Research Project (research + project)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Research Project

  • action research project
  • collaborative research project
  • ongoing research project
  • participatory action research project
  • qualitative research project
  • recent research project

  • Selected Abstracts

    A direct circuit experiment system in non-immersive virtual environments for education and entertainment

    Quang-Cherng Hsu
    Abstract This article proposes to contribute to the goal of "The Popular Science Teaching Research Project" as well as to enhance the programming abilities of mechanical engineering students. Topics being included as example are in physical science, which include battery, lamp, and electric circuit. These materials are designed, based on virtual-reality technology that is suitable for students as early as fourth-grade students of primary school. It will help the students become familiar with new computer technology and provide an opportunity to study while playing virtual reality computer games. The benefits of the developed application software system of virtual reality are virtualization of teaching equipment, cost reduction of teaching materials, unlimited teaching style, and optimization of learning procedures. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 13: 146,152, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20044 [source]

    Management Strategies and Improvement of Performance of Sewer Networks

    Denys Breysse
    Even when they are conscious about the needs of maintenance to keep the system in a good condition, they lack efficient methods and tools that may help them in taking appropriate decisions. One can say that no really satisfactory and efficient tool exists, enabling the optimization of Inspection, Maintenance, or Rehabilitation (IMR) strategies on such systems. Sewer managers and researchers have been involved for many years in the French National Research Project for Renewal of Non Man Entry Sewer System (RERAU,Réhabilitation des Réseaux d'Assainissement Urbains, in French) to improve their knowledge of these systems and the management policies. During the RERAU project, a specific action has been dedicated to the modeling of asset ageing and maintenance. A special attention has been dedicated to the description of defects and dysfunctions, to the evaluation of performances and its modeling, accounting for its various dimensions (from the point of view of the manager, of the user, of the environment,). After having defined an Index of Technical Performance (ITp), we will introduce the Index of Technical and Economic Performance (ITEp) that is a combined measure of performance (including social costs) and technical costs. This index provides an objective standard tool for managers to compare different alternatives. It is used in the article to compare some simple IMR strategies. It sets the basis of a new method for no-man entry sewer system management, enabling us to analyze the profitableness of investment in terms of both technical and economic performance. [source]

    Anti-Colonialist Antinomies in a Biology Lesson: A Sonata-Form Case Study of Cultural Conflict in a Science Classroom

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2003
    Paokong John Chang
    This case study illustrates and analyzes the tension an ESL science teacher encountered when his science curriculum came into conflict with the religious and cosmological beliefs of one of his Hmong immigrant students. A Hmong immigrant himself, the teacher believes the science he is teaching is important for all his students to learn. He also understands how his science curriculum can be one part of an array of cultural forces that are adversely affecting the Hmong community. The case study examines this tension, but does not resolve it. Instead, the study explores the knowledge the teacher draws upon to respond to the tension in a caring and constructive manner. This knowledge includes the teacher's understanding of science and pedagogy. It also includes his understanding of Hmong history, which enables him to hear what his science curriculum means to one of his students. The case study concludes that teachers need some knowledge of the history of students' specific cultural groups in order to teach science well to all students. This case study was one of seven produced by the Fresno Science Education Equity Teacher Research Project. It uses a special format, a "sonata-form case study," to highlight tensions between specific curricular imperatives and meeting broader student needs. The study is based on real experiences, and employs composite characters and fictionalized dialogue to make its conceptual point. A theoretical preface explaining the methods of research and the modes of representation used in the Fresno Project is included. [source]

    A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Research Project into the Aminolysis of ,-Lactam Antibiotics: The Importance of Bifunctional Catalysis

