in circadian behaviour photoentrainment. We injected MNU into Long Evans rats and investigated the ability of animals to entrain to three light/dark cycles of different light intensities (300, 15 and 1 lux). Control animals entrained their locomotor activity rhythms to the three cycles. In contrast, MNU-treated animals could only entrain properly to the 300 lux cycle. For the 15 lux cycle, their phase angle was much altered compared with control animals, and for the 1 lux cycle, MNU-injected animals were unable to photoentrain and exhibited an apparent free-run activity pattern with a period of 24.3 h. Subsequent to behavioural studies the animals were killed and rod, cone, melanopsin expression and melanopsin-expressing cells were quantified. Rod and cone loss was almost complete, melanopsin protein was reduced by 83% and melanopsin-expressing cells were reduced by 37%. Our study provides a comprehensive model of photoreceptor degeneration at the adult stage and a simple and versatile method to investigate the relation between retinal photoreceptors and the circadian system. [source]

Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction

M. A. Cameron
Abstract Light-dependent release of dopamine (DA) in the retina is an important component of light-adaptation mechanisms. Melanopsin-containing inner retinal photoreceptors have been shown to make physical contacts with DA amacrine cells, and have been implicated in the regulation of the local retinal environment in both physiological and anatomical studies. Here we determined whether they contribute to photic regulation of DA in the retina as assayed by the ratio of DA with its primary metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and by c-fos induction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labelled DA amacrine cells. Light treatment (,0.7 log W/m2 for 90 min) resulted in a substantial increase in DA release (as revealed by an increase in the DOPAC : DA ratio), as well as widespread induction of nuclear c-fos in DA amacrine cells in wild-type mice and in mice lacking melanopsin (Opn4,/,). Light-induced DA release was also retained in mice lacking rod phototransduction (Gnat1,/,), although the magnitude of this response was substantially reduced compared with wild-types, as was the incidence of light-dependent nuclear c-fos in DAergic amacrines. By contrast, the DAergic system of mice lacking both rods and cones (rd/rd cl) showed no detectable light response. Our data suggest that light regulation of DA, a pivotal retinal neuromodulator, originates primarily with rods and cones, and that melanopsin is neither necessary nor sufficient for this photoresponse. [source]

Adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of rod opsin mRNA expression in tiger salamander

Peter D. Alfinito
Abstract The neuromodulator adenosine mediates dark-adaptive changes in retinal photoreceptors through A2a receptors. In cold-blooded vertebrates, opsin mRNA expression is lower at night than during the day. In the present study, we tested whether adenosine could inhibit opsin mRNA expression in cultured rod cells and if endogenous adenosine acts to suppress opsin mRNA in the intact retina at night. Semi-quantitative in situ hybridization showed that treatment with 100 nm of the A2a/A2b agonist N,6 -[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methylphenyl)-ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) reduced opsin mRNA 41% in cultured rod cells. The effect of DPMA was blocked by 10 m of the A2a antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) but not by 10 m of the A2b antagonist alloxazine. One micromolar adenosine alone had no effect on opsin mRNA. However, in the presence of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro -9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine hydrochloride (EHNA), 1 m adenosine reduced opsin mRNA 61%. EHNA alone reduced opsin mRNA by 26%. Consistent with an A2a receptor mechanism, 100 nm forskolin (adenylate cyclase agonist) decreased opsin mRNA 34%. Finally, northern blots showed that intravitreal injection of 10 m CSC at night increased opsin I mRNA 38%. Thus, endogenous adenosine suppresses rod opsin I mRNA expression at night; in vitro results indicate this reduction occurs through A2a -like receptor binding and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. [source]

Morphology, characterization, and distribution of retinal photoreceptors in the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft, 1870)

Helena J. Bailes
Abstract The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi) is an ancient fish that has a unique phylogenetic relationship among the basal Sarcopterygii. Here we examine the ultrastructure, histochemistry, and distribution of the retinal photoreceptors using a combination of light and electron microscopy in order to determine the characteristics of the photoreceptor layer in this living fossil. Similar proportions of rods (53%) and cones (47%) reveal that N. forsteri optimizes both scotopic and photopic sensitivity according to its visual demands. Scotopic sensitivity is optimized by a tapetum lucidum and extremely large rods (18.62 2.68 ,m ellipsoid diameter). Photopic sensitivity is optimized with a theoretical spatial resolving power of 3.28 0.66 cycles degree,1, which is based on the spacing of at least three different cone types: a red cone containing a red oil droplet, a yellow cone containing a yellow ellipsoidal pigment, and a colorless cone containing multiple clear oil droplets. Topographic analysis reveals a heterogeneous distribution of all photoreceptor types, with peak cone densities predominantly found in temporal retina (6,020 rods mm,2, 4,670 red cones mm,2, 900 yellow cones mm,2, and 320 colorless cones mm,2), but ontogenetic changes in distribution are revealed. Spatial resolving power and the diameter of all photoreceptor types (except yellow cones) increases linearly with growth. The presence of at least three morphological types of cones provides the potential for color vision, which could play a role in the clearer waters of its freshwater environment. J. Comp. Neurol. 494:381,397, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Presence of Megamitochondria in the Ellipsoid of Photoreceptor Inner Segment of the Zebrafish Retina

