Respiration

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Respiration

  • anaerobic respiration
  • bacterial respiration
  • basal respiration
  • cellular respiration
  • dark respiration
  • ecosystem respiration
  • heterotrophic respiration
  • increased respiration
  • leaf respiration
  • maintenance respiration
  • microbial respiration
  • mitochondrial respiration
  • plant respiration
  • root respiration
  • soil respiration
  • spontaneous respiration

  • Terms modified by Respiration

  • respiration decreased
  • respiration rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    Noninvasive Assessment of Influence of Resistant Respiration on Blood Flow Velocities Across the Cardiac Valves in Humans,A Quantification Study by Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2004
    Lijun Yuan M.D.
    The aim of our study is to quantitatively investigate influence of the intrathoracic pressure change on the four cardiac valves' velocities and further verify a new proposal of the mechanism of respiratory influence on hemodynamics. Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers with no cardiopulmonary diseases were included. The intrathoracic pressure changes were measured with self-designed device. The velocity across the four cardiac valves during spontaneous respiration and with the intrathoracic pressure change at ,4, ,8, and ,12 mmHg, respectively, were recorded simultaneously with the electrocardiogram and respiratory curve. The respiratory variation indices (RVIs) were calculated. The average RVIs of mitral, aortic, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves were 12.54%, 13.19%; 6.23%, 8.27%; 20.27%, 24.36%; and 6.45%, 7.69% with intrathoracic pressure change at ,8 mmHg and ,12 mmHg, respectively. All the above parameters have a significant difference from those during spontaneous respiration (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). We concluded that it might be the respiratory intrathoracic pressure change that causes the change of the velocity across the valves. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, July 2004) [source]


    Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia Immer) chicks to methylmercury

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2007
    William H. Karasov
    Abstract A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ,g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. [source]


    Respiration of nitrous oxide in suboxic soil

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    B. Vieten
    Summary Reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) is an autonomous respiratory pathway. Nitrous oxide is an alternative electron acceptor to O2 when intensive biological activity and reduced diffusivity result in an O2 deficit. Hypoxic or anoxic micro sites may form even in well-aerated soils, and provide a sink for N2O diffusing through the gas-filled pore space. We reproduced similar in vitro conditions in suboxic (0.15% O2) flow-through incubation experiments with samples from a Stagnosol and from a Histosol. Apparent half-saturation constants (km) for N2O reduction were similar for both soils and were, on average, 3.8 ,mol mol,1 at 5C, 5.1 ,mol mol,1 at 10C, and 6.9 ,mol mol,1 at 20C. Respiration of N2O was estimated to contribute a maximum proportion of 1.7% to total respiration in the Stagnosol (pH 7.0) and 0.9% in the Histosol (pH 2.9). [source]


    Breathing rhythms and emotions

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
    Ikuo Homma
    Respiration is primarily regulated for metabolic and homeostatic purposes in the brainstem. However, breathing can also change in response to changes in emotions, such as sadness, happiness, anxiety or fear. Final respiratory output is influenced by a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centres, including the limbic system and cortical structures. Respiration is important in maintaining physiological homeostasis and co-exists with emotions. In this review, we focus on the relationship between respiration and emotions by discussing previous animal and human studies, including studies of olfactory function in relation to respiration and the piriform,amygdala in relation to respiration. In particular, we discuss oscillations of piriform,amygdala complex activity and respiratory rhythm. [source]


    Respiration and annual fungal production associated with decomposing leaf litter in two streams

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    M. D. Carter
    Summary 1. We compared fungal biomass, production and microbial respiration associated with decomposing leaves in one softwater stream (Payne Creek) and one hardwater stream (Lindsey Spring Branch). 2. Both streams received similar annual leaf litter fall (478,492 g m,2), but Lindsey Spring Branch had higher average monthly standing crop of leaf litter (69 24 g m,2; mean SE) than Payne Creek (39 9 g m,2). 3. Leaves sampled from Lindsey Spring Branch contained a higher mean concentration of fungal biomass (71 11 mg g,1) than those from Payne Creek (54 8 mg g,1). Maximum spore concentrations in the water of Lindsay Spring Branch were also higher than those in Payne Creek. These results agreed with litterbag studies of red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, which decomposed faster (decay rate of 0.014 versus 0.004 day,1), exhibited higher maximum fungal biomass and had higher rates of fungal sporulation in Lindsey Spring Branch than in Payne Creek. 4. Rates of fungal production and respiration per g leaf were similar in the two streams, although rates of fungal production and respiration per square metre were higher in Lindsey Spring Branch than in Payne Creek because of the differences in leaf litter standing crop. 5. Annual fungal production was 16 6 g m,2 (mean 95% CI) in Payne Creek and 46 25 g m,2 in Lindsey Spring Branch. Measurements were taken through the autumn of 2 years to obtain an indication of inter-year variability. Fungal production during October to January of the 2 years varied between 3 and 6 g m,2 in Payne Creek and 7,27 g m,2 in Lindsey Spring Branch. 6. Partial organic matter budgets constructed for both streams indicated that 3 1% of leaf litter fall went into fungal production and 7 2% was lost as respiration in Payne Creek. In Lindsey Spring Branch, fungal production accounted for 10 5% of leaf litter fall and microbial respiration for 13 9%. [source]


    Benthic microbial respiration in Appalachian Mountain, Piedmont, and Coastal Plains streams of the eastern U.S.A.