    Natalia Díaz
    Abstract This paper reports the results of experimental work on the aminolysis of penicillin (6-APA) and monobactam (aztreonam) antibiotics by propylamine or ethanolamine. In general, aztreonam is slightly more reactive than 6-APA, despite the common assumption that the amide bond should be less activated in monobactams. Intriguingly, when ethanolamine acts as the nucleophile, the corresponding rate law has a kinetic term proportional to [RNH2][RNH3+]. To complement the experimental observations, the rate-determining free energy barriers in aqueous solution for various mechanistic pathways were computed by standard quantum chemical methodologies. From previous theoretical work it was assumed that the aminolysis of ,-lactams proceeds through mechanisms in which either a water molecule or a second amine molecule may act as bifunctional catalysts, assisting proton transfer from the attacking amine molecule to the leaving amino group. The energy barriers as computed have moderate values (ca. 26,34 kcal·mol,1) and reproduce most of the experimentally observed kinetic trends. Furthermore, the calculations predict that positively charged ethanolamine molecules can act as bifunctional catalysts as well, thus explaining the presence of the kinetic term proportional to [RNH2][RNH3+] in the rate law. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    Introduction: Contours of a Research Project and Early Findings

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 6 2007
    Peter P. Houtzager
    First page of article [source]

    Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    M. J. B. Vreysen
    Abstract The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) is a key pest of pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in most temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide sprays, which has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance, and the disruption of the control of secondary pests. In addition, the frequent reliance and use of these insecticides are a constant threat to the environment and human health. Consequently, there have been increased demands from the growers for the development of codling moth control tactics that are not only effective but also friendly to the environment. In that respect, the sterile insect technique (SIT) and its derivative, inherited sterility (IS), are, together with mating disruption and granulosis virus, among the options that offer great potential as cost-effective additions to available control tactics for integration in area-wide integrated pest-management approaches. In support of the further development of the SIT/IS for codling moth control, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a 5-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled ,Improvement of codling moth SIT to facilitate expansion of field application'. Research focussed on sterile codling moth quality and management (e.g. mobility and life-history traits in relation to rearing strategy, dispersal, flight ability, radiosensitivity and mating compatibility) and a better understanding of the basic genetics of codling moth to assist the development of genetic sexing strains (e.g. cytogenetics, the development of dominant conditional lethal mutations, molecular characterization of the sex chromosomes, sex identification in embryos and cytogenetic markers). The results of the CRP are presented in this special issue. [source]

    ,Who Did What?': A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    E. Garcia-Iriarte
    Background, This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods, This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and quantitative data over 15 months. All methods were adapted to ensure accessibility and to support active participation. Results, The collaboration generated action products, including tools to support advocacy and an accessible action and reflection process. Research findings suggest that active participation is essential for group control, but alone does not automatically lead to control. The manner in which supports are provided, including member supports, advisor supports, strategy supports and systems supports, influences the extent to which members have a sense of control over decision making and participation and thus, improved capacity for advocacy. Conclusions, A PAR approach can be used to increase a group's capacity for advocacy and meaningfully involve self-advocacy groups in participatory research that leads to change. [source]

    Investigation of secondary science teachers' beliefs and practices after authentic inquiry-based experiences

    Sherri L. Brown
    This study continues research previously conducted by a nine-university collaborative, the Salish I Research Project, by exploring science teachers' beliefs and practices with regard to inquiry-oriented instruction. In this study, we analyzed the relationship among secondary science teachers' preparation, their beliefs, and their classroom practices after completion of a course designed to provide authentic inquiry experiences. From Teacher Pedagogical Philosophy Interview data and Secondary Science Teacher Analysis Matrix observational data, we analyzed links between the teachers' conveyed beliefs and observed practice regarding the teachers' actions (TA) and students' actions (SA). Also presented is a listing of teachers' perceived influences from university preparation course work. Results indicated that 7 of the 8 teachers professed a belief in teacher-centered or conceptual style with regard to TA and SA. The observational results indicated that 7 of the 8 teachers displayed a teacher-centered or conceptual style with regard to TA and SA. Inconsistencies between interview and observational data were unexpected, as half of the teachers professed slightly greater teacher-centered styles with regard to TA than what they actually practiced in their classrooms. All teachers reported that an inquiry-based science course was valuable. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 43: 938,962, 2006 [source]

