Reproductive Health Care (reproductive + health_care)

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PRESCRIBER, Issue 20 2007
Article first published online: 26 NOV 200
GPs and pharmacists to work more closely Closer working between GPs and community and primary-care pharmacists ,could further improve prescribing quality and therapeutic outcomes for patients', according to a report by the London School of Pharmacy and Alliance Boots. The report suggests that the expansion of primary-care centres and the increasing complexity of care they offer mean that community pharmacists will increasingly need to take on some GP roles. It foresees an increase in shared premises and calls for closer interdisciplinary working between GPs, pharmacists and nurses. Variation in PCT commissioning of enhanced services from pharmacies has resulted in ,a fragmented system of postcode pharmaceutical care rationing'. Full read-write access to patients' records will be essential if the benefits of electronic prescribing are to be realised. How pharmacists can support commissioners The NHS Alliance and Primary Care Pharmacists' Association have published a guide for practice-based commissioners on making the most of primary-care pharmacists. Prescribing Support and Prescribing Advice for Practice Based Commissioners , A Guide for Commissioning Groups and GPs illustrates how pharmacists can support commissioners at all levels of medicines use. Copies are free to NHS Alliance members and cost 10 for others. Directory website aids diabetes management The National Diabetes Support Team is developing a website that brings together different datasets and tools for diabetes management. The Diabetes Data Directory (www.yhpho.org.uk/diabetesdatadirectory/introddd.asp) summarises what other online databases can provide and lists the tools that can be used to answer specific questions. The first edition is now online, providing direct links to the appropriate sites. Flu vaccine efficacy in older people challenged US reviewers have questioned the effectiveness of flu vaccine in older people (Lancet Infect Dis online: 24 September; doi: 10.1016/ S1473-3099(07)70236-0). They were unable to confirm a reduction in flu mortality since 1980, concluding that biased patient selection and nonspecific end-points such as all-cause mortality may have exaggerated the benefits of vaccination in clinical trials. The Department of Health is encouraging younger people in at-risk groups to be vaccinated against flu this winter; last year, 58 per cent of under-65s at risk were not vaccinated. OC cervical cancer risk probably overestimated Recent evidence that oral contraceptives may be associated with a small increase in the incidence of cervical cancer probably overestimates the risk, says the Clinical Effectiveness Unit of the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care (www.ffprhc.org.uk). A recent study in the BMJ reported a 12 per cent reduced overall risk of cancer associated with oral contraceptives but an increased risk of cervical cancer of 38 per 100 000 woman-years after at least eight years' use. The FFPRHC says this study was conducted before the UK cervical screening programme was established, and at a time when the average Inhaled insulin ,unlikely to be cost effective' Inhaled insulin (Exubera) is safe and effective but costs so much more than injected insulin that it is unlikely to be cost effective, according to a new Health Technology Assessment (2007;11:No.33.www.hta.nhsweb.nhs.uk). The review included nine trials (seven of Exubera), in which the only significant difference between inhaled and injected soluble insulin was in patient preference. However, most of the trials used syringes for insulin injection rather than pens. The extra cost of inhaled insulin is put at between 600 and 1000 per year. New topics for NICE The Secretary of State for Health has referred the novel antihypertensive aliskiren (Rasilez) for appraisal by NICE; aliskiren is the first direct renin inhibitor to be introduced. Other referrals to NICE include five clinical guidelines (multiple pregnancy, transient loss of consciousness, lower UTI in men, post-ITU rehabilitation and colorectal and anal cancer). Topics for technology appraisals include cetuximab (Erbitux) for colorectal and head and neck cancers. QOF statistics for 06/07 GPs in England averaged 96.3 per cent of the maximum points available for the clinical domain of the Quality and Outcomes Framework in 2006/07 compared with 97.1 per cent previously, official statistics show. Mean practice scores for most clinical areas were in the mid-90 per cent range, but highest for obesity (100 per cent) and lowest for depression (81 per cent), palliative care (90 per cent), mental health and epilepsy (<95 per cent). NICE consulting on type 2 diabetes guideline NICE is consulting on its draft clinical guideline for the management of type 2 diabetes. Comments should be submitted online by 22 November; publication is scheduled for April 2008. The drug of first choice for glycaemic control is metformin, which should be considered even for patients who are not overweight; a sulphonylurea is an alternative or adjunctive agent if glycaemic control is not achieved with metformin alone. If these regimens fail, a glitazone may be added. Exenatide (Byetta) is recommended only for obese patients for whom other oral treatments have failed. The guidance will update and replace clinical guidelines E, F, G and H, and technology appraisals 53, 60 and 63. Glitazones increase risk of HF but not CV death A new meta-analysis , this time of seven trials involving a total of 20 191 patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance treated with a glitazone , has concluded that these agents are associated with an increased risk of heart failure but not cardiovascular death (Lancet 2007;370:1129,36). Compared with comparator drugs, glitazones were associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure (2.3 vs 1.4 per cent; relative risk, RR, 1.72; number needed to harm over 30 months, 107). There was no heterogeneity between studies, showing that this is a class effect. However, the risk of cardiovascular death was not increased for either rosiglitazone (Avandia) or pioglitazone (Actos). Copyright 2007 Wiley Interface Ltd [source]