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    B. H. Hill
    1.,Benthic microbial respiration was measured in 214 streams in the Appalachian Mountain, Piedmont, and Coastal Plains regions of the eastern United States in summer 1997 and 1998. 2.,Respiration was measured as both O2 consumption in sealed microcosms and as dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of the sediments contained within the microcosms. 3.,Benthic microbial respiration in streams of the eastern U.S., as O2 consumption, was 0.37 0.03 mg O2 m,2 day,1. Respiration as DHA averaged 1.21 0.08 mg O2 m,2 day,1 4.,No significant differences in O2 consumption or DHA were found among geographical provinces or stream size classes, nor among catchment basins for O2 consumption, but DHA was significantly higher in the other Atlantic (non-Chesapeake Bay) catchment basins. 5.,Canonical correlation analyses generated two environmental axes. The stronger canonical axis (W1) represented a chemical disturbance gradient that was negatively correlated with signatures of anthropogenic impacts (ANC, Cl,, pH, SO42), and positively correlated with riparian canopy cover and stream water dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC). A weaker canonical axis (W2) was postively correlated with pH, riparian zone agriculture, and stream depth, and negatively correlated with DOC and elevation of the stream. Oxygen consumption was significantly correlated with W2 whereas DHA was significantly correlated with W1. 6.,The strengths of the correlations of DHA with environmental variables, particularly those that are proven indicators of catchment disturbances and with the canonical axis, suggest that DHA is a more responsive measure of benthic microbial activity than is O2 consumption. [source]


    Respiration and thermogenesis by cones of the Australian cycad Macrozamia machinii

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    R. S. SEYMOUR
    Summary 1While cycads are often considered to be wind-pollinated, it is now clear that insects are pollen vectors in many species. This study addresses the role of thermogenesis in pollination biology of the dioecious cycad Macrozamia machinii P.I. Forster & D.L. Jones. 2The patterns of thermogenesis in intact male and female cones were assessed with thermometry and respirometry throughout the pollination period in the field. 3Thermogenic episodes in male cones occurred from about 17.00,00.00 h on successive evenings, in association with dehiscence of sporangia and presence of their pollinating weevils (Tranes sp.). 4Temperatures of the 167 g male cones rose ,6 C above ambient, and mean rate of oxygen consumption peaked at 77 mol s,1 (36 W). Regulation of male cone temperature was not evident, and thermogenesis of female cones was insignificant. 5Male cones probably heat to augment scent production and enhance weevil activity, including mating and egg-laying, but female cones may benefit from reduced visitation and freedom from damage by weevil larvae. Male cones may be sacrificial in providing the reward to the pollinators while the female cones are safeguarded. [source]


    Increasing CO2 from subambient to elevated concentrations increases grassland respiration per unit of net carbon fixation

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2006
    H. WAYNE POLLEY
    Abstract Respiration (carbon efflux) by terrestrial ecosystems is a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle, but the response of C efflux to atmospheric CO2 enrichment remains uncertain. Respiration may respond directly to an increase in the availability of C substrates at high CO2, but also may be affected indirectly by a CO2 -mediated alteration in the amount by which respiration changes per unit of change in temperature or C uptake (sensitivity of respiration to temperature or C uptake). We measured CO2 fluxes continuously during the final 2 years of a 4-year experiment on C3/C4 grassland that was exposed to a 200,560 ,mol mol,1 CO2 gradient. Flux measurements were used to determine whether CO2 treatment affected nighttime respiration rates and the response of ecosystem respiration to seasonal changes in net C uptake and air temperature. Increasing CO2 from subambient to elevated concentrations stimulated grassland respiration at night by increasing the net amount of C fixed during daylight and by increasing either the sensitivity of C efflux to daily changes in C fixation or the respiration rate in the absence of C uptake (basal ecosystem respiration rate). These latter two changes contributed to a 30,47% increase in the ratio of nighttime respiration to daytime net C influx as CO2 increased from subamient to elevated concentrations. Daily changes in net C uptake were highly correlated with variation in temperature, meaning that the shared contribution of C uptake and temperature in explaining variance in respiration rates was large. Statistically controlling for collinearity between temperature and C uptake reduced the effect of a given change in C influx on respiration. Conversely, CO2 treatment did not affect the response of grassland respiration to seasonal variation in temperature. Elevating CO2 concentration increased grassland respiration rates by increasing both net C input and respiration per unit of C input. A better understanding of how C efflux varies with substrate supply thus may be required to accurately assess the C balance of terrestrial ecosystems. [source]