    The Career Consequences of a Mistaken Research Project: The Case of Polywater

    Arthur M. Diamond, Article first published online: 9 APR 200
    Polywater, one of the most famous mistaken scientific research programs of the past half-century, is used as a case study to examine whether polywater researchers later experienced lower citation counts, or less favorable job mobility. The primary result is that simply writing on polywater, either pro or con, has a negative impact on future citations, in comparison with those who never wrote on polywater. The lifetime value of the lost citations is roughly in the range of $13,000 to $19,000. However writing on polywater did not affect the probability of a scientist leaving university employment. [source]

    Effect of dexamethasone therapy on pulmonary function in chronic lung disease: A comparison of disease types

    Masami Mizobuchi
    Abstract Background: In the present study, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) therapy on extubation and pulmonary function in patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) who required long-term mechanical ventilation. In addition, we compared the effects of DEX therapy among CLD types. Methods: Twenty-two CLD patients who were ventilator dependent for 28 days or longer received DEX therapy for the purposes of extubation. A tapering dose of DEX, starting from 0.5 mg/kg per day, was administered for 7 days. Pulmonary function was measured at initiation of administration and 4 days after initiation. We evaluated static respiratory system compliance (Crs) and static respiratory system resistance (Rrs) adjusted by bodyweight. Chronic lung disease types were categorized according to the classification of the Ministry of Health and Welfare Research Project. We compared the effect of DEX therapy among CLD types. Results: Dexamethasone therapy was started at a mean (±SD) 45±11 days after birth and 32.1±1.3 weeks of postconceptional age in infants with a mean bodyweight of 939±153 g. After DEX therapy, extubation was successful in all 22 patients. Following DEX administration, Crs was significantly increased from 0.69±0.13 to 1.17±0.21 mL/cm H2O per kg. In contrast, Rrs did not show any clear changes. Comparing CLD types, no difference was observed for Crs and Rrs in each disease type. Conclusions: Dexamethasone was administered to CLD patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation for the purposes of extubation and extubation was successful in all patients. It was found that Crs was increased in all patients following DEX, regardless of CLD type. The increase in Crs following DEX administration may have been related to successful extubation. [source]

    Book review: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 6: The Fossil Monkeys

    Christopher C. Gilbert
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Persistent effects of a discrete warming event on a polar desert ecosystem

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    Abstract A discrete warming event (December 21, 2001,January 12, 2002) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, enhanced glacier melt, stream flow, and melting of permafrost. Effects of this warming included a rapid rise in lake levels and widespread increases in soil water availability resulting from melting of subsurface ice. These increases in liquid water offset hydrologic responses to a cooling trend experienced over the previous decade and altered ecosystem properties in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present hydrological and meteorological data from the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long Term Ecological Research project to examine the influence of a discrete climate event (warming of >2 °C) on terrestrial environments and soil biotic communities. Increases in soil moisture following this event stimulated populations of a subordinate soil invertebrate species (Eudorylaimus antarcticus, Nematoda). The pulse of melt-water had significant influences on Taylor Valley ecosystems that persisted for several years, and illustrates that the importance of discrete climate events, long recognized in hot deserts, are also significant drivers of soil and aquatic ecosystems in polar deserts. Thus, predictions of Antarctic ecosystem responses to climate change which focus on linear temperature trends may miss the potentially significant influence of infrequent climate events on hydrology and linked ecological processes. [source]

    How Many Brains Does It Take to Build a New Light: Knowledge Management Challenges of a Transdisciplinary Project

    MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION, Issue 1 2009
    Bruno Della Chiesa
    ABSTRACT, The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) carried out the Learning Sciences and Brain Research project (1999,2007) to investigate how neuroscience research can inform education policy and practice. This transdisciplinary project brought many challenges. Within the political community, participation in the project varied, with some countries resisting approval of the project altogether, in the beginning. In the neuroscientific community, participants struggled to represent their knowledge in a way that would be meaningful and relevant to educators. Within the educational community, response to the project varied, with many educational researchers resisting it for fear that neuroscience research might make their work obsolete. Achieving dialogue among these communities was even more challenging. One clear obstacle was that participants had difficulty recognizing tacit knowledge in their own field and making this knowledge explicit for partners in other fields. This article analyzes these challenges through a knowledge management framework. [source]

    Advancing urban ecological studies: Frameworks, concepts, and results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    S. T. A. PICKETT
    Abstract Urban ecological studies have had a long history, but they have not been a component of mainstream ecology until recently. The growing interest of ecologists in urban systems provides an opportunity to articulate integrative frameworks, and identify research tools and approaches that can help achieve a broader ecological understanding of urban systems. Based on our experience in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), Long-term Ecological Research project, located in metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland, USA, we identify several frameworks that may be useful in comparative urban studies, and may be worthy of consideration in other integrative urban ecosystem studies: (i) spatial patch dynamics of biophysical and social factors; (ii) the watershed as an integrative tool; and (iii) the human ecosystem framework. These frameworks build on empirical research investigating urban biota, nutrient and energy budgets, ecological footprints of cities, as well as biotic classifications aimed at urban planning. These frameworks bring together perspectives, measurements, and models from biophysical and social sciences. We illustrate their application in the BES, which is designed to investigate (i) the structure and change of the urban ecosystem; (ii) the fluxes of matter, energy, capital, and population in the metropolis; and (iii) how ecological information affects the quality of the local and regional environments. Exemplary results concerning urban stream nutrient flux, the ability of riparian zones to process nitrate pollution, and the lags in the relationships between vegetation structure and socio-economic factors in specific neighbourhoods are presented. The current advances in urban ecological studies have profited greatly from the variety of integrative frameworks and tools that have been tested and applied in urban areas over the last decade. The field is poised to make significant progress as a result of ongoing conceptual and empirical consolidation. [source]

    Educators at Work in two Sectors of Adult and Vocational Education: an overview of two European Research projects

    Adult learning staff play a key role in making lifelong learning a reality. It is they who facilitate learners to develop knowledge, skills and attributes. At the European level there is a lack of information about various aspects of the profession, such as who they are, how they are recruited, what their specific roles and tasks are, what competences and qualifications they are expected or required to possess, what their employment status is, how their professional development is organised, how they are assessed, and how attractive their profession is. This article is meant to bridge this gap and describes the variety of contexts in which adult learning staff are working. Furthermore, it seeks to reveal the factors that promote or affect the quality of the work provided by these practitioners and will address a number of issues that should be on the agenda of policy makers. This article is based on the outcomes of a study that have been carried out by an international research group in the period 2007 -2008, under guidance of Research voor Beleid and PLATO University Leiden under contract of the European Commission (DG Education and Culture). [source]

    The development of a geospatial data Grid by integrating OGC Web services with Globus-based Grid technology

    Liping Di
    Abstract Geospatial science is the science and art of acquiring, archiving, manipulating, analyzing, communicating, modeling with, and utilizing spatially explicit data for understanding physical, chemical, biological, and social systems on the Earth's surface or near the surface. In order to share distributed geospatial resources and facilitate the interoperability, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), an industry,government,academia consortium, has developed a set of widely accepted Web-based interoperability standards and protocols. Grid is the technology enabling resource sharing and coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations. Geospatial Grid is an extension and application of Grid technology in the geospatial discipline. This paper discusses problems associated with directly using Globus-based Grid technology in the geospatial disciplines, the needs for geospatial Grids, and the features of geospatial Grids. Then, the paper presents a research project that develops and deploys a geospatial Grid through integrating Web-based geospatial interoperability standards and technology developed by OGC with Globus-based Grid technology. The geospatial Grid technology developed by this project makes the interoperable, personalized, on-demand data access and services a reality at large geospatial data archives. Such a technology can significantly reduce problems associated with archiving, manipulating, analyzing, and utilizing large volumes of geospatial data at distributed locations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A CORBA Commodity Grid Kit