Health providers' perceptions of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care in Swaziland

INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
P.T. Mngadi srn/m, bed nursing, dipl. reproductive health
Aim:, To explore health providers' perceptions of adolescent sexual and reproductive healthcare services in Swaziland. Methods:, Fifty-six healthcare providers, working in 11 health clinics in Swaziland in 2005, were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and content analysis to identify key themes. Findings:, Most participants were women with a mean age of 36 years and a mean number of 6 years in the profession. Services provided included STIs/HIV/AIDS advice, pre- and post-test counselling and testing on HIV, contraceptives and condom use. Half of the nurses/midwives had no continued education and lacked supervision on adolescent sexual and reproductive health care. The majority had unresolved moral doubts, negative attitudes, values and ethical dilemmas towards abortion care between the law, which is against abortion, and the reality of the adolescents' situation. Forty-four wanted to be trained on post-abortion care while eight on how to perform abortions. Twenty-six wanted the government to support adolescent-friendly services and to train heathcare providers in adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Conclusion:, The curricula within nursing and midwifery preservice education need to be reviewed to incorporate comprehensive services for adolescents. There is need for provision of comprehensive services for adolescents in Swaziland and appropriate youth-friendly services at all levels. There is need for nurse/midwifery participation, advocacy and leadership in policy development. [source]


Confidential Reproductive Health Services for Minors: The Potential Impact of Mandated Parental Involvement for Contraception

PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Issue 5 2004
Rachel K. Jones
CONTEXT: Recent legislative efforts to implement mandated parental involvement for minor adolescents seeking family planning services threaten the rights of adolescents younger than 18 to access reproductive health care. METHODS: State and federal laws and policies pertaining to minor adolescents' rights to access services for contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed, and research examining issues of parental involvement among adolescents using clinic-based reproductive health services is synthesized. RESULTS: Attempts to mandate parental involvement for reproductive health care often focus on contraceptive services and are typically linked to federal or state funding. Studies of teenagers using clinic-based family planning services suggest that slightly more than one-half would obtain contraceptives at family planning clinics even if parental notification were required. Mandated parental involvement for contraception would discourage few teenagers from having sex, but would likely result in more teenagers' using the least effective methods, such as withdrawal, or no method at all. Family planning clinics encourage teenagers to voluntarily talk to their parents, but relatively little information is available about the extent to which activities to promote parent-child communication have been adopted. CONCLUSIONS: Mandated parental involvement for teenagers seeking contraceptive care would likely contribute to increases in rates of teenage pregnancy. Research that will help clinics implement and improve efforts to encourage voluntary parental involvement is urgently needed. [source]