    On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q10

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    ERIC A. DAVIDSON
    Abstract Respiration, which is the second most important carbon flux in ecosystems following gross primary productivity, is typically represented in biogeochemical models by simple temperature dependence equations. These equations were established in the 19th century and have been modified very little since then. Recent applications of these equations to data on soil respiration have produced highly variable apparent temperature sensitivities. This paper searches for reasons for this variability, ranging from biochemical reactions to ecosystem-scale substrate supply. For a simple membrane-bound enzymatic system that follows Michaelis,Menten kinetics, the temperature sensitivities of maximum enzyme activity (Vmax) and the half-saturation constant that reflects the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate (Km) can cancel each other to produce no net temperature dependence of the enzyme. Alternatively, when diffusion of substrates covaries with temperature, then the combined temperature sensitivity can be higher than that of each individual process. We also present examples to show that soluble carbon substrate supply is likely to be important at scales ranging from transport across membranes, diffusion through soil water films, allocation to aboveground and belowground plant tissues, phenological patterns of carbon allocation and growth, and intersite differences in productivity. Robust models of soil respiration will require that the direct effects of substrate supply, temperature, and desiccation stress be separated from the indirect effects of temperature and soil water content on substrate diffusion and availability. We speculate that apparent Q10 values of respiration that are significantly above about 2.5 probably indicate that some unidentified process of substrate supply is confounded with observed temperature variation. [source]


    Linking microbial activity and soil organic matter transformations in forest soils under elevated CO2

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    S. A. Billings
    Abstract Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics ultimately govern the ability of soil to provide long-term C sequestration and the nutrients required for ecosystem productivity. Predicting belowground responses to elevated CO2 requires an integrated understanding of SOM transformations and the microbial activity that governs them. It remains unclear how the microorganisms upon which these transformations depend will function in an elevated CO2 world. This study examines SOM transformations and microbial metabolism in soils from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment site in North Carolina, USA. We assessed microbial respiration and net nitrogen (N) mineralization in soils with and without elevated CO2 exposure during a 100-day incubation. We also traced the depleted C isotopic signature of the supplemental CO2 into SOM and the soils' phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), which serve as biomarkers for living cells. Cumulative net N mineralization in elevated CO2 soils was 50% that in control soils after a 100-day incubation. Respiration was not altered with elevated CO2. C : N ratios of bulk SOM did not change with elevated CO2, but incubation data suggest that the C : N ratios of mineralized organic matter increased with elevated CO2. Values of SOM ,13C were depleted with elevated CO2 (,26.70.2 vs. ,30.20.3,), reflecting the depleted signature of the supplemental CO2. We compared ,13C of individual PLFA with the ,13C of SOM to discern incorporation of the depleted C isotopic signature into soil microbial groups in elevated CO2 plots. PLFA i15:0, a15:0, and 10Met18:0 reflected significant incorporation of recently produced photosynthate, suggesting that the bacterial groups defined by these biomarkers are active metabolizers in elevated CO2 soils. At least one of these groups (actinomycetes, 10Met18:0) specializes in metabolizing less labile substrates. Because control plots did not receive an equivalent 13C tracer, we cannot determine from these data whether this group of organisms was stimulated by elevated CO2 compared with these organisms in control soils. Stimulation of this group, if it occurred in the elevated CO2 plot, would be consistent with a decline in the availability of mineralizable organic matter with elevated CO2, which incubation data suggest may be the case in these soils. [source]


