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  • Selected Abstracts


    THE MISSING LINK IN GENERAL DETERRENCE RESEARCH,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    GARY KLECK
    Research on the deterrent effects of punishment falls into two categories: macro-level studies of the impact of aggregate punishment levels on crime rates, and individual-level studies of the impact of perceived punishment levels on self-reported criminal behavior. For policy purposes, however, the missing link,ignored in previous research,is that between aggregate punishment levels and individual perceptions of punishment. This paper addresses whether higher actual punishment levels increase the perceived certainty, severity, or swiftness of punishment. Telephone interviews with 1,500 residents of fifty-four large urban counties were used to measure perceptions of punishment levels, which were then linked to actual punishment levels as measured in official statistics. Hierarchical linear model estimates of multivariate models generally found no detectable impact of actual punishment levels on perceptions of punishment. The findings raise serious questions about deterrence-based rationales for more punitive crime control policies. [source]


    SENTENCING RESEARCH FOR SENTENCING REFORM

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2007
    CHARLES F. WELLFORD
    First page of article [source]


    UNITED STATES V. BOOKER AS A NATURAL EXPERIMENT: USING EMPIRICAL RESEARCH TO INFORM THE FEDERAL SENTENCING POLICY DEBATE,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2007
    PAUL J. HOFER
    Research Summary: In United States v. Booker, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the federal sentencing guidelines must be considered advisory, rather than mandatory, if they are to remain constitutional under the Sixth Amendment. Since the decision, the U.S. Sentencing Commission has provided policy makers with accurate and current data on changes and continuity in federal sentencing practices. Unlike previous changes in legal doctrine, Booker immediately increased the rates of upward and downward departures from the guideline range. Government-sponsored downward departures remain the leading category of outside,the-range sentences. The rate of within-range sentences, although lower than in the period immediately preceding Booker, remains near rates observed earlier in the guidelines era. Despite the increase in departures, average sentence lengths for the overall caseload remain stable, because of offsetting increases in the seriousness of the crimes being sentenced and in the severity of penalties for those crimes. Analyses of the reasons that judges reported for downward departures suggest that treatment of criminal history and offender characteristics are the two leading areas of dissatisfaction with the guidelines. Policy Implications: Assessment of changes in sentencing practices following Booker by different observers depends partly on competing institutional perspectives and on different degrees of trust in the judgment of judges, prosecutors, the Sentencing Commission, and Congress. No agreement on whether Booker has bettered or worsened the system can be achieved until agreement exists on priorities among the purposes of sentencing and the goals of sentencing reform. Both this lack of agreement and an absence of needed data make consensus on Booker's effects on important sentencing goals, such as reduction of unwarranted disparity, unlikely in the near future. Similarly, lack of baseline data before Booker on the effectiveness of federal sentencing at crime control makes before-after comparisons impossible. Despite these limitations, research provides a sounder framework for policy making than do anecdotes or speculation and sets valuable empirical parameters for the federal sentencing policy debate. [source]


    INCORPORATING LATINOS AND IMMIGRANTS INTO POLICING RESEARCH,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2007
    RAMIRO MART═NEZ JR.
    First page of article [source]


    QUALITY MATTERS: FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATIVE RESEARCH

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2006
    PETER R. JONES
    First page of article [source]


    Novel Approach to the Treatment of Hyperpigmented Photodamaged Skin: 4% Hydroquinone/0.3% Retinol versus Tretinoin 0.05% Emollient Cream

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2005
    Zoe Diana Draelos MD
    Background. Mild to moderately photodamaged skin is characterized by dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness. An optimal approach to the topical treatment of photoaging would simultaneously address all appearance issues. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 4% hydroquinone and 0.3% retinol in photoaging. Materials and Methods. A 16-week study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a single cream containing prescription topical 4% hydroquinone for dyspigmentation and the cosmeceutical 0.3% retinol for fine wrinkles in an emollient vehicle for tactile roughness. This novel formulation was compared with 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream, the standard against which all other topical photoaging treatments are compared. Investigator assessments, subject assessments, and photography represented the evaluation end points. Results. The cosmeceutical emollient 4% hydroquinone/0.3% retinol cream more effectively diminished the collective signs of photodamage than 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream in terms of dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness in 16 weeks. Conclusion. Combination therapy of hydroquinone and retinol may improve photoaging-associated hyperpigmentation. THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AS PART OF A RESEARCH GRANT FROM MEDICIS THE DERMATOLOGY COMPANY, PHOENIX, ARIZONA. DR. DRAELOS HAS NO FINANCIAL INTEREST IN ANY OF THE MEDICATIONS DISCUSSED IN THIS RESEARCH. [source]


