Research Approach (research + approach)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Research Approach

  • action research approach
  • participatory action research approach
  • qualitative research approach

  • Selected Abstracts

    Assessing Tribal Youth Physical Activity and Programming Using a Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Cynthia Perry
    ABSTRACT Objective: American Indian youth experience a greater prevalence of obesity compared with the general U.S. population. One avenue to reverse the trend toward increasing obesity prevalence is through promoting physical activity. The goal of this project was to understand tribal youths' current patterns of physical activity behavior and their beliefs and preferences about physical activity. Design and Sample: This assessment used a community-based participatory research approach. Sample included 35 Native youth aged 8,18. Measures: A Community Advisory Board was created that specifically developed an exercise survey for this assessment to explore physical activity patterns, preferences, and determinants. Twenty-six youth completed the survey. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, exploring differences by age group. Nine youth participated in 2 focus groups. Qualitative data were analyzed with thematic analysis. Results: Youth distinguished between sports and exercise, with each possessing different determinants. Common motivators were friends, coach, and school, and barriers were lack of programs and school or work. None of the youth reported meeting the recommended 60 min of strenuous exercise daily. Conclusions: This tribal academic partnership responded to a tribal concern by developing an exercise survey and conducting focus groups that addressed tribal-specific questions. The results are informing program development. [source]

    Patients' Sexual Health: A Qualitative Research Approach on Greek Nurses' Perceptions

    Evangelia Nakopoulou MSc
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Health care professionals, especially nurses, through their contact with patients, play an important role in encouraging discussions about sexual concerns. Aim., To explore perceptions on sexual health issues and how these might inhibit or enhance Greek nurses' ability to incorporate sexual health assessment into everyday practice. Main Outcome Measures., A discussion guide was used as checklist to ensure that the basic issues would be addressed. Topics related to the areas of interest were either brought up from the participants or introduced by the moderator. Methods., The study recruited a purposive sample of 44 Greek staff nurses (SN) attending a course leading to their professional upgrading. A qualitative research design was employed using seven focus groups. Discussions started with nurses' perceived definitions of sexual health and proceeded with open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis based on the principles of grounded theory. Results., Three central themes were identified from transcripts' thematic analysis: subjective perception of sexual health, discussing sexual problems, and educational and training needs. Participants' perceptions of sexual health centred mainly on the emotional and somatic dimensions. Regarding clinical practice, a variety of personal and contextual reasons limit nurses' willingness to talk about sexuality with patients, such as gender and age differences, familial upbringing, lack of time and privacy, and restricted perception of nursing role. All nurses stressed the need for further specialized training not only in physiology issues related to sexuality, but also most importantly in communication skills. Conclusions., Although Greek nurses acknowledge the importance of sexual health assessment, they believe that sexual history taking is not within the range of their professional tasks. Since holistic care demands sexual health assessment and intervention to be an integral part of nursing practice, it is necessary to introduce courses in their curriculum and experiential workshops addressing the multidimensionality of sexuality. Nakopoulou E, Papaharitou S, and Hatzichristou D. Patients' sexual health: A qualitative research approach on Greek nurses' perceptions. J Sex Med 2009;6:2124,2132. [source]

    From rhetoric to reality: including patient voices in supportive cancer care planning

    Sara K. Tedford Gold PhD
    Abstract Objective, To explore the extent and manner of patient participation in the planning of regional supportive care networks throughout the province of Ontario. We consider the disconnect between the rhetoric and reality of patient involvement in network planning and co-ordination. Context, In 1997, the Province of Ontario, Canada, established a new, regionalized cancer care system. By transferring responsibility to the regional level and to networks, the architects of the new provincial system hoped to broaden participation in decision making and to enhance the responsiveness of decisions to communities. Research approach, Through a qualitative, multiple case study approach we evaluated the processes of involving patients in network development. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and document analysis were complemented by observations of provincial meetings, regional council and network meetings. Results, The network development processes in the three case study regions reveal a significant gap between intentions to involve patients in health planning and their actual involvement. This gap can be explained by: (i) a lack of clear direction regarding networks and patient participation in these networks; (ii) the dominance of regional cancer centres in network planning activities; and, (iii) the emergence of competing provincial priorities. Discussion, These three trends expose the complexity of the notion of public participation and how it is embedded in social and political contexts. The failed attempt at involving patients in health planning efforts is the result of benign neglect of public participation intents and the social and political contexts in which public and patient participation is meant to occur. [source]