    An empirical model of carbon fluxes in Russian tundra

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Dmitri G. Zamolodchikov
    Summary This study presents an empirical model based on a GIS approach, which was constructed to estimate the large-scale carbon fluxes over the entire Russian tundra zone. The model has four main blocks: (i) the computer map of tundra landscapes; (ii) data base of long-term weather records; (iii) the submodel of phytomass seasonal dynamics; and (iv) the submodel of carbon fluxes. The model uses exclusively original in situ diurnal CO2 flux chamber measurements (423 sample plots) conducted during six field seasons (1993,98). The research sites represent the main tundra biome landscapes (arctic, typical, south shrub and mountain tundras) in the latitudinal diapason of 65,74N and longitudinal profile of 63E,172W. The greatest possible diversity of major ecosystem types within the different landscapes was investigated. The majority of the phytomass data used was obtained from the same sample plots. The submodel of carbon fluxes has two dependent [GPP, Gross Respiration (GR)] and several input variables (air temperature, PAR, aboveground phytomass components). The model demonstrates a good correspondence with other independent regional and biome estimates and carbon flux seasonal patterns. The annual GPP of Russian tundra zone for the area of 235 106 ha was estimated as ,485.8 34.6 106 tC, GR as +474.2 35.0 106 tC, and NF as ,11.6 40.8 106 tC, which possibly corresponds to an equilibrium state of carbon balance during the climatic period studied (the first half of the 20th century). The results advocate that simple regression-based models are useful for extrapolating carbon fluxes from small to large spatial scales. [source]


    The Bifidogenic Growth Stimulator Inhibits the Growth and Respiration of Helicobacter pylori

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2010
    Kumiko Nagata
    Abstract Background:, Triple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton-pump inhibitor is a common therapeutic strategy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). However, frequent appearance of clarithromycin-resistant strains is a therapeutic challenge. While various quinones are known to specifically inhibit the growth of H. pylori, the quinone 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA) produced by Propionibacterium has strong stimulating effect on Bifidobacterium. We were interested to see whether DHNA could inhibit the growth of H. pylori in in vitro or in vivo experimental setting. Materials and Methods:, The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DHNA was determined by the agar dilution method. The inhibitory action of DHNA on the respiratory activity was measured by using an oxygen electrode. Germ-free mice infected with H. pylori were given DHNA in free drinking water containing 100 ,g/mL for 7 days. Results:, DHNA inhibited H. pylori growth at low MIC values, 1.6,3.2 ,g/mL. Likewise, DHNA inhibited clinical isolates of H. pylori, resistant to clarithromycin. However, DHNA did not inhibit other Gram negative or anaerobic bacteria in the normal flora of the human intestine. Both H. pylori cellular respiration and adenosine 5,-triphosphate (ATP) generation were dose-dependently inhibited by DHNA. Similarly, the culture filtrates of propionibacterial strains inhibited the growth of H. pylori, and oral administration of DHNA could eradicate H. pylori in the infected germ-free mice. Conclusions:, The bifidogenic growth stimulator DHNA specifically inhibited the growth of H. pylori including clarithromycin-resistant strains in vitro and its colonization activity in vivo. The bactericidal activity of DHNA was via inhibition of cellular respiration. These actions of DHNA may have clinical relevance in the eradication of H. pylori. [source]


    Respiration of steelhead trout sperm: sensitivity to pH and carbon dioxide

    JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    R. L. Ingermann
    Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sperm held in seminal plasma or sperm-immobilizing buffer (pH 86) at 10 C consumed O2 at the rate of c. 2 nmol O2 min,1 10,9 sperm; the rate of O2 consumption was not different in sperm held for 4 or 24 h. Decreasing the extracellular pH from 85 to 75 either by diluting semen with buffer titrated with HCl or by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 in the incubation atmosphere resulted in c. a 40% decrease in the rate of sperm respiration. The data did not, however, support the hypothesis that the precipitous reduction in the capacity for sperm motility that occurs as external pH is reduced is a result of a decrease in cellular metabolism. The rate of O2 consumption of freshly collected semen from different males was not correlated to cellular ATP content or to the proportion of sperm that were motile upon activation; the initial ATP content and sperm motility were positively correlated. The rate of O2 consumption was not significantly increased following sperm activation or by the addition of an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, carbonyl cyanide p -trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, suggesting that these sperm have little, if any, capacity for increased oxidative metabolism. [source]


    Role of mastication and swallowing in the control of autonomic nervous activity for heart rate in different postures

    JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 12 2003
    E. Nitta
    summary, Mastication and swallowing increase the heart rate, and posture change and respiration also modulate the heart rate. To clarify the role of mastication and swallowing in the modulation of the autonomic nervous activity, we investigated how they interact with modulation of the heart rate by changing body positions and respiration in young healthy subjects. R,R intervals of electrocardiogram at rest were significantly changed with different body positions, compared with supine and standing. A net shortening by mastication of a chewing gum base was similar in various postures. Respiration induced a periodic change in the R,R intervals, depending on the body postures, but mastication did not markedly change them in each posture. Dry swallowing at rest and spontaneous swallowing during the mastication in the sitting position induced a similar transient shortening and suppressed the respiration-induced changes after the swallowing. The net transient shortening by dry swallowing at rest was similar in the different postures. These results suggest that signals from mastication and swallowing are summated with those from body positions and respiration for shortening the R,R intervals and that signals from swallowing suppress the respiration-induced periodic changes. [source]