    Immediate and Midterm Complications of Sclerotherapy: Report of a Prospective Multicenter Registry of 12,173 Sclerotherapy Sessions

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2 2005
    FACPH, Jean-JÚr˘me Guex MD
    Background Growing interest in sclerotherapy has emphasized the need for complete knowledge of all aspects of this method. Objective To precisely delineate the actual incidence of immediate and delayed untoward events of daily sclerotherapy. Methods A multicenter prospective registry was established in 22 phlebology clinics to report their activity and complications. Results During the study period, 12,173 sessions of sclerotherapy were carried out, 5,434 with liquid, 6,395 with foam, and 344 using both. Four thousand eighty-eight (33.9%) sessions were carried out with ultrasound guidance. Forty-nine incidents or accidents (0.4%) occurred, of which 12 were with liquid and 37 with foam. These were reported during the time of the study and an additional 1-month follow-up. Most numerous were 20 cases of visual disturbances (in 19 cases, foam or air block was used); all resolved shortly, without any after-effects. A femoral vein thrombosis was the only severe adverse event in this study. Conclusions This study demonstrates that sclerotherapy is a safe technique. FUNDING FOR RESEARCH WAS PROVIDED BY THE FRENCH SOCIETY OF PHLEBOLOGY, A NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION. [source]


    Multicenter Study of the Safety and Efficacy of a 585 nm Pulsed-Dye Laser for the Nonablative Treatment of Facial Rhytides

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2005
    T. S. Jeffrey Hsu MD
    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a 585 nm flashlamp pulsed-dye laser for the nonablative treatment of facial rhytides. Methods A multicenter prospective randomized controlled study on 58 volunteers was performed. A split-face approach was adopted, with one periorbital region acting as a control and the other receiving either one or two treatments. Patients were photographed and imaged three-dimensionally before and after treatment. Histologic sections were analyzed. Results Three-dimensional topographic evaluation showed improvements of 9.8% (p= .0022) and 15% (p= .0029) in surface roughness for single and double treatments, respectively. Histology revealed an increase in type I collagen messenger ribonucleic acid expression, type III procollagen, chondroitin sulfate, and grenz zone thickness. Two treatments resulted in greater improvement than one treatment. Conclusion Clinical improvement was achieved following a single treatment. Further improvement was observed following a second treatment. The subjective evaluation of clinical improvement was consistent with both histologic and topographic quantitative measurements. SUZANNE KILMER, MD, AND JAY BURNS, MD, RECEIVED THE USE OF THE LASER FOR RESEARCH AND A DISCOUNTED PURCHASE AGREEMENT. THEY BOTH ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIVING HONORARIA FOR LECTURING FROM THE MANUFACTURER. BRIAN ZELICKSON, MD, RECEIVED RESEARCH GRANTS FROM ICN. [source]


    ETHICAL PROBLEMS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN ACUTE EPIDEMICS: THE PFIZER MENINGITIS STUDY IN NIGERIA AS AN ILLUSTRATION

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2010
    EMMANUEL R. EZEOME
    ABSTRACT The ethics of conducting research in epidemic situations have yet to account fully for differences in the proportion and acuteness of epidemics, among other factors. While epidemics most often arise from infectious diseases, not all infectious diseases are of epidemic proportions, and not all epidemics occur acutely. These and other variations constrain the generalization of ethical decision-making and impose ethical demands on the individual researcher in a way not previously highlighted. This paper discusses a number of such constraints and impositions. It applies the ethical principles enunciated by Emmanuel et al.1 to the controversial Pfizer study in Nigeria in order to highlight the particular ethical concerns of acute epidemic research, and suggest ways of meeting such challenges. The paper recommends that research during epidemics should be partly evaluated on its own merits in order to determine its ethical appropriateness to the specific situation. Snap decisions to conduct research during acute epidemics should be resisted. Community engagement, public notification and good information management are needed to promote the ethics of conducting research during acute epidemics. Individual consent is most at risk of being compromised, and every effort should be made to ensure that it is maintained and valid. Use of data safety management boards should be routine. Acute epidemics also present opportunities to enhance the social value of research and maximize its benefits to communities. Ethical research is possible in acute epidemics, if the potential challenges are thought of ahead of time and appropriate precautions taken. [source]


