Retinal Examination (retinal + examination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Foot abnormalities in Canadian Aboriginal adolescents with Type 2 diabetes

J. Chuback
Abstract Aims To determine the profile of foot abnormalities in Canadian Aboriginal adolescents with Type 2 diabetes and the risk factors associated with these abnormalities. Methods Aboriginal adolescents with Type 2 diabetes underwent an interview, medical record review and foot examination in a tertiary care, paediatric hospital diabetes clinic and two geographically remote outreach clinics. The notes of 110 subjects were reviewed [mean age 15 3 years; mean duration of diabetes, 30 20 months; 71 (66%) female and 39 (34%) male] and 77 (70%) of the subjects were examined. Results Foot abnormalities were identified by either interview or notes review, and included poor toenail condition in 85 (77%), paronychia in 29 (26%), ingrowing toenails in 16 (15%) and neuropathic symptoms in 13 (12%) subjects. Foot abnormalities were identified by examination in many subjects, including poor toenail condition in 38 (49%), calluses in 34 (44%) and paronychia in 13 (17%) subjects. Eighteen (24%) of 75 subjects did not have running water in the home. Factors that significantly increased the presence of foot abnormalities included: foot care provided by a person other than self; absence of running water in the home; decreased frequency of bathing; and decreased frequency of nail clipping. A greater percentage of subjects living on a reservation or rural community had specialized consultations for retinal examination, footwear, or both than of those living in an urban or unknown residence. Conclusions A high prevalence of foot abnormalities was noted in Aboriginal adolescents with Type 2 diabetes. These findings highlight the associated comorbidities in this population, emphasizing the need for early detection and intervention. [source]

A comparative evaluation of digital imaging, retinal photography and optometrist examination in screening for diabetic retinopathy

J. A. Olson
Abstract Aims To compare the respective performances of digital retinal imaging, fundus photography and slit-lamp biomicroscopy performed by trained optometrists, in screening for diabetic retinopathy. To assess the potential contribution of automated digital image analysis to a screening programme. Methods A group of 586 patients recruited from a diabetic clinic underwent three or four mydriatic screening methods for retinal examination. The respective performances of digital imaging (n = 586; graded manually), colour slides (n = 586; graded manually), and slit-lamp examination by specially trained optometrists (n = 485), were evaluated against a reference standard of slit-lamp biomicroscopy by ophthalmologists with a special interest in medical retina. The performance of automated grading of the digital images by computer was also assessed. Results Slit-lamp examination by optometrists for referable diabetic retinopathy achieved a sensitivity of 73% (52,88) and a specificity of 90% (87,93). Using two-field imaging, manual grading of red-free digital images achieved a sensitivity of 93% (82,98) and a specificity of 87% (84,90), and for colour slides, a sensitivity of 96% (87,100) and a specificity of 89% (86,91). Almost identical results were achieved for both methods with single macular field imaging. Digital imaging had a lower technical failure rate (4.4% of patients) than colour slide photography (11.9%). Applying an automated grading protocol to the digital images detected any retinopathy, with a sensitivity of 83% (77,89) and a specificity of 71% (66,75) and diabetic macular oedema with a sensitivity of 76% (53,92) and a specificity of 85% (82,88). Conclusions Both manual grading methods produced similar results whether using a one- or two-field protocol. Technical failures rates, and hence need for recall, were lower with digital imaging. One-field grading of fundus photographs appeared to be as effective as two-field. The optometrists achieved the lowest sensitivities but reported no technical failures. Automated grading of retinal images can improve efficiency of resource utilization in diabetic retinopathy screening. Diabet. Med. 20, 528,534 (2003) [source]

Mydriasis and glaucoma: exploding the myth.

A systematic review
SUMMARY Aims To investigate the risk of inducing acute glaucoma following mydriasis. Methods Systematic review of published research 1933,1999. Results The risk of inducing acute glaucoma following mydriasis with tropicamide alone is close to zero, no case being identified. The risk with long-acting or combined agents is between 1 in 3380 and 1 in 20 000. The presence of chronic glaucoma constitutes no additional risk. Conclusions Mydriasis with tropicamide alone is safe even in people with chronic glaucoma. It should be advised in all patients when thorough retinal examination is indicated. [source]

Screening for retinal detachment using a wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscope

Purpose The development of non-mydriatic retinal photography has changed the clinical practice, allowing detection of abnormalities in the posterior pole without clinical examination in mydriasis. However the field of view does not exceed 60 and peripheral retinal detachments are likely to be missed on these images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a wide field (200) imaging system (Optos, UK ) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for screening purposes in retinal detachment. Methods All patients referred for retinal detachment from November 2007 to April 2008 were examined by one retinal surgeon who also performed the fundus drawing. An SLO image was taken by an orthoptist in training. A masked image lecture of the entire data base was performed by a resident. Both were unaware of the details of the retinal examination. The number of breaks and the extent of the detachment on the drawing were compared with the findings detected on the SLO image. Results 56 eyes with retinal detachment were documented. In 40 out of 56 eyes the retinal breaks could be detected on the SLO images obtained. The retinal breaks situated superiorly between 11 and 1o'clock or inferiorly between 5 and 7 o'clock and two retinal detachments, one superior and one inferior, were not detected on the SLO images. SLO image analysis enabled correct diagnosis of retinal breaks in more than 7/10 cases. Retinal detachments were detected in more than 9/10 cases. Conclusion Although the wide field SLO imaging system is not suitable as a diagnostic tool of retinal breaks and retinal detachment replacing the fundus examination by a retinal specialist, it represents a reliable screening method. Commercial interest [source]

Treatment-induced diabetic neuropathy: A reversible painful autonomic neuropathy

Christopher H. Gibbons MD
Objective To describe the natural history, clinical, neurophysiological, and histological features, and outcomes of diabetic patients presenting with acute painful neuropathy associated with glycemic control, also referred to as insulin neuritis. Methods Sixteen subjects presenting with acute painful neuropathy had neurological and retinal examinations, laboratory studies, autonomic testing, and pain assessments over 18 months. Eight subjects had skin biopsies for evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Results All subjects developed severe pain within 8 weeks of intensive glucose control. There was a high prevalence of autonomic cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and sudomotor symptoms in all subjects. Orthostatic hypotension and parasympathetic dysfunction were seen in 69% of subjects. Retinopathy worsened in all subjects. Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was seen in all tested subjects. After 18 months of glycemic control, there were substantial improvements in pain, autonomic symptoms, autonomic test results, and IENFD. Greater improvements were seen after 18 months in type 1 versus type 2 diabetic subjects in autonomic symptoms (cardiovascular p < 0.01; gastrointestinal p < 0.01; genitourinary p < 0.01) and autonomic function tests (p < 0.01, sympathetic and parasympathetic function tests). Interpretation Treatment-induced neuropathy is characterized by acute, severe pain, peripheral nerve degeneration, and autonomic dysfunction after intensive glycemic control. The neuropathy occurred in parallel with worsening diabetic retinopathy, suggesting a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Clinical features and objective measures of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers can improve in these diabetic patients despite a prolonged history of poor glucose control, with greater improvement seen in patients with type 1 diabetes. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:534,541 [source]