    Respiration can be monitored by photoplethysmography with high sensitivity and specificity regardless of anaesthesia and ventilatory mode

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 8 2005
    L. Nilsson
    Background:, Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical technique used, for instance, in pulse oximetry. Beside the pulse synchronous component, PPG has a respiratory synchronous variation (PPGr). Efforts have been made to utilize this component for indirect monitoring of respiratory rate and volume. Assessment of the clinical usefulness as well as of the physiological background of PPGr is required. We evaluated if anaesthesia and positive-pressure ventilation would affect PPGr. Methods:, We recorded reflection mode PPGr, at the forearm, and the respiratory synchronous changes in central venous pressure (CVP), peripheral venous pressure (PVP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in 12 patients. Recordings for each patient were made on three occasions: awake with spontaneous breathing; anaesthetized with spontaneous breathing; and anaesthetized with positive-pressure ventilation. We analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, coherence and time relationship between the signals. Results:, PPGr sensitivity for breath detection was [mean (SD)] >86(21)% and specificity >96(12)%. Respiratory detection in the macrocirculation (CVP, PVP and ABP) showed a sensitivity >83(29)% and specificity >93(12)%. The coherence between signals was high (0.75,0.99). The three measurement situations did not significantly influence sensitivity, specificity or time shifts between the PPGr, PVP, ABP, and the reference CVP signal despite changes in physiological data between measurements. Conclusion:, A respiratory synchronous variation in PPG and all invasive pressure signals was detected. The reflection mode PPGr signal seemed to be a constant phenomenon related to respiration regardless of whether or not the subject was awake, anaesthetized or ventilated, which increases its clinical usefulness in respiratory monitoring. [source]


    Inferior Vena Cava Percentage Collapse During Respiration Is Affected by the Sampling Location: An Ultrasound Study in Healthy Volunteers

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
    David J. Wallace MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Physicians are unable to reliably determine intravascular volume status through the clinical examination. Respiratory variation in the diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has been investigated as a noninvasive marker of intravascular volume status; however, there has been a lack of standardization across investigations. The authors evaluated three locations along the IVC to determine if there is clinical equivalence of the respiratory percent collapse at these sites. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of location when measuring the IVC diameter during quiet respiration. Methods:, Measurements of the IVC were obtained during quiet passive respiration in supine healthy volunteers. All images were recorded in B-mode, with cine-loop adjustments in real time, to ensure that maximum and minimum IVC dimensions were obtained. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison of IVC measurement sites. Results:, The mean (SD) percentage collapse was 20% (16%) at the level of the diaphragm, 30% (21%) at the level of the hepatic vein inlet, and 35% (22%) at the level of the left renal vein. ANOVA revealed a significant overall effect for location of measurement, with F(2,35) = 6.00 and p = 0.006. Contrasts showed that the diaphragm percentage collapse was significantly smaller than the hepatic (F(1,36) = 5.14; p = 0.03) or renal caval index (F(1,36) = 11.85; p = 0.002). Conclusions:, Measurements of respiratory variation in IVC collapse in healthy volunteers are equivalent at the level of the left renal vein and at 2 cm caudal to the hepatic vein inlet. Measurements taken at the junction of the right atrium and IVC are not equivalent to the other sites; clinicians should avoid measuring percentage collapse of the IVC at this location. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:96,99 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


    Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c -type cytochromes

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Liang Shi
    Summary Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c -type cytochromes (c -Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c -Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c -Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c -Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c -Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1- and G. sulfurreducens -mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope. [source]


    Effect of Salt Stress on Carbon Metabolism and Bacteroid Respiration in Root Nodules of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    A. Ferri
    Abstract: In the present work, we examined the effect of salinity on growth, N fixation and carbon metabolism in the nodule cytosol and bacteroids of Phaseolus vulgaris, and measured the O2 consumption by bacteroids incubated with or without the addition of exogenous respiratory substrates. The aim was to ascertain whether the compounds that accumulate under salt stress can increase bacteroid respiration and whether this capacity changes in response to salinity in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris. The plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber, and 50, 100 mM or no NaCl (control) was added to the nutrient solution. Two harvests were made, at the vegetative growth period and at the beginning of the reproductive period. The enzyme activities in the nodule cytosol were reduced by the salt treatments, while in the bacteroid cytosol the enzyme activities increased at high salt concentrations at the first harvest and for ADH in all treatments. The data presented here confirm that succinate and malate are the preferred substrates for bacteroid respiration in common bean, but these bacteroids may also utilize glucose, either in control or under saline conditions. The addition of proline or lactate to the incubation medium significantly raised oxygen consumption in the bacteroids isolated from plants treated with salt. [source]


    Effect of Elicitation on Growth, Respiration, and Nutrient Uptake of Root and Cell Suspension Cultures of Hyoscyamusmuticus