    HARMONIZING REGULATIONS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE US AND VENEZUELAN SYSTEMS

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2008
    DANNIE DI TILLIO-GONZALEZ
    ABSTRACT This article aims to compare the national legal systems that regulate biomedical research in an industrialized country (United States) and a developing country (Venezuela). A new international order is emerging in which Europe, Japan and the United States (US) are revising common guidelines and harmonizing standards. In this article, we analyze , as an example , the US system. This system is controlled by a federal agency structured to regulate research funded by the federal government uniformly, either in the US or abroad. In contrast, in Venezuela, a developing country, the creation of a centralized system is a slow process. Different types of ethical committees review research projects using non-uniform criteria. Consequently, various parallel organizations that conduct biomedical research, such as universities, research institutes and private hospitals have diverse regulations operating at a local level. Thus, the most relevant difference between the Venezuelan and the US systems is the degree of standardization. In the US, the review process is performed by institutional review boards (IRBs), which have a similar organization and maintain relationships with a centralized agency, following standard regulations. Although new proposals for establishing national regulations are currently being considered in Venezuela, the success of these initiatives will depend on promoting governmental efforts to create a more structured centralized system supported by a national regulatory framework. This system will need governmental financial support at all levels. This article proposes an integrated system to regulate research with human participants in Venezuela and other developing countries. [source]


    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Conserving macroinvertebrate diversity in headwater streams: the importance of knowing the relative contributions of , and , diversity

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 5 2010
    Amber Clarke
    Abstract Aim, We investigated partitioning of aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity in eight headwater streams to determine the relative contributions of , and , diversity to , diversity, and the scale dependence of , and , components. Location, Great Dividing Range, Victoria, Australia. Methods, We used the method of Jost (Ecology, 2007, 88, 2427,2439) to partition , diversity into its , and , components. We undertook the analyses at both reach and catchment scales to explore whether inferences depended on scale of observation. Results, We hypothesized that , diversity would make a large contribution to the , diversity of macroinvertebrates in our dendritic riverine landscape, particularly at the larger spatial scale (among catchments) because of limited dispersal among sites and especially among catchments. However, reaches each had relatively high taxon richness and high , diversity, while , diversity made only a small contribution to , diversity at both the reach and catchment scales. Main conclusions, Dendritic riverine landscapes have been thought to generate high , diversity as a consequence of limited dispersal and high heterogeneity among individual streams, but this may not hold for all headwater stream systems. Here, , diversity was high and , diversity low, with individual headwater stream reaches each containing a large portion of , diversity. Thus, each stream could be considered to have low irreplaceability since losing the option to use one of these sites in a representative reserve network does not greatly diminish the options available for completing the reserve network. Where limited information on individual taxonomic distributions is available, or time and money for modelling approaches are limited, diversity partitioning may provide a useful ,first-cut' for obtaining information about the irreplaceability of individual streams or subcatchments when establishing representative freshwater reserves. [source]


    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Native-exotic species richness relationships across spatial scales and biotic homogenization in wetland plant communities of Illinois, USA