    Manish Parashar
    Abstract This paper reports on an ongoing research project aimed at designing and deploying a Common Object Resource Broker Architecture (CORBA) ( Commodity Grid (CoG) Kit. The overall goal of this project is to enable the development of advanced Grid applications while adhering to state-of-the-art software engineering practices and reusing the existing Grid infrastructure. As part of this activity, we are investigating how CORBA can be used to support the development of Grid applications. In this paper, we outline the design of a CORBA CoG Kit that will provide a software development framework for building a CORBA ,Grid domain'. We also present our experiences in developing a prototype CORBA CoG Kit that supports the development and deployment of CORBA applications on the Grid by providing them access to the Grid services provided by the Globus Toolkit. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    FS09.1 Diacetylmorphine (heroin) allergy

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Aliet J Hogen Esch
    Since heroin is delivered to a selected group of drug addicts under supervision of nurses in the Netherlands, we reported about several nurses who presented with work-related eczema and positive patch tests to heroin. To investigate the prevalence of heroin contact allergy among all workers in this heroin delivery project, a study was started using questionnaires. Altogether 31 nurses reported work-related complaints out of 100 who returned questionnaires. Besides reports of eczema, mainly of eyelids (probably airborne) and hands, there were mucosal and respiratory complaints. Patch tests were performed in 25 nurses with complaints; in 9 of them a heroin contact allergy could be confirmed. In 6 out of these 9 nurses this was combined with mucosal or respiratory complaints. There were also 6 nurses with mucosal or respiratory complaints without a contact allergy. Contact dermatitis from opioids, such as morphine and codeine, has been documented among opioid industry workers, nurses, doctors, pharmacists, and in patients. In conclusion heroin appears to be a potent contact allergen, causing contact dermatitis. Mucosal and respiratory complaints however, cannot be explained by this contact allergy; they might be caused by a type-1-allergy to heroin, or by a direct histamine liberating effect. Opioids are known histamine liberators causing urticaria, rhinitis and anaphylactoid reactions; therefore intracutaneous tests with heroin are unreliable. In an ongoing research project it will be attempted to detect specific IgE to heroin in the 12 workers with mucosal or respiratory complaints; within the next few months results will be available. [source]

    A pleasing consequence of Norway rat eradication: two shrew species recover

    Michel Pascal
    ABSTRACT Four to 10 years after the successful eradication of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from three islands of the Sept,Îles Archipelago and one in the Molène Archipelago (Brittany, France), the abundance index of the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) increased by factors of 7,25, depending on the island and the year. Moreover, in the same region, the abundance index of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) on Tomé Island increased by factors of 9 and 17, one and two years after the Norway rat eradication, respectively. The maximum variation of the abundance index for the lesser white-toothed shrew during seven years on the rat-free island of Béniguet in the same region was a factor of only 2.5. Moreover, the distribution of the lesser white-toothed shrew on Bono island, restricted before the eradication to two steep areas with few rats, increased and encompassed virtually the entire island four years after rats disappeared. These results suggest strong detrimental interactions between the introduced Norway rat and the two Crocidura shrew species on temperate oceanic islands. However, our data do not indicate the ecological mechanisms at work in these interactions. The main reason this shrew recovery was detected after rat eradication was the inclusion in the eradication protocol of the evaluation of impacts on the local biota of eliminating alien species. The rigor of the sampling procedure was also crucial to this discovery. This example demonstrates that an eradication operation can be extremely useful for both scientists and managers if it is planned as a research project. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2006
    Chaya Herman
    The essay is based on a larger research project that explores the profound effects of the ideological and managerial restructuring process in Johannesburg's Jewish community schools, the broader context for which has been South Africa's transformation to democracy. Herman suggests that these two dynamics are synergetic forces and that their accumulated effect has the power to shift the discourse of the community toward ghettoization and toward the creation of a homogenous community founded on a narrowly defined common identity. [source]

    Showing the Strategy where to go: possibilities for creative approaches to Key Stage 3 literacy teaching in initial teacher education

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2005
    David Stevens
    Abstract This paper arises from a research project undertaken with six PGCE student teachers of English, based on observation and discussion of English lessons based on the National Strategy's Framework for Teaching English. I draw also on the student teachers' reflections and written commentaries. The central thrust of the research was to enquire whether and how classroom practice could demonstrate an imaginative, meaning-orientated form of English teaching which included the Framework: how exactly learning opportunities might arise in lively, engaging and effective ways. [source]

    ,Playing the Game called Writing': Children's Views and Voices

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    Teresa Grainger
    Abstract Teachers' perceptions of their changing practice in the context of the National Literacy Strategy have been well documented in recent years. However, few studies have collected pupils' views or voices. As part of a collaborative research and development project into the teaching and learning of writing, 390 primary pupils' views were collected. A marked difference in attitude to writing and self-esteem as writers was found between Key Stages 1 and 2, as well as a degree of indifference and disengagement from in-school writing for some KS2 writers. A strong desire for choice and greater autonomy as writers was expressed and a preference for narrative emerged. This part of the research project ,We're Writers' has underlined the importance of listening to pupils' views about literacy, in order to create a more open dialogue about language and learning, and to negotiate the content of the curriculum in response to their perspectives. [source]

    Concept Acquisition within the Context of an AS Media Studies Course

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    Vivien Whelpton
    Abstract This article explores the means by which students' concept formation can be promoted and outlines findings from an action research project undertaken with a class of 17-year-old AS Media Studies students as a submission for the British Film Institute's MA Certificate in Media Education in 2001. It argues that academic concepts can neither be allowed to develop spontaneously nor be directly taught, but that indirect methods of teacher intervention can be found. It also examines the relationship between thought and language and argues that, while contact with academic discourse can be alienating, its features include a fluency which the handling of complex and abstract ideas requires, particularly in the written mode. The writer suggests that, while this discourse cannot be explicitly taught or learned, modelling techniques may offer a useful approach. [source]

    Governing long-term social,ecological change: what can the adaptive management and transition management approaches learn from each other?

    Timothy J. Foxon
    Abstract Maintaining social welfare and opportunity in the face of severe ecological pressures requires frameworks for managing and governing long-term social,ecological change. In this paper we analyse two recent frameworks, adaptive management and transition management, outlining what they could learn from each other. Though usually applied in different domains, the two conceptual frameworks aim to integrate bottom-up and top-down approaches, and share a focus on the ability of systems to learn and develop adaptive capacity whilst facing external shocks and long-term pressures. Both also emphasize learning from experimentation in complex systems, but transition management focuses more on the ability to steer long-term changes in system functions, whilst adaptive management emphasizes the maintenance of system functions in the face of external change. The combination of iterative learning and stakeholder participation from adaptive management has the potential to incorporate vital feedbacks into transition management, which in turn offers a longer-term perspective from which to learn about and manage socio-technical and social,ecological change. It is argued that by combining insights from both frameworks it may be possible to foster more robust and resilient governance of social,ecological systems than could be achieved by either approach alone. The paper concludes by critically reflecting upon the challenges and benefits of combining elements of each approach, as has been attempted in the methodology of a research project investigating social,ecological change in UK uplands. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Differential effects of temporal pole resection with amygdalohippocampectomy versus selective amygdalohippocampectomy on material-specific memory in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2008
    Christoph Helmstaedter
    Summary Purpose: In the surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, there is converging evidence that individually tailored or selective approaches have a favorable cognitive outcome compared to standard resections. There is, however, also evidence that due to collateral damage, selective surgery can be less selective than suggested. As part of a prospective transregional research project the present study evaluated the outcome in memory and nonmemory functions, following two selective approaches: a combined temporal pole resection with amygdalohippocampectomy (TPR+) and transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Methods: One year after surgery, cognitive outcomes of postoperatively seizure-free patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis, who underwent either TPR+ (N = 35) or SAH (N = 62) in two German epilepsy centers (Bonn/Berlin), were compared. Results: Repeated measurement MANOVA and separate post hoc testing indicated a double dissociation of verbal/figural memory outcome as dependent on side and type of surgery. Verbal memory outcome was worse after left-sided operation, but especially for SAH, whereas figural memory outcome was worse after right-sided operation, preferentially for TPR+. Attention improved independent of side or type of surgery, and language functions showed some improvement after right-sided surgeries. Discussion: The results indicate a differential effect of left/right SAH versus TPR+ on material-specific memory insofar as transsylvian SAH appears to be favorable in right and TPR+ in left MTLE. The different outcomes are discussed in terms of a different surgical affection of the temporal pole and stem, and different roles of these structures for verbal and figural memory. [source]

    Overview and Perspectives of Employment in People with Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2005
    Hanneke M. De Boer
    Summary:, Even though it is now the viewpoint of the majority of professionals working in epilepsy care that most people with epilepsy should and can perform on the labor market as does anybody else, research tells a different story. Most figures concerning employment rates of people with epilepsy indicate that they do not perform as well on the labor market as others do. Although both research figures and research groups vary, generally unemployment rates are higher for people with epilepsy than for the general population. Early studies showed that the situation for people with epilepsy was rather grim. Later studies showed similar outcomes. Unemployment rates vary between groups and countries. Research shows that being employed is an important ingredient of the quality of life of people with epilepsy. The World Health Organization also recognizes the importance of employment as a part of social health, and therefore, improving the quality of life. It is important to know the perspectives on the labor market for people with epilepsy and what the possible problems are. I describe a Dutch research project and give an overview of the findings concerning the employment and consequent employability of people with epilepsy and questions pertaining to employment and epilepsy. Possible interventions [i.e., public education and employment programs for people with epilepsy with the aim to improve the (re)integration of people with epilepsy into the labor market, thus improving the quality of life of (potential) employees with epilepsy], are described extensively. [source]

    Cortical Dysplasias and Epilepsy: Multi-Institutional Survey in Japan

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2000
    Morimi Shimada
    Purpose: Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a major brain malformation causing intractable epilcpsy. Neurosurgery now succcssfully controls some intractable epilepsies associated with CD. In this study, thc incidence 11 epilepsy and thc frequency of seizurcs were analyzed in different types 01 CD. Methods: This study, supported by a rcse;lrch grant from the Ministry of Health and Wellare of Japan, is part of a research project on the clinical presentation and pathogcnesis of brain dysgenesis. Questionnaires regarding the type of CD, family and pact historics, clinical signs and symptoms and their severity were distributed to I200 institutions comprising child neurologists or pediatricians. CDs werc classified into following 6 types; lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria spcctrum), cobblestone lissencephaly, polymicrogyria including schizencephaly and hilateral perisylvian syndrome, diffuse heterotopia, focal heterotopia, and hemiinegalencephaly. All patients who had been diagnoscd as CD either by MRI, CT, autopsy or histological cxamination at or after surgical treatment wcre included. Diagnosis of CD by CT or MRI was mainly made by a radiologist, child neurologist, or pediatrician. Double classification was corrected. Epilepsy was classified according to criteria of the ILEA. Seizure frcquencies wcre recorded. Results: A total or 676 cases from 328 institutions was availablc, and distributed as follows: 277 of lissencephaly, I48 of cobblestone lissencephaly (10 cases of Walkcr-Warburg syndrome and 138 Fukuyaina type congcnital muscular dystrophy), I30 of polymicrogyria, 40 of diffuse heterotopia (24 subcortical band hetcrotopia and I6 perivcntricular nodular hcterotopia), 37 of focal heterotopia, and 44 of hemimegalencephaly. In 130 cases of polymicrogyria, 13 cases of bilatcral perisylvian syndrome, and 38 cases of schizencephaly were includcd. Of 667 cases available for study, 500 (75.0%) had epilepsy in which generalized epilepsy including West and Lcnnox syndromes comprised 54.1 % and localization-related epilepsies comprised 46.7%. Thc frequency of seizures could be ascertained in 455 cases, of which 36.0% had daily seizures, and I I .4%) had more than onc seizure per week. The incidencc of epilepsy in cach type of CD was as follows: 86% inlissencephaly, 50% in cobblestone lissencephaly (patients with WalkcrWarburg syndrome had epilepsy in 90%, whercas those with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy had epilepsy in 46.7%), 71.3% in polymicrogyria, 77.5% in diffusc hetcrotopia (9 1.7% in subcortical band heterotopia and 56.2% in periventricular nodular heterotopia), 74.3% in focal heterotopia, and 93.2% in hemimegalcncephaly. Conclusion: As recent investigations have reported, this study confirmed the high incidence of intractable cpilepsy in CDs. Epilepsy was more prevalcnt in cases with subcortical heterotopia than i n cascs with periventricular nodular helcrotopia. Thc incidcnce or epilepsy was also higher in the focal hcterotopias located subcortically than those dccper in white matter or in the periventricular region. Thcse differences in incidence of epilepsy depending on the location of hcterotopia may give somc clues to the nature of epileptogenesis in CD. [source]

    Bio-economic modelling of potato brown rot in the Netherlands,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3 2003
    A. Breukers
    A research project is being undertaken to design a bio-economic model of potato brown rot (Ralstonia solanacearum) in the Netherlands. The first part of the project consists of an analysis of the past and current brown rot policy for its effectiveness and costs. Then, a stochastic, bio-economic model will be designed that shows the relationship between the costs of control measures and their effect on the probability of brown rot. This model will eventually be used to determine optimal control strategies and to make recommendations for improvement of the Dutch brown rot policy. [source]

    Researching Quality in Emergency Medicine

    Kenneth E. Bizovi MD
    Research aimed at promoting quality of medical care must be quality research. This paper addresses issues of study design that can affect the validity of such research. The authors draw on previous research about medical errors,recognizing that issues of study design pertaining to medical errors apply to other research on quality of care and, indeed, to clinical research in general. The November 2000 Special Issue of Academic Emergency Medicine addressed medical errors in emergency medicine. In that issue, Kyriacou and Coben described three categories of research on medical errors: 1) research aimed at describing the magnitude of the problem; 2) research identifying causal factors for medical errors; and 3) research evaluating interventions aimed at improving quality of care. These three categories correspond to research methodologies that are, respectively, 1) descriptive; 2) qualitative; and 3) analytic. This article discusses challenges to the validity of each type of research and suggests some possible solutions to these problems. In addition, the article reviews projects that illustrate important issues in research quality. Three research projects are discussed: 1) a published project evaluating an intervention aimed at improving quality; 2) a quality improvement project that is transformed into a research project; and 3) a quality monitoring research project that exemplifies how a statistical technique borrowed from industry can offer a unique solution to quality challenges in medicine. Each of these projects demonstrates some of the challenges in researching quality and their solutions. [source]

    Validation of Marker Material Flow in 4mm Thick Friction Stir Welded Al 2024-T351 through Computer Microtomography and dedicated Metallographic Techniques

    R. Zettler
    This study forms part of a joint three year project between the GKSS-Forschungszentrum and Airbus Deutschland titled "Effect of material flow patterns on the properties of friction stir welds in aluminium alloys for aircraft structures" -EMFASIS. The global aim of our research project is to identify how process and geometric parameters such as weld tool geometry influence the weld energy and subsequent joint properties of four friction stir welded aerospace grade aluminium alloys. The current study reports on the visualisation and displacement of a Ti powder marker material dispersed within the weld zone and investigated with the aid of X-ray computer microtomography (,CT) and dedicated metallographic techniques. [source]