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 2 2002
    Edgard B. Carvalho
    The elicitation of Hyoscyamus muticus root and cell suspension cultures by fungal elicitor from Rhizoctonia solani causes dramatic changes in respiration, nutrient yields, and growth. Cells and mature root tissues have similar specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) before and after the onset of the elicitation process. Cell suspension SOUR were 11 and 18 ,mol O2/g FWh for non-elicited control and elicited cultures, respectively. Mature root SOUR were 11 and 24 ,mol O2/g FWh for control and elicited tissue, respectively. Tissue growth is significantly reduced upon the addition of elicitor to these cultures. Inorganic yield remains fairly constant, whereas yield on sugar is reduced from 0.532 to 0.352 g dry biomass per g sugar for roots and 0.614 to 0.440 g dry biomass per g sugar for cells. This reduction in yield results from increased energy requirements for the defense response. Growth reduction is reflected in a reduction in root meristem (tip) SOUR, which decreased from 189 to 70 ,mol O2/g FWh upon elicitation. Therefore, despite the increase in total respiration, the maximum local oxygen fluxes are reduced as a result of the reduction in metabolic activity at the meristem. This distribution of oxygen uptake throughout the mature tissue could reduce mass transfer requirements during elicited production. However, this was not found to be the case for sesquiterpene elicitation, where production of lubimin and solavetivone were found to increase linearly up to oxygen partial pressures of 40% O2 in air. SOUR is shown to similarly increase in both bubble column and tubular reactors despite severe mass transfer limitations, suggesting the possibility of metabolically induced increases in tissue convective transport during elicitation. [source]


    Confirmation of Respiration during Trapezial Conducted Electrical Weapon Application

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    Jeffrey Ho MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    A Pressure-controlled Rat Ventilator With Electronically Preset Respirations

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 12 2006
    Valentin L. Ordodi
    Abstract:, Major experimental surgery on laboratory animals requires adequate anesthesia and ventilation to keep the animal alive throughout the procedure. A ventilator is a machine that helps the anesthesized animal breathe through an endotracheal tube by pumping a volume of gas (oxygen, air, or other gaseous mixtures), comparable with the normal tidal volume, into the animal's lungs. There are two main categories of ventilators for small laboratory rodents: volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ones. The volume-controlled ventilator injects a preset volume into the animal's lungs, no matter the airways' resistance (with the peak inspiratory pressure allowed to vary), while the pressure ventilator controls the inspiratory pressure and allows the inspiratory volume to vary. Here we show a rat pressure ventilator with a simple expiratory valve that allows gas delivery through electronic expiration control and offers easy pressure monitoring and frequency change during ventilation. [source]


    Autoinducers extracted from microbial mats reveal a surprising diversity of N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and abundance changes that may relate to diel pH

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Alan W. Decho
    Summary Microbial mats are highly structured and diverse communities, and one of the earliest-known life assemblages. Mat bacteria interact within an environment marked by strong geochemical gradients and fluctuations. We examined natural mat systems for the presence of autoinducers involved in quorum sensing, a form of cell,cell communication. Our results revealed that a diverse array of N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) including C4 - to C14 -AHLs, were identified from mat extracts using mass spectrometry (MS), with further confirmation by MS/MS-collision-induced dissociation (CID), and additions of external standards. Microelectrode measurements showed that mats exhibited diel pH fluctuations, ranging from alkaline (pH 9.4) during daytime (net photosynthesis) to acidic (pH 6.8) during darkness (net respiration/fermentation). Under laboratory conditions, AHLs having shorter acyl-chains were degraded within the time frame that daily alkaline pH (> 8.2) conditions exist in mats. Intensive sampling of mats after full day- or night-time incubations revealed that accumulations of extractable shorter-chain AHLs (e.g. C8 - and C10 -AHLs) were significantly (P < 0.001) diminished during daytime. Our study offers evidence that stabilities of AHLs under natural conditions may be influenced by the proximal extracellular environment. We further propose that the ancient periodicity of photosynthesis/respiration in mats may potentially drive a mechanism for diel differences in activities of certain autoinducers, and hence bacterial activities mediated through quorum sensing. [source]