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 5 2010
    Hua Chen
    Abstract Aim, To examine native-exotic species richness relationships across spatial scales and corresponding biotic homogenization in wetland plant communities. Location, Illinois, USA. Methods, We analysed the native-exotic species richness relationship for vascular plants at three spatial scales (small, 0.25 m2 of sample area; medium, 1 m2 of sample area; large, 5 m2 of sample area) in 103 wetlands across Illinois. At each scale, Spearman's correlation coefficient between native and exotic richness was calculated. We also investigated the potential for biotic homogenization by comparing all species surveyed in a wetland community (from the large sample area) with the species composition in all other wetlands using paired comparisons of their Jaccard's and Simpson's similarity indices. Results, At large and medium scales, native richness was positively correlated with exotic richness, with the strength of the correlation decreasing from the large to the medium scale; at the smallest scale, the native-exotic richness correlation was negative. The average value for homogenization indices was 0.096 and 0.168, using Jaccard's and Simpson's indices, respectively, indicating that these wetland plant communities have been homogenized because of invasion by exotic species. Main Conclusions, Our study demonstrated a clear shift from a positive to a negative native-exotic species richness relationship from larger to smaller spatial scales. The negative native-exotic richness relationship that we found is suggested to result from direct biotic interactions (competitive exclusion) between native and exotic species, whereas positive correlations likely reflect the more prominent influence of habitat heterogeneity on richness at larger scales. Our finding of homogenization at the community level extends conclusions from previous studies having found this pattern at much larger spatial scales. Furthermore, these results suggest that even while exhibiting a positive native-exotic richness relationship, community level biotas can/are still being homogenized because of exotic species invasion. [source]


    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Population expansion in an invasive grass, Microstegium vimineum: a test of the channelled diffusion model

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 5 2010
    Nathaniel P. Miller
    Abstract Aim, The greatest biodiversity impact of non-native plant species is caused by rapid expansion of colonist populations. Unfortunately, invasion has rarely been documented in real time at a population scale, and demographic mechanisms of invasion remain unclear. Our goal is to describe real-time expansion of populations, using channelled diffusion as a null model. Location, The study examined three populations of the invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum in mature second-growth forests of south-eastern Ohio and nearby West Virginia, USA. Methods, Distributions were recorded in belt transects perpendicular to population edges over a period of 3 years. A second group of belt transects documented spread along five types of potential movement corridor. Observed changes in distribution were compared with predictions from a diffusion model. A seed-sowing experiment tested seed availability, microsite quality and proximity to potential movement corridors as factors controlling population spread. Results, Population boundaries showed little change over the study period. Colonization was limited by propagule availability over distances as little as 0.25 m, and to a lesser extent by litter cover. Populations did not advance along several potential movement corridors including unpaved roads, off-road vehicle trails and footpaths. Advance was observed along deer trails and stream courses but did not conform to the wave-form distribution predicted by diffusion theory. During the study, seeds were moved out of experimental plots by sheet flow and minor flooding events along small streams. Main conclusion, At a population level, invasion is driven by processes that are episodic in time and non-random in space , probably a common condition in non-native plant species. Spatially realistic models are likely to be more useful than diffusive models in managing invasions at these scales. [source]


    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Ampithoe valida & Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 5 2010
    Erik M. Pilgrim
    Abstract Aim, We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of Ampithoe valida and Jassa marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute to the contemporary distribution of these species in the region. Location, Native range: Atlantic North American coast; Invaded range: Pacific North American coast. Methods, We assessed indices of genetic diversity based on DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, determined the distribution of COI haplotypes among populations in both the invasive and putative native ranges of A. valida and J. marmorata and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among COI haplotypes using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Results, Phylogenetic inference indicates that inaccurate species-level identifications by morphological criteria are common among Jassa specimens. In addition, our data reveal the presence of three well supported but previously unrecognized clades of A. valida among specimens in the north-eastern Pacific. Different species of Jassa and different genetic lineages of Ampithoe exhibit striking disparity in geographic distribution across the region as well as substantial differences in genetic diversity indices. Main conclusions, Molecular genetic methods greatly improve the accuracy and resolution of identifications for invasive benthic marine amphipods at the species level and below. Our data suggest that multiple cryptic introductions of Ampithoe have occurred in the north-eastern Pacific and highlight uncertainty regarding the origin and invasion histories of both Jassa and Ampithoe species. Additional morphological and genetic analyses are necessary to clarify the taxonomy and native biogeography of both amphipod genera. [source]


    WHAT DO MARSHMALLOWS AND GOLF TELL US ABOUT NATURAL RECOVERY RESEARCH?

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    PETER M. MILLER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRIEF ALCOHOL INTERVENTION: TIME FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    EILEEN KANER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MEETING THE CHALLENGES FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE FOR BRIEF ALCOHOL INTERVENTION

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    ANNE MOYER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRIEF ALCOHOL INTERVENTION RESEARCH AND PRACTICE,TOWARDS A BROADER PERSPECTIVE

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    PER NILSEN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    A CALL FOR SYSTEMS APPROACHES IN ADDICTION RESEARCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    RAINER SPANAGEL
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THINKING OUTSIDE THE BOX: A NECESSARY COURSE FOR THE FUTURE OF ALCOHOL RESEARCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    ROGER E. MEYER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    UNDERSTANDING PREVENTION RESEARCH AS A FORM OF PSEUDOSCIENCE

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    DENNIS M. GORMAN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BEYOND TAX: THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ON ALCOHOL PRICING POLICIES

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    FRANK J. CHALOUPKA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ECONBASE DOWNLOADS AND THE RANKING OF AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITY ECONOMICS RESEARCH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2003
    ROBERT D. BROOKS
    First page of article [source]


    RESEARCH ON ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS AND SPIRITUALITY IN ADDICTION RECOVERY. (RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ALCOHOLISM VOL 18)

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    KEITH HUMPHREYS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION, POLICY, AND THE EDUCATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2008
    Naomi Hodgson
    Hodgson begins by analyzing educational researchers' response to the recent introduction of citizenship education in England, focusing specifically on a review of research, policy, and practice in this area commissioned by the British Educational Research Association (BERA). She argues that the BERA review exemplifies the field of education policy sociology in that it is conducted according to the concepts of its parent discipline of sociology but lacks critical theoretical engagement with them. Instead, such work operationalizes sociological concepts in service of educational policy solutions. Hodgson identifies three dominant discourses of citizenship education within the BERA review, the academic discourse of education policy sociology, contemporary political discourse, and the discourse of inclusive education , and draws attention to the relation of citizenship education to policy initiatives, and thus to educationalization. She then discusses Foucault's concept of normalization in terms of the demand on the contemporary subject to orient the self in a certain relation toward learning informed by the need for competitiveness in the European and global context. Ultimately, Hodgson concludes that the language and rhetoric of education policy sociology implicate such research in the process of educationalization itself. [source]


    HAMMERS AND SAWS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2005
    Margaret Eisenhart
    This article examines different conceptions of causation and their implications for understanding educational phenomena and conducting educational research. Specifically, I discuss four research designs for pursuing questions about causation in education. Two of these research designs take a variance approach to causation (that is, they attempt to show correlations between earlier events and subsequent ones), while the other two take a process approach (that is, they attempt to show a demonstrable sequence of events by which one variable flows into or leads to another). The point of the discussion is to illustrate, first, their respective strengths and, second, their necessary interdependence. Ultimately, I argue that just as both hammers and saws are needed to build a good house, both variance and process approaches are needed to build a good understanding of causation in education. [source]


    [Commentary] REGRESSION TO THE MEAN IN ADDICTION RESEARCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2008
    ROBERT L. STOUT
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    TOYOTA SYSTEM RESEARCH AND LMS ANNOUNCE COOPERATION

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 6 2000
    Article first published online: 28 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ANOTHER LOOK AT THE DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 4 2001
    Access Decisions for Young Children", Commentary on Kelly, Lamb's "Using Child Development Research to Make Appropriate Custody
    Kelly and Lamb (2000) recently provided a summary of the attachment literature and a set of guidelines for visitation and custody for young children in divorced and separated families. Here, Solomon and Biringen review the same literature with an eye to critically evaluating these guidelines, especially the suggestion that more, rather than fewer, transitions between parents are appropriate for very young children. Three types of empirical findings raise questions regarding the appropriateness of Kelly and Lamb's guidelines. These include differences in the development of infant-mother and infant-father attachments, young children's sensitivity to overnight separations from the primary caregiver, and the possibility of infant preferences for primary versus secondary caregivers in times of stress. The authors argue that considerably more rigorous research is required before submitting Kelly and Lamb's suggestion to social policy. [source]


    USING CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH TO MAKE APPROPRIATE CUSTODY AND ACCESS DECISIONS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2000
    Joan B. Kelly
    Decisions regarding custody and access are most often made without reference to the research on child development, although this literature can be useful in conceptualizing children's needs after separation and divorce. Research on attachment processes, separation from attachment figures, and the roles of mothers and fathers in promoting psychosocial adjustment are reviewed in this article. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for young children's parenting schedules. [source]