J. Kim
Summary Although the megamitochondria (MM) were localized in various pathological conditions, normal retina of some mammalian species was reported to include MM for various physiological roles. However, it was not clearly confirmed whether the MM is present in the retina of lower vertebrate as well. In this study, we tried to show the presence of the MM in the zebrafish retina using electron microscopic technique. In all the photoreceptors including rods, cones and double cones of the zebrafish retina, MM were observed in the ellipsoid of inner segment. In the photoreceptor epllipsoid of the zebrafish retina, the mitochondria located in the central portion of the ellipsoid had a highly electron-dense matrix, which were accompanied by the mitochondria with electron-lucent matrix in the apical portion of the ellipsoid. The presence of MM was more clearly discernable in the rods, which were localized under the double cones. This finding is somewhat different from those observed in the previous studies because MM were localized in the inner segment of cones, but were not in those of rods in the case of mammalian retina. Although the exact physiological meaning for the presence of MM in some vertebrate species should be further studied, the present study could show that the MM in the ellipsoid of the retinal photoreceptors was not only restricted in some mammalian species. [source]

Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases

Eyal Margalit
Abstract:, A variety of disease processes can affect the retina and/or the optic nerve, including vascular or ischemic disease, inflammatory or infectious disease, and degenerative disease. These disease processes may selectively damage certain parts of the retina or optic nerve, and the specific areas that are damaged may have implications for the design of potential therapeutic visual prosthetic devices. Outer retinal diseases include age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and retinitis pigmentosa. Although the retinal photoreceptors may be lost, the inner retina is relatively well-preserved in these diseases and may be a target for retinal prosthetic devices. Inner retinal diseases include retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous occlusive disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Other retinal diseases such as ocular infections (retinitis, endophthalmitis) may affect all retinal layers. Because the inner retinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cells, may be destroyed in these diseases (inner retinal or whole retinal), prosthetic devices that stimulate the inner retina may not be effective. Common optic nerve diseases include glaucoma, optic neuritis, and ischemic optic neuropathy. Because the ganglion cell nerve fibers themselves are damaged, visual prosthetics for these diseases will need to target more distal portions of the visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. Clearly, a sound understanding of retinal and optic nerve disease pathophysiology is critical for designing and choosing the optimal visual prosthetic device. [source]

Ultraviolet reflectance and cryptic sexual dichromatism in the ocellated lizard, Lacerta (Timon) lepida (Squamata: Lacertidae)

Ultraviolet (UV) colorations have garnered extensive theoretical and empirical treatment in recent years, although the majority of studies have concerned themselves with avian taxa. However, many lizards have acute visual systems with retinal photoreceptors that are sensitive to UV wavelengths, and also display UV-reflecting colour patches. In the present study, we used UV photography and full-spectrum reflectance spectrophotometry to describe intra- and intersexual colour variation in adult ocellated lizards Lacerta (Timon) lepida and to obtain evidence of UV-based ornamentation. We also investigated whether any colour traits correlate with morphological traits potentially related to individual quality. The results obtained show that the prominent eyespots and blue outer ventral scales (OVS) that ocellated lizards have on their flanks reflect strongly in the UV range and are best described as UV/blue in coloration. The eyespots of males are larger and cover a larger surface area than those of females. However, these differences can be entirely accounted for by sex differences in body size, with males being generally larger than females. We also found differences in the shape of reflectance curves from males and females, with the eyespots and blue OVS of males being more UV-shifted than those of females. Other body regions have extremely low UV reflectance and are not sexually dichromatic. Eyespot size and the total surface area covered by eyespots increases with body size in males but not in females, suggesting that they may be signalling an intrinsic individual characteristic such as body size or male fighting ability. We also discuss the alternative and non-exclusive hypothesis that eyespots may function in lizards of both sexes as protective markings against predators. 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 766,780. [source]

The effects of sub-conjunctival EPO administration on ERG and on the peripheral blood haematocrit in animal model (rabbit)

Purpose To assess the effects of subconjunctival EPO administration on retinal eletrophysiology and on the peripheral blood haematocrit. Methods New Zealand White rabbits (n=6) received 100 UI of EPO through the subconjuntival route. Blood for Complete Blood Count (CBC) was collected on day 0, on day 7 and on day 14 of the experimental protocol. Furthermore electroretinograms were performed on day 0 and on day 30 of the experiments. Results Regarding CBC changes, the haematocrit values changed from 35,422,7% on day 0 to 34,324,3% (p=0,390) on day 7 and to 34,454,4% on day 14 (p=0,931), showing no significant changes. Concerning the red blood cells (RBC x10000/L) count, the values evolved from 6,020,48 on day 0 to 5,650,67 (p=0,074) on day 7 and to 5,670,74 (p=0,948) on day 14, showing no significant alterations. On the contrary, on what regards the electroretinograms, although there were no significant changes on a-wave amplitudes, which evolved from 13,941,7 V on day 0 to 13,670,8 V on day 30 (p=0,844) and no significant differences on N1-P1 amplitudes which changed from 46,604,5V to 55,4810,5 V (p=0,438), there was a remarkable increase on b-wave amplitude of 49%, changing from 46,607,43 V to 94,9713,36 V (p=0,031). Conclusion On what concerns CBC profiles, subconjuntival EPO administration did not cause any sinificant changes on haematocrit or RBC values. Regarding electrorretinography, there were no significant changes on a-wave or N1-P1 amplitudes, but there was a marked increase in the b-wave amplitude which tests for photoreceptor functionality, which might indicate a protective action against apoptosis of retinal photoreceptors even in physiological conditions. [source]