    A coupled model of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 7 2003
    A. TUZET
    ABSTRACT A model that couples stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, leaf energy balance and transport of water through the soil,plant,atmosphere continuum is presented. Stomatal conductance in the model depends on light, temperature and intercellular CO2 concentration via photosynthesis and on leaf water potential, which in turn is a function of soil water potential, the rate of water flow through the soil and plant, and on xylem hydraulic resistance. Water transport from soil to roots is simulated through solution of Richards' equation. The model captures the observed hysteresis in diurnal variations in stomatal conductance, assimilation rate and transpiration for plant canopies. Hysteresis arises because atmospheric demand for water from the leaves typically peaks in mid-afternoon and because of uneven distribution of soil matric potentials with distance from the roots. Potentials at the root surfaces are lower than in the bulk soil, and once soil water supply starts to limit transpiration, root potentials are substantially less negative in the morning than in the afternoon. This leads to higher stomatal conductances, CO2 assimilation and transpiration in the morning compared to later in the day. Stomatal conductance is sensitive to soil and plant hydraulic properties and to root length density only after approximately 10 d of soil drying, when supply of water by the soil to the roots becomes limiting. High atmospheric demand causes transpiration rates, LE, to decline at a slightly higher soil water content, ,s, than at low atmospheric demand, but all curves of LE versus ,s fall on the same line when soil water supply limits transpiration. Stomatal conductance cannot be modelled in isolation, but must be fully coupled with models of photosynthesis/respiration and the transport of water from soil, through roots, stems and leaves to the atmosphere. [source]


    Relationship between breathing and cardiovascular function at rest: sex-related differences

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    B. G. Wallin
    Abstract Aim:, To compare relationships at rest between breathing rate, levels of muscle sympathetic nerve activity, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output among young men and women. Methods:, Recordings were made of respiratory movements, sympathetic nerve activity (peroneal microneurography), intra-arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, cardiac output (open-circuit acetylene uptake technique) in 19 healthy men (age 27 2 years, mean SEM) and 17 healthy women (age 25 1 years). Total peripheral resistance and stroke volume were calculated. Four minutes epochs of data were analysed. Results:, Breathing rates and sympathetic activity were similar in men and women but compared to men, women had significantly lower blood pressures, cardiac output and stroke volume. In men breathing rate correlated positively with sympathetic activity (r = 0.58, P < 0.05) but not in women (r = 0.12, P > 0.05). Furthermore, in men, respiratory rate correlated positively with total peripheral resistance (r = 0.65, P < 0.05) and inversely with cardiac output (r = ,0.84, P < 0.05) and heart rate (r = ,0.60, P < 0.05) but there were no such relationships in women (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions:, The positive relationship between breathing and sympathetic activity in men, and the inverse coupling of breathing to cardiac output and heart rate suggest that influences of respiration may be important not only for dynamic but also for ,tonic' cardiovascular function. The lack of relationships among these variables in women shows that there are fundamental differences in basic blood pressure regulation between the sexes. [source]


    Cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide in rats involve vagal afferents which are not sensitive to capsaicin

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    A. Dutta
    Abstract Aim:, Stimulation of pulmonary C fibre receptors by phenylbiguanide (PBG, 5-HT3 agonist) produces hypotension, bradycardia and tachypnoea or apnoea. However, tachypnoeic or apnoeic responses are not consistent. Therefore, this study was undertaken to delineate the actions of PBG on respiration and compared with those evoked by capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Methods:, Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. The effect of PBG or capsaicin was evaluated before and after ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or bilateral vagotomy. In addition, their effect on vagal afferent activity was also evaluated. Results:, Bolus injection of PBG produced concentration-dependent (0.1,100 ,g kg,1) hypotensive and bradycardiac responses, while there was tachypnoea at lower concentrations (0.1,3 ,g kg,1) and apnoea at higher concentrations (10,100 ,g kg,1). After vagotomy or after exposure to ondansetron both tachypnoeic and apnoeic responses were abolished along with cardiovascular responses. However, capsazepine (3 mg kg,1) did not block the PBG-induced reflex responses. Capsaicin (0.1,10 ,g kg,1), on the other hand, produced a concentration-dependent apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia but tachypnoea was not observed. Ondansetron failed to block the capsaicin-induced reflex response while bilateral vagotomy abolished bradycardiac and hypotensive responses and attenuated the apnoeic response. In another series, vagal afferent activity and cardio-respiratory changes evoked by PBG were blocked by ondansetron. However, capsaicin failed to activate the PBG-sensitive vagal afferents even though cardio-respiratory alterations were observed. Conclusions:, The present observations indicate that PBG produced tachypnoea at a lower concentration and apnoea at a higher concentration involving vagal afferents which are different from those excited by capsaicin. [source]


    Monitoring Lung Resistivity Changes in Congestive Heart Failure Patients Using the Bioimpedance Technique