    Recognising our role: improved confidence of general nurses providing care to young people with a mental illness in a rural paediatric unit

    Lorna Moxham
    Objective., To implement and evaluate strategies suggested by general nurses to improve management of children and adolescents with mental health problems admitted to a paediatric unit of a general hospital. Background., The first phase of a study using a Participatory Action Research approach identified several concerns associated with general nurses providing care to young people with mental disorders in paediatric units of general hospitals, together with suggestions for strategies to address these issues. This paper describes the second and third phase of the Participatory Action Research study, involving the implementation and evaluation of these strategies. Design., Participatory Action Research. Methods., Actions that occurred during phase two of the Participatory Action Research study included revision and introduction of policies and procedures for mental health care in the unit, education and training sessions for paediatric nursing staff and opportunities to strengthen communication between existing mental health services. In phase three, two focus groups were conducted to explore current perceptions of mental health care delivery in the unit and evaluate change, following phase two. Results., Changes in clinical practice for paediatric mental health care were acknowledged by participants. Reflection has assisted nurses to better understand their strengths and weaknesses and to acknowledge and challenge the assumptions on which their ideas, feelings and actions about patients with mental health issues are based. Participants also recognised the existing skills and expertise they possess that are relevant to the management of young people with a mental health problem, although they continue to seek ongoing education and support in this field. Conclusions., This study demonstrates that through Participatory Action Research it is possible to enhance mental health nursing care in a rural paediatric unit. Relevance to clinical practice., Such changes have the potential to improve the experience of young people and their families whilst receiving treatment for mental health conditions in a general paediatric unit. [source]

    The problem of postoperative pain: Issues for future research

    Mari Botti RN DipNsg BA PGDCAP PhD MRCNA
    Uncontrolled postoperative pain continues despite abundant research in the area. The purposes of the paper are to review how past research influences our understanding of pain in the postsurgery context and to argue for a methodological shift towards naturalistic inquiry. Such a shift incorporates the complexities of pain assessment and management in the clinical practice environment. Decisions regarding pain are often examined outside of the contextual concerns of clinical practice. Research approaches have involved analyses of nurse and patient-related factors associated with pain. These approaches do not account for complex interactions that occur between nurses, patients and the dynamic environment in which these interactions take place. The failure of research to address the context of pain decisions has several implications. It limits our understanding of why pain continues despite ongoing research and it does not enable evaluation of clinical strategies to improve pain decision-making and pain outcomes for patients. [source]

    Developments in neuroacanthocytosis: Expanding the spectrum of choreatic syndromes,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 11 2006
    Ruth H. Walker MB
    Abstract As with other neurodegenerative disorders, research into the group of diseases known under the umbrella term of "neuroacanthocytosis" has greatly benefited from the identification of causative genes. The distinct and unifying aspect of these disorders is the presence of thorny deformations of circulating erythrocytes. This may be due to abnormal properties of red cell membranes, which could lead to insights into mech- anisms of neurodegeneration. Research approaches in this field, in addition to examining functions and protein interactions of the affected proteins with particular respect to neurons, have also drawn upon the expertise of hematologists and red cell membrane biologists. In this article, recent developments in the field are presented. 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Bridging Scholarship in Management: Epistemological Reflections

    John D. Aram
    If the relevance gap in management research is to be narrowed, management scholars must identify and adopt processes of inquiry that simultaneously achieve high rigour and high relevance. Research approaches that strive for relevance emphasize the particular at the expense of the general and approaches that strive for rigour emphasize the general over the particular. Inquiry that attains both rigour and relevance can be found in approaches to knowledge that involve a reasoned relationship between the particular and the general. Prominent among these are the works of Ikujiro Nonaka and John Dewey. Their epistemological foundations indicate the potential for a philosophy of science and a process of inquiry that crosses epistemological lines by synthesizing the particular and the general and by utilizing experience and theory, the implicit and the explicit, and induction and deduction. These epistemologies point to characteristics of a bridging scholarship that is problem-initiated and rests on expanded standards of validity. The present epistemological reflections are in search of new communities of knowing toward the production of relevant and rigorous management knowledge. [source]

    FS13.3 Development of risk reduction strategies for preventing dermatitis

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Terry Brown
    Introduction:, A recent survey of the UK printing industry found a prevalence of 11% of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), much higher than previously identified. Objective:, This pilot study aimed to evaluate risk reduction strategies derived from recommendations of a literature review of preventive intervention studies and a series of focus groups of printers and observations of printers undertaking their normal duties. Methods:, Four interventions were evaluated: (1) Provision of gloves of the correct size/type, plus use of an after-work skin cream; (2) Provision of information; (3) Provision of skin checks; (4) Development of best practice skin care policy. Each intervention was evaluated in two companies over a three-month period, at the end of which printers and managers were interviewed as to the effectiveness and acceptability of each intervention. Results:, Although this pilot study was short, all interventions were acceptable to some extent. The prevalence of frank dermatitis fell over the study period, particularly in intervention (3). Intervention (1) achieved an improvement of awareness in both management and workforce and an increase in the use of both gloves and cream. Intervention (2) highlighted problems of dissemination and the need for relevant information in an appropriate format. However. no single intervention was completely effective. Conclusions:, This qualitative research approach forms an essential first stage to improving understanding of ways in which OCD may be reduced among workers in the printing industry, and points towards the need for further testing of preventive strategies in larger-scale intervention trials, in printing and other industries. [source]

    Etiology of cicatricial alopecias: a basic science point of view

    Kevin J. McElwee
    ABSTRACT: This article presents a short summary of our current knowledge of cicatricial alopecia disease pathogenesis and the hypothetical disease mechanisms that may be involved in scarring alopecia development. Several forms of scarring alopecia likely involve targeted cytotoxic action against hair follicle cells mediated by a folliculocentric inflammation. However, the specific nature of the inflammatory interference in hair follicle growth is open to question. A popular hypothesis of lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia development involves autoimmune targeting of hair follicle,specific self-antigens, although there is no direct evidence in support of such a view. Alternative hypotheses focus on defects in sebaceous gland function, destruction of hair follicle stem cells, and interference in the communication between hair follicle mesenchyme and epithelium. Many questions arise from these hypotheses, and addressing them with a systematic research approach may enable significant advances in understanding cicatricial alopecia etiology. [source]

    Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new therapeutic target

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2010
    J. G. Boyle
    Diabet. Med. 27, 1097,1106 (2010) Abstract Clinical studies in Type 2 diabetes mellitus have shown that the effects of metformin go beyond improving HbA1c and include reductions in cardiovascular endpoints. Metformin therapy has been widely used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes for many years, yet the precise mode of action remains uncertain. It has recently been proposed that metformin-mediated stimulation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) underlies the hypoglycaemic effects of metformin. AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is expressed in many tissues and plays a central role in the regulation of energy homoeostasis. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that AMPK is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The generation of more specific and potent activators of AMPK, however, could have additional metabolic and vascular benefits for patients with Type 2 diabetes. [source]

    A qualitative investigation of the views and health beliefs of patients with Type 2 diabetes following the introduction of a diabetes shared care service

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2003
    S. M. Smith
    Abstract Aims A qualitative research approach was adopted in order to explore the views and health beliefs of patients with Type 2 diabetes who had experienced a new structured diabetes shared care service. Methods Patients from 15 general practices were randomly selected and invited to attend three focus groups. Two independent researchers adopted the ,Framework' technique to analyse the transcribed data and identify key themes expressed by patients. Results Themes relating to diabetes included frustration, victimization and powerlessness in relation to living with diabetes, controlling blood sugar, medication and economic barriers to care. Differences in emphases between patients and healthcare providers emerged. Patients were generally positive about shared care and largely identified it with the nurses involved. Conclusion This research highlights the importance of an in-depth exploration of patients' views during changes in diabetes care delivery to identify service delivery failures and gaps in patient knowledge such as lack of awareness of the extent of macrovascular risk. [source]

    Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2009
    Jerica M. Berge
    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper introduces CBPR methods, illustrates the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describes two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and concludes with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR. [source]

    Financial Management Strategy in a Community Welfare Organisation: A Boardroom Perspective

    Lee D. Parker
    This paper presents the results of a four year participant observation study of boardroom deliberations and resulting financial management strategies in a large not,for,profit religious based community welfare organisation. Employing a complete membership research approach and informed by grounded theory analysis, the study develops a micro,theoretical framework portraying boardroom financial management and accountability strategising. The study finds that the strategic focus on mission financing was conditioned by the contested formulation of strategic objectives, core organisational service philosophies, and executive,board member interaction. A significant observed outcome of the strategic mission financing focus was the management of accountability and disclosure, to which two key strategies were contributory. These were the exercising of financial control and the exercising of relationships management. The findings offer hitherto unavailable insights into strategic financial management and accountability processes and their context at the boardroom level in the religious not,for,profit community welfare sector. [source]


    Chris S. Duvall
    ABSTRACT. This article argues that understanding how people classify physical geographic features is necessary for identifying fundamental, cross-cultural geographic concepts that are required for successful communication of geographic knowledge. Academic geographers have not given sufficient attention to systems of local geographic knowledge, even though promising theoretical frameworks exist, particularly in the field of ethnoecology. However, the research approach that has characterized ethnoecology is insufficient to develop ethnogeography as a field of inquiry, because ethnoecologists have overemphasized limited aspects of local knowledge systems, such as soils, which has often led researchers to incompletely sample local knowledge systems. Using ethnographic methods, this article analyses the content and structure of physical geographic knowledge in the Maninka language as spoken in southwestern Mali, and compares Maninka knowledge to that of other cultural groups. The results suggest that broad physical geographic concepts may be shared pan-environmentally, but that most physical geographic knowledge is contained in culturally specific classifications embedded within a broad cross-cultural framework. Academic geographers should expect only broad correspondence between their categories of physical geographic variation and those of people who classify biophysical features according to local knowledge systems. Finally, this article also shows that ethnoecological research will be advanced if geographic theories of place are given more prominence in ethnoecological studies. [source]

    Experience and meaning of user involvement: some explorations from a community mental health project

    Carole Truman
    Abstract With an increased interest in and policy commitment to involving service users in the planning and delivery of health service provision, there is a clear need to explore both the rhetoric and realities of what user involvement entails. In the present paper, by drawing upon an evaluation of a community-based exercise facility for people with mental health problems, the authors explore ways in which the reality of user involvement is subject to a range of configurations within health services. The paper describes a piece of qualitative research that was undertaken within a participatory framework to explore the nature of user involvement within the facility. The data have been analysed using a grounded theory approach to provide insights into: the organisational context in which user involvement takes place; factors which encourage meaningful participation on the part of service users; perceived barriers to user involvement; and issues of sustainability and continuity. This research approach has enabled the authors to explore the views and experiences of users, service providers and referral agencies in relation to the nature and potential for user involvement. The findings illustrate ways in which user involvement may take place under both flexible and formal arrangements across a variety of activities. The present paper provides an account of some of the meanings and experiences of what ,successful' user participation may involve and the conditions which underpin ,success'. The authors conclude that successful and meaningful user involvement should enable and support users to recognise their existing skills, and to develop new ones, at a pace that suits their particular circumstances and personal resources. This process may require adaptation not only by organisations, but also by service providers and non-involved users. [source]

    Developing a Performance Measurement System for University Central Administrative Services

    Marika Arena
    Central administrative services have recently received increasing attention from practitioners and academics due to the challenging need to both manage scarce resources and provide high-quality services. In this context, performance measurement systems (PMSs) may assume a central role, although an unresolved debate remains on the claimed benefits of accountability and the difficulties that have emerged in defining and managing proper measures. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting the results of a study in which a PMS for central administrative services has been developed and tested through an action research approach drawing on actor network theory. The experiment was carried out in 15 Italian universities and five areas of services were dealt with: student support, research support, accounting, human resources, and logistics and procurement. The highly participative method resulted in a comparable system with a complete set of cost and quality indicators across the participating universities. These data proved to be useful at managerial and policy level, providing insights on the presence of scale effects and on the relative importance of quality dimensions for users of services. Participating in the project encouraged the university staff to use indicators in decision making. [source]

    Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems

    Leiser Silva
    Abstract., The study of the role of power in managing information systems (IS) still offers a major epistemological challenge to researchers in the field. Although significant work has been done, there is yet to emerge a research approach that permits a penetrating study of the phenomenon of power by virtue of adopting a Machiavellian stance. This paper proposes such an approach in the form of an interpretivist position combined with a theoretical framework whose origin lies in political science and the sociology of technology. In developing its philosophical argument, the paper compares three meta-theories that have been applied to study IS: Phenomenology, Critical Theory and Structuration Theory. All three are compared in terms of their epistemological position regarding the relationship between power and IS. We argue that, although enlightening, those meta-theories fail to unravel the hidden and strategic nature of power. The paper concludes by proposing a particular theoretical formulation that, rather than censoring power and politics, will provide the epistemological means for unravelling them. [source]

    ,I'd rather be seen as a practitioner, come in to teach my subject': Identity Work in Part-Time Art and Design Tutors

    Alison Shreeve
    This article explores issues of identity as part-time tutors engage in teaching in further and higher education. It is based on a phenomenographic research approach that examines variation in experience. Based on interviews with 16 creative practitioners who also teach, it draws on the narratives of identity resulting from the interview process. The five possible ways that the relationship between practice and teaching can be experienced can also be associated with five different experiences of identity. The research also draws on case studies more aligned with one category of experience than another, enabling aspects of identity work to be related to the worlds of practice and teaching and to individual histories of participation in these worlds. Factors that help to contribute to particular forms of identity are therefore discussed, as well as the impact that tutor identity can have on the students' learning experience. [source]

    Qualitative research to make practical sense of sustainability in primary health care projects implemented by non-governmental organizations

    Eric G. Sarriot
    Abstract Sustainability continues to be a serious concern for Primary Health Care (PHC) interventions targeting the death of millions of children in developing countries each year. Our work with over 30 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) implementing USAID's Child Survival and Health Grants Program (CSHGP)-funded projects revealed the need for a study to develop a framework for sustainability assessment in these projects. We surveyed NGO informants and project managers through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. This paper summarizes our study findings. The NGOs share key values about sustainability, but are skeptical about approaches perceived as disconnected from field reality. In their experience, sustainable achievements occur through the interaction of capable local stakeholders and communities. This depends strongly on enabling conditions, which NGO projects should advance. Sustainability assessment is multidimensional, value-based and embeds health within a larger sustainable development perspective. It reduces, but does not eliminate, the unpredictability of long-term outcomes. It should start with the consideration of the ,local systems' which need to develop a common purpose. Our ability to address the complexity inherent to sustainability thinking rests with the validity of the models used to design interventions. A participant, qualitative research approach helped us make sense of sustainability in NGO field practice. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Visitors' and locals' experiences of Rotorua, New Zealand: an interpretative study using photographs of landscapes and Q method

    John R. Fairweather
    Abstract This paper reports on an interpretative study of locals' and visitors' experiences in Rotorua, New Zealand and shows how experiences vary among different groups. Photographs were Q sorted by a non-random sample of locals and both overseas and New Zealand visitors, and the data were factor analysed to identify four factors or types of experience. These include experiences of Sublime Nature, Iconic Tourism, New Zealand Family and the Picturesque Landscape. These findings show that Q sort with photographs is a useful research approach which advances our understanding of destination image and provides results that have implications for the contemporary theoretical debate on the nature of tourist experience in New Zealand. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    U.S. Policy toward Israel, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia: An Integrated Analysis, 1981,2004

    Rachel Bzostek
    This project is an integrated quantitative and qualitative examination of the influences on U.S. foreign policy toward a sample of Middle East states (Israel, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia) over the last quarter century. Examinations of general trends in the relationships between these dyads, regression analyses, and brief case studies look at a number of factors contributing to the construction of these relationships, what these relationships look like, and how they have changed over time. The findings show that both policy reciprocation and U.S. executive play key roles in determining U.S. foreign policy outcomes. Also discussed is the utility of a broad-based research approach including the integration of qualitative and quantitative work, the examination of individual-level, state-level, and structure-level influences in an inclusive framework, as well as the taking interactive trends over time and the various degrees of conflict within these trends ("high,""low," and "middle") into account. [source]

    The use of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice

    Alison Bryans PhD MSc BA DipHV RGN RNT
    The use of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice This paper describes the development of an innovative research approach which used the complementary methods of simulation and post-simulation interview to examine the knowledge-base involved in community nursing assessment practice in the United Kingdom. The study commenced in 1994 and the main phase of data-gathering took place over a 3-week period in 1995. Having outlined the study's aim, context and theoretical background, this paper focuses on the two main methods of data-gathering used. Detailed description of the simulation method and the post-simulation interview and the rationales for their use are followed by critical discussion which identifies their particular strengths and weaknesses. Threats to validity are also considered. It is argued that the combined use of a simulated assessment and a post-simulation structured interview has great potential as a means of exploring the knowledge involved in community nursing assessment practice. [source]

    Cancer nursing practice development: understanding breathlessness

    Dip N, Meinir Krishnasamy MSc
    , ,This paper considers methodological and philosophical issues that arose during a multi-centre, randomized controlled trial of a new nursing intervention to manage breathlessness with patients with primary lung cancer. , ,Despite including a diverse range of instruments to measure the effects of the intervention, the uniqueness of individuals' experiences of breathlessness were often hidden by a requirement to frame the study within a reductionist research approach. , ,Evidence from the study suggests that breathlessness is only partly defined when understood and explored within a bio-medical framework, and that effective therapy can only be achieved once the nature and impact of breathlessness have been understood from the perspective of the individual experiencing it. , ,We conclude that to work therapeutically we need to know how patients interpret their illness and its resultant problems and that this demands methodological creativity. [source]

    A synergy between action-research and a mixed methods design for improving services and treatment for family members of heavy alcohol and drug users

    Caterina Arcidiacono
    Abstract Our project first explored the patterns of disempowerment within 113 Italian families facing the problem of a heavy alcohol or drug user in the family. It then provided therapeutic interventions for the members of a further fifty-two families, and thirdly, as a part of the diffusion of the results, it provided brief training for 1,011 professionals supplying services for those suffering from alcohol and drug addiction. Research undertaken in the UK, Mexico and Australia (Copello, Templeton, & Velleman, 2006; Orford et al., 2005a; Orford, Templeton, Velleman, & Copello, 2005b; Velleman & Templeton, 2003) on the impact of substance misuse on families, and on the development of effective interventions to assist those families, supplied the models for this participatory research in Italy. This article discusses the mobilization of health professionals in developing a participatory project within a cross-cultural framework, focusing on research that involved more than 70 researchers and other professionals all over Italy. Research team discussions, peer validation of gathered data and reflexivity all had a significant role. The paper illustrates various issues, which are often not explicitly mentioned in research reports, related to recruitment, cooperation between researchers, interactions between researchers and participants, information about decision-making and the actual modalities of execution of the project. Moreover, the careful descriptions of qualitative research principles within the action research approach and a mixed methods design should enhance the research competencies of psychologists and social scientists involved in the community. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Implementing a community intervention to reduce young people's risks for getting HIV: Unraveling the complexities

    Maretha J. Visser
    The ineffectiveness of community-based interventions can often be traced to problems that occur during implementation. In this study, we outline the implementation of a human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention program in an educational setting in South Africa. An action research approach was used in the implementation of the intervention and a process and outcome evaluation, integrating qualitative and quantitative research methods, was made. The research illustrated the various levels of interaction in the community and the complexity of the processes involved in the implementation of interventions to facilitate community change. Social ecological theory, systems theory, and the social constructional approach are used to clarify the complexities of the implementation of community interventions. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 32: 145,165, 2004. [source]

    From bar diagrams to letter-symbolic algebra: a technology-enabled bridging

    C.-K. Looi
    Abstract In the Singapore primary school Mathematics curriculum, students are taught the model method that uses bar diagrams to visualize the problem structure in a given word problem. When these students progress to secondary school, they learn the algebraic way of solving word problems. Studies (e.g. Ng et al.) have shown that poor bridging of students from the use of bar diagrams to the use of letter-symbolic algebraic methods can hinder their learning of algebra. We design a software tool ,AlgeBAR' to scaffold the learning of the algebraic process, especially the formulation of equations to support a pedagogy that seeks to help students transit from bar diagrams to algebraic methods. In this paper, we report a cycle of evaluation of the intervention pedagogy by examining a class that uses the software tool as part of a holistic intervention package. This evaluation is in the context of an overall design research approach that sought to address complex problems in real classroom contexts in collaboration with practitioners and to integrate design principles with technological affordances to render plausible solutions. Our findings show that the software tool can be an important enabler of the bridging process. [source]

    Peer observation of teaching in the online environment: an action research approach

    D. Swinglehurst
    Abstract This paper describes a collaborative action research approach used to explore peer observation of teaching (POT) within the online environment. Although POT has become familiar in face-to-face teaching contexts, little is understood of its potential role in online settings. We conducted ,virtual' focus groups to explore the experience and views of 28 teachers and subjected our data to a thematic analysis. This informed the implementation of an innovative programme of POT, ,Peer-to-peer Reflection on Pedagogical Practice' (PROPP) among tutors of a Web-based MSc in International Primary Health Care at University College London. Modeled on an action learning set, the programme encourages collaborative reflection on teaching practices, based on participants' specific examples of online teaching. The PROPP model is consistent with Quality Enhancement, which we distinguish from Quality Assurance. Here, we describe the implementation of the PROPP programme within an action research framework and identify the factors that we consider critical to the success of peer observation within online courses. We highlight examples of aspects of teaching that have been discussed within the PROPP programme and offer suggestions of the kinds of evidence that could be incorporated into a portfolio to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an initiative. [source]

    Closing the gap: collaborative learning as a strategy to embed evidence within occupational therapy practice

    Amanda Welch Dip COT Pg Dip ED MSc
    Abstract Rationale, The principles of clinical governance apply as guidelines for good practice to all practitioners. However, evidence-based practice (EBP) is proving a challenge for practitioners who lack the confidence to consume published research. For therapists not wishing to undertake formal study there is a risk of becoming disempowered within a culture of EBP. Opportunities to develop skills in consuming research have focused on the information dissemination model that has limited effect. Mutual reflective learning processes are recommended to empower practitioners to bridge the theory-practice gap. Aim, An action research approach investigated practice based collaborative learning as a catalyst to increase therapist's competence and confidence in consuming research and to explore the transition toward EB practitioner. Method and Results, A diagnostic survey reaffirmed therapist's lack of confidence in EBP. Formative interviews (n = 5) found an over reliance on professional craft and personal knowledge. Research knowledge was not included in participants' construct of a good practitioner and engagement in higher order critical reflection was limited. Collaborative learning groups (n = 6) embedded in practice integrated research, theory, practice and critical reflection. Supported by the collegial learning environment, a learning package developed participants' confidence and competence in consuming published research. Summative interviews (n = 5) evaluated the group and found that therapists were empowered to incorporate propositional knowledge into their clinical reasoning, engage in critical reflection and challenge their practice. They felt confident to incorporate EBP into their continuing professional development plans. Sustainability of these changes requires commitment from the therapists and the workplace. [source]

    Sense of Place in Hanoi's Shop-House: The Influences of Local Belief on Interior Architecture

    Dinh Quoc Phuong Ph.D.
    The aim of this article is to seek another way of understanding the interdisciplinary, albeit loosely defined notion of "sense of place" and its manifestation in interior characteristics and design of domestic space in Hanoi. This includes an analysis of one aspect of place identities through material culture, such as those that are reflected in the local system of belief and building rite known as phong thuy,the Vietnamese version of Chinese feng-shui. With a case study research approach,describing and analyzing different types of data collected from a selected case study,this article examines sense of place and phong thuy application in (re)designing a shop-house, the most popular building type in Asian high-density cities like Hanoi. This study helps to explain how sense of place is understood by owner-builders, and how such a view is important to consider when attempting to design and make the home interior a better living place for residents in Hanoi and elsewhere. [source]

    Supervisor experiences of supervising nursing staff in the care of older people

    Aim, To describe supervisors' experiences of supervising nursing staff who care for older people in order to develop an understanding of the opportunities and limitations involved in supervision. Background, Little is known of what group supervision of nursing staff means for the supervisor, particularly in regards to care of the old. Methods, A reflective life-world research approach, based upon phenomenological epistemonology was used. Two supervisors with 2 years experience of supervising nursing staff caring for older people were interviewed. Conclusions, Results point to the need for support for supervisors in order to enable them to develop their supervisory abilities and skills. Implications for nursing management, Support is of crucial importance for both the ability to supervise and the quality of supervision. [source]