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 6 2005
    Sharon Zlochiver MSc
    The feasibility of a novel, dedicated system for monitoring lung resistivity in congestive heart failure patients, implementing a hybrid approach of the bioimpedance technique, was assessed in this preliminary study. Thirty-three healthy volunteers and 34 congestive heart failure patients were measured with the PulmoTrace system (Cardiolnspect, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel) during tidal respiration, and the ability to monitor the respective lung resistivity values was assessed. Mean left and right lung resistivity values of 1205163 and 1200165 ,cm for the control group and 888193 and 943187 ,cm for the congestive heart failure group were found, indicating a significant (p<210,7) difference between the two groups. The results of long-term monitoring of two patients during medical treatment are also shown. This hybrid approach system is believed to improve diagnostic capabilities and help physicians to better adjust medication dosage on a frequent basis. [source]


    Optical tracking during vocalization reveals a complex pattern of respiration

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2006
    Chris Moore
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Respiratory patterns in panic disorder reviewed: a focus on biological challenge tests

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2009
    V. Niccolai
    Objective:, To provide a systematic review of studies investigating respiration in PD and comments on relative inconsistencies. Method:, A Medline search of controlled studies focusing on pCO2, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute volume in PD patients was conducted for baseline/resting condition, challenge, and recovery phase. Respiratory variability and comparisons between panickers and non-panickers were also examined. Results:, Lower pCO2 levels in PD subjects are a consistent finding during the baseline/resting condition, the challenge, and recovery phases. Tidal volume and minute volume are increased in PD subjects relative to controls during the baseline/resting condition. However, the most robust finding is a higher than normal respiratory variability, which appears to be a promising factor for the identification of respiratory etiopathological pathways in PD. Conclusion:, Respiratory variability might be a candidate for a biological marker of PD: an abnormal breathing pattern as found in panic disorder (PD) patients compared with controls might indicate instability of the respiratory homeostasis. [source]


    Abnormalities in the coordination of respiration and swallow in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Ira H Gewolb MD
    Individual rhythms of suck, swallow, and respiration are disrupted in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Integration of respiration into suck-swallow efforts is critical for establishing coordinated suckle feeding. This study quantitatively assessed the coordination of respiration and swallow in infants with and without BPD. Thirty-four preterm infants of 26 to 33 weeks'gestational age were included: 14 participants with BPD (eight males, six females) and 20 comparison participants without BDP (10 males, 10 females). Participants were studied at postmenstrual age 32 to 40 weeks and postnatal age 2 to 12 weeks using digital recordings of pharyngeal pressure, nasal thermistor flow, and thoraco-abdominal plethysmography. The coefficients of variation (COV; standard deviation/mean) of the swallow-breath (SW-BR) and breath-breath (BR-BR) intervals during swallow runs, the percentage of,apneic swallows'(runs of ,3 swallows without interposed breaths), and phase relationships of respiration and swallow were used to quantify rhythmic coordination and integration of respiration into feeding episodes. Apneic swallows were significantly increased after 35 weeks in infants with BPD (mean 13.4% [SE 2.4]) compared with non-BDP infants (6.7% [SE 1.8];p < 0.05), as were SW-BR phase relationships involving apnea. The BPD cohort also had significantly higher SW-BR COV and BR-BR COV than non-BPD infants, indicating less rhythmic coordination of swallowing and respiration during feeding. Results emphasize the need for frequent rests and closer monitoring when feeding infants with respiratory compromise. Quantitative assessment of the underlying rhythms involved in feeding may be predictive of longer-term feeding and neurological problems. [source]


    Abnormalities in cardiac and respiratory function observed during seizures in childhood

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Mary E O'Regan MRCP MRCPCH
    The aim of this study was to observe any changes in cardiac and respiratory function that occur during seizures. Thirty-seven children (20 males, 17 females; median age 7y 6mo, range 1y 6mo to 15y 6mo) were studied. We recorded electroencephalograms, respiratory rate, heart rate, electrocardiograms, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate variability (time domain analysis), and cardiac vagal tone. A respiratory pause was defined as an interruption in respiration lasting more than 3s but less than 15s. Apnoea was defined as absence of respiration for more than 15s. Tachypnoea was defined as a 10% increase in respiratory rate from the pre-ictal baseline. Bradypnoea was defined as a 10% decrease in respiratory rate from the pre-ictal baseline. Significant hypoxia was defined as a saturation of less than 85%. A significant change in heart rate was taken as a 10% increase or decrease below the baseline rate. Data were obtained from 101 seizures: 40 focal seizures, 21 generalized seizures, and 40 absences. Focal seizures were frequently associated with significant respiratory abnormalities, tachypnoea in 56%, apnoea in 30%, frequent respiratory pauses in 70%, and significant hypoxaemia in 40%. The changes seen in respiratory rate were statistically significant. Changes in cardiac parameters, an increase or decrease in heart rate, were observed in only 26% of focal seizures and 48% of generalized seizures. We conclude that seizure activity can disrupt normal physiological regulation and control of respiratory and cardiac